“Near-lethal” (NL) stresses from varied sources, e. g. NL-heat (47°C-lhr), NL-freeze (-7°C -lhr), and NL-hydrogen cyanamide (0.5-1 M), overcame endo-dormancy in red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) plants. Near-lethal heat stress applied at early rest (Oct.) had a slight effect on cold acclimation, whereas at late rest (Dec.), NL-stress resulted in the rapid loss of hardiness at warm or natural environment conditions. Recovery of plants from NL-stresses was dependent on the stage of development and temperature. Less dieback occurred with later stage of endo-dormancy, and at warmer temperatures. Dormant plants in October exposed to other NL-stresses, e. g., freezing temperature and hydrogen cyanamide, also caused plant dieback at 0°C and recovered at 23°C post-environment treatment. Conditions that favored recovery also favored production of glutathione.
A. M. Shirazi and L. H. Fuchigami
A.M. Shirazi, T.M. Boland, and K.R Bachtell
The expansion of urban communities to rural areas is leading to an increase of the problem of deer damage. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) damage to landscape plants in commercial nurseries, residential and public areas is very widespread. Thuja occidentalis (Arborvitae) is one of the most common landscape plants. It is widely produced by nurseries and used by homeowners in the landscape. However, it is also highly favored by deer for browsing. Thuja plicata (Arborvitae) the Western Cedars is a highly deer-resistant arborvitae. One of the principal limiting factors for new arborvitae for its success in nursery productionand its use in the landscape is cold hardiness (in northern climates). However, the cold hardiness of different Thuja plicata is not known. Deer-resistant Thuja plicata cultivars: `Atroviren', `Cancan', `Elegantissima', `Excelsa', `Gelderland', `George Washington', `Hilleri', `Sunshine', and `Virescens' planted in Sprintg 1998 at The Morton Arboretum research plot in Lisle, Ill. Branch cold hardiness was tested by artificial freezing in Jan. 1999 and 2000. Ice-nucleated samples were placed in an ultra-low temperature and kept at 2 °C overnight, and the temperature then lowered at 5 °C/h to –40 °C, at which time samples were taken out at each test temperature (at 4 °C intervals). After the freezing test, the samples were thawed at 4 °C for 24 h, then planted in a peat and perlite media and kept at 100% humidity in a greenhouse. Samples were evaluated after 2 weeks for visual browning and lowest survival temperature. There were significant differences in coldhardiness between the nine cultivars tested in Jan. 1999. `Elegantissima', `Excelsa'. and `Cancan' were the most hardy (–34 to 40 °C), followed by `Virescens', `Sunshine', and `Gelderland' (–27 to 32 °C), `Hilleri' and `Atrovirens' (–24 to 25 °C). `George Washington' ` was the least hardy (–20 °C) cultivar.
A.M. Shirazi, L.H. Fuchigami, and T.H.H. Chen
Ethylene production in stem tissues of red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) following heat treatment was determined at several growth stages. Ethylene production of heat-stressed stem tissue depended on the stage of development and was a function of the degree of stress. During active growth and early endodormancy, heat stress of stem tissues stimulated ethylene production, reaching a peak at 40C, followed by a steady decrease at higher temperatures. Highest ethylene levels from stressed tissues occurred in May, July, September, and March. Only a trace amount of ethylene was produced during endodormancy to ecodormancy (late October to January) from stressed and nonstressed stem tissues. Applying ACC to stem segments at late endodormancy (December) or applying methionine and IAA to stem segments at maximum endodormancy (November) enhanced ethylene production of both nonstressed and heat-stressed stem tissues. Chemical names used: 1 H- indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).
A.M. Shirazi, Y.M. Moreno, L.H Fuchigami, and L.S. Daley
Previously, we reported recovery of plants from “Near-Lethal” (NL) (Sub-Lethal) stresses was dependent on stage of development and post-stress environment Dormant plants exposed to NL-heat, freezing, and hydrogen cyanamide either died or were severely injured when stored at 0°C or recovered at 23°C and natural condition. This study reports on the changes in the evolution of metabolic heat in dormant red-osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) stem tissues after beat stress. Heat stress (51°C for half an hour) was followed by one of two post-stress environment (PSE) (0° or 23°C dark condition). Isothermal measurements of the heat of metabolism of the tissues were taken after 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 and 11 days of PSE. A significant reduction of metabolic heat generation occured in heat stressed plants at 0°C PSE from one to 11 days of incubation as compared to the non-stressed tissues. At 23°C PSE, no significant differences of heat generation between stressed and non stressed tissues were found within 7 days of incubation. The rate of metabolic. heat measured by decreasing temperature scanning microcalorimetry (21° to 1°C) were lower in beat stressed tissues. Arrhenius plots of metabolic heat rate gave a linear slope for non-stressed tissues and a complex slop for NL-stressed tissues at lower temperatures. Energy of activation (Ea) between 1°-8°C were 15.45 and 83.882 KJ mol-1 for NL-heat and non-stressed tissues, respectively.