Tip rot, or restricted end rot, is a new sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) disease/disorder in Mississippi with unknown etiology. Since pathogen isolations have been inconsistent, a relationship of this disorder with stress is proposed. This disease/disorder is manifested as a restricted lesion at or close to the proximal end of the storage root and appears after 2 to 4 weeks in storage. In many cases, the lesion necrosis expands internally. On-farm and research station studies with preharvest foliar applications of ethephon were conducted in Mississippi to determine the potential association of tip rot with ethephon-induced stress. In addition, the effects of ethephon rate and interval between application and harvest on tip rot were investigated. After 1 to 2 months in storage, tip rot incidence was observed mostly in storage roots from ethephon-treated plants. The increase in tip rot incidence was well correlated with ethephon rate. These results suggest that preharvest applications of ethephon trigger a response that results in the tip rot disorder.
Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main, and Christopher A. Clark
Mary Helen Ferguson, Christopher A. Clark, and Barbara J. Smith
Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. causes disease in a number of plants in the southeastern United States, including southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), but little was known concerning its potential impact in rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton syn. Vaccinium ashei Reade). In a naturally infected orchard in Louisiana, mean yields of X. fastidiosa–positive plants were 55% and 62% less than those of X. fastidiosa–negative plants in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Average berry weight was also lower in X. fastidiosa–positive plants. Within 3 years of testing positive for X. fastidiosa, four of nine X. fastidiosa–positive plants appeared dead. However, plants that were X. fastidiosa–negative in 2013 remained so until 2015, indicating that the bacterium did not spread rapidly in this established orchard during this time. Other factors, including soil chemistry variables, Phytophthora cinnamomi, ring nematode, and ringspot symptoms, were also investigated to determine if one of these might predispose plants to infection with X. fastidiosa or be partly responsible for observed yield loss. In most cases, interactions were not found, but associations with soil Cu and Zn suggest a need for further research on whether these elements predispose rabbiteye blueberry to X. fastidiosa infection and thereby contribute to yield losses. Researchers, extension workers, and growers should be aware of X. fastidiosa as a potential yield- and survival-impacting factor in rabbiteye blueberry.
Arthur Villordon, Christopher Clark, Don Ferrin, and Don LaBonte
Predictive models of optimum sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) harvest in relation to growing degree days (GDD) will benefit producers and researchers by ensuring maximum yields and high quality. A GDD system has not been previously characterized for sweetpotato grown in Louisiana. We used a data set of 116 planting dates and used a combination of minimum cv, linear regression (LR), and several algorithms in a data mining (DM) mode to identify candidate methods of estimating relationships between GDD and harvest dates. These DM algorithms included neural networks, support vector machine, multivariate adaptive regression splines, regression trees, and generalized linear models. We then used candidate GDD methods along with agrometeorological variables to model US#1 yield using LR and DM methodology. A multivariable LR model with the best adjusted r2 was based on GDD calculated using this method: maximum daily temperature (Tmax) – base temperature (B), where if Tmax > ceiling temperature [C (90 °F)], then Tmax = C, and where GDD = 0 if minimum daily temperature <60 °F. The following climate-related variables contributed to the improvement of adjusted r2 of the LR model: mean relative humidity 20 days after transplanting (DAT), maximum air temperature 20 DAT, and maximum soil temperature 10 DAT (log 10 transformed). In the DM mode, this GDD method and the LR model also demonstrated high predictive accuracy as quantified using mean square error. Using this model, we propose to schedule test harvests at GDD = 2600. The harvest date can further be optimized by predicting US#1 yield using GDD in combination with climate-based predictor variables measured within 20 DAT.
Howard F. Harrison Jr., Joseph K. Peterson, Christopher A. Clark, and Maurice E. Snook
Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] periderm components were tested for their effect on four fungi that infect sweetpotato roots: Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. batatas (Wollenw.) Snyd. & Hans. and F. solani (Sacc.) Mart., both of which cause stem and root disease; and Lasiodiplodea theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl. and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind., both of which cause storage root disease. Sequential extracts of `Regal' sweetpotato periderm with hexane, methanol, and 50% methanol were inhibitory to the four fungi when incorporated into potato dextrose agar medium in petri dish bioassays. The methanol and 50% methanol extracts were much more active than the hexane extract and were combined for further study. Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the combined extracts, followed by bioassay with F. oxysporum indicated that the most inhibitory fraction contained the least polar components of the extract. Resin glycosides isolated from `Regal' periderm inhibited F. oxysporum, but the glycosides exhibited little concentration effect and were not as active on a tissue weight basis as other components. Periderm extracts from 10 sweetpotato clones exhibited large differences in inhibitory activity in bioassays with the four fungi. The sensitivity of the fungi to inhibition by the periderm extracts suggests that periderm components may provide protection against soil pathogens, but a relationship between such components and disease resistance was not established.
Bong-kyoo Kim, Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, and Mario I. Buteler
Narrow-sense heritabilities for reaction to chlorotic leaf distortion (CLD), incited by Fusarium lateritium Nees: Fr., were estimated in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] by variance component analysis and parent–offspring regression. Visually rated severity reactions to CLD varied greatly among the 20 parents used to generate half-sib progeny from open-pollinated nurseries in 1990 and 1991. Progeny from each nursery were evaluated along with parents in a completely randomized design in two consecutive years. Narrow-sense heritability (h 2) estimates based on variance components were moderate on an entry mean basis at 0.61 in 1990, 0.38 in 1991, and 0.33 for the two years combined. Slightly higher, but still moderate, estimates were obtained on an individual plant basis. Narrow-sense heritability estimates using parent–offspring regression were 0.35 in 1990, 0.33 in 1991, and 0.33 for the two years combined. Predicted next-generation response was highest using a half-sib family recurrent selection among three schemes compared at a 10% selection intensity. Our data indicate –0.63 improvement in the half-sib family CLD severity rating in one breeding cycle.