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Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, and Arthur Q. Villordon

‘Bonita’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station to provide a specialty-type white-fleshed, tan-skinned cultivar similar to ‘O'Henry’ but with southern root-knot nematode and soil rot resistance, superior storage root shape, and a higher dry matter content. ‘Bonita’ produces excellent numbers of uniform plants (sprouts) early in the production season. Days to harvest for ‘Bonita’, ‘Beauregard’ (Rolston et al., 1987), and ‘O'Henry’ are similar in the Gulf South production region; ‘Bonita’ in North Carolina is later by 7 days. The roots are elliptical and consistent in shape in varied soil

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Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Arthur Q. Villordon, and C. Scott Stoddard

‘Burgundy’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station to provide an orange fleshed, red-skinned cultivar with superior storage root shape, high sucrose content, disease resistance, and southern root knot nematode resistance. ‘Burgundy’ produces excellent numbers of uniform plants in the plant production beds. ‘Burgundy’ can be harvested up to 10 d earlier than the Beauregard cultivar (Rolston et al., 1987) in the California production region. The two cultivars are similar in harvest days in the Gulf South production region. The roots are elliptical and consistent in shape in varied soil

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Arthur Q. Villordon, Don R. La Bonte, Nurit Firon, Yanir Kfir, Etan Pressman, and Amnon Schwartz

Adventitious roots of ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ sweetpotato were observed and anatomically characterized over a period of 60 days of storage root development. The majority of ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ adventitious roots sampled at 5 to 7 days after transplanting (DAT) possessed anatomical features (five or more protoxylem elements) associated with storage root development. The majority of ‘Beauregard’ (86%) and ‘Georgia Jet’ (89%) storage roots sampled at 60 to 65 DAT were traced directly to adventitious roots extant at 5 to 7 DAT. The two varieties, however, differed in the timing in which regular and anomalous cambia were formed. Regular vascular cambium development, i.e., initiation and completion, was observed in both varieties at 19 to 21 DAT. Formation of complete regular vascular cambium was negligible for ‘Beauregard’ (4%) in comparison with ‘Georgia Jet’ (32%) at 26 to 28 DAT. However, anomalous cambia development adjacent to xylem elements was greater in ‘Beauregard’ (30%) in comparison with ‘Georgia Jet’ (13%). Nearly 40% to 50% of samples in both varieties showed extensive lignification in the stele region. At 32 to 35 DAT, 62% to 70% of the adventitious roots for both varieties had either been initiated (developed anomalous cambium) or were lignified. The remaining adventitious roots showed intermediate stages of vascular cambium development. The adventitious root count increased up to 19 to 21 DAT and then remained constant up to 32 to 35 DAT. These accumulated results suggest that the initial stages of adventitious root development are critical in determining storage root set in sweetpotato.

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Don R. La Bonte, Christopher A. Clark, Tara P. Smith, Arthur Q. Villordon, and C. Scott Stoddard

‘Vermillion’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station to provide an orange-flesh, deep-red–purple-skin cultivar with superior storage root shape, skin smoothness, disease resistance to Fusarium wilt, and excellent storage qualities. ‘Vermillion’ is average in production beds with proper presprouting. It can be harvested up to 10 d earlier than ‘Covington’ (Yencho et al., 2008) and is similar to ‘Diane’ (Stoddard et al., 2013) in the California production region. ‘Vermillion’ and ‘Orleans’ (LaBonte et al., 2012) are similar in harvest days in the Gulf South

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Ramón A. Arancibia, Cody D. Smith, Don R. LaBonte, Jeffrey L. Main, Tara P. Smith, and Arthur Q. Villordon

Consumption of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) has increased in the past decade in part because of its nutritional and health attributes, and because of the availability and convenience of processed products. The sweetpotato processing industry is expanding and supplying more sweetpotato products than ever before. Unlike the medium-sized roots (U.S. no.1) preferred for fresh market, large (jumbo) roots is accepted and in certain cases desired by the processing industry, and overall yield is preferred over strict sizing requirements and aesthetic appeal. Therefore, this study investigated the yield increase and grade proportions in response to plant spacing and extension of the growing period to improve profitability of the production system. Experiments with ‘Beauregard’ and ‘Evangeline’ sweetpotato were conducted in Mississippi and Louisiana during 2010 and 2011. Treatments consisted of a combination of early and late planting date and delay in harvest, in-row plant spacing, and row width. Yield increase was inconsistent with delaying harvest and appears to depend on environmental conditions at harvest late in the season. Marketable yield was consistently greater in early plantings than late plantings. Yield of U.S. no.1 grade was unaffected by delaying harvest regardless of planting date. Delaying harvest in early plantings contributed to increase jumbo-sized roots and marketable yield. The economic assessment of delaying harvest in early plantings indicated a gain in net benefit either when hand harvested for fresh market or field run bulk harvested for processing. Row width and in-row plant spacing had only a marginal effect on yield of canner grade (small-sized roots). The economic assessment of changing plant density indicated no gain in net benefit, which indicates that choice of plant density can depend on other factors.

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Susan C. Miyasaka, Sharon Motomura-Wages, Ishakh Pulakkatu-Thodi, Michael J. Melzer, Christopher A. Clark, Don R. LaBonte, and Arthur Q. Villordon

Tissue-cultured, virus-tested (TC) plantlets of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas var. batatas) cultivars Okinawan, LA 08-21p, and Murasaki-29 were obtained from Louisiana State University Agricultural Center. The objectives of field trials conducted at the Kula Agricultural Park, Maui, HI, were to compare yield and pest resistance of 1) ‘Okinawan’ obtained from a commercial (C) field with TC ‘Okinawan’ and 2) TC Okinawan with the aforementioned TC cultivars. Trials were planted Oct. 2015 and Aug. 2016 and harvested 5 months later. Storage roots were graded according to State of Hawai’i standards, and marketable yields included Grades AA, A, and B. In addition, injuries due to sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus) or rough sweetpotato weevil (Blosyrus asellus) were estimated. In both trials, fresh and dry weights of marketable storage roots of TC ‘Okinawan’ were nearly twice those from commercial planting material. In both trials, marketable fresh weights differed among the three TC cultivars; however, significant interactions were found, indicating that yields of cultivars differed between years. In the first field trial, ‘LA 08-21p’ had fresh marketable yields 1.6 to 1.7 times greater than TC ‘Okinawan’ and Murasaki-29, respectively. In the second trial, fresh marketable yields of TC ‘Okinawan’ and ‘LA 08-21p’were similar and 1.7 to 1.5 times greater than that of ‘Murasaki-29’, respectively. In both trials, ‘LA 08-21p’ had greater sweetpotato weevil injury than did the other two cultivars. Interestingly, in the second year, TC ‘Okinawan’ had greater rough sweetpotato weevil injury than did the other cultivars. Our results indicate that tissue-cultured planting materials increased marketable yields of TC ‘Okinawan’ compared with C ‘Okinawan’ sweetpotato and that the other TC cultivars did not produce greater yields than TC Okinawan.