Grape is a perennial crop in which the mineral nutrient concentration changes throughout the growing season. Not only is a portion of the vine's mineral nutrients taken up from the soil each year, the other portion is redistributed throughout the plant from woody and root tissues that function as storage organs. Most studies report that grapevines take up the majority of the N between bloom and veraison (Araujo and Williams, 1988; Bates et al., 2002; Hanson and Howell, 1995; Löhnertz, 1991; Mullins et al., 1992; Williams and Biscay, 1991). However, Conradie (1980, 1981, 1986) reported substantial N uptake after harvest in potted ‘Chenin Blanc’ grown in the South Africa. He reported that N uptake during the postharvest period was 27% and 37% of the total annual N uptake (Conradie, 1980, 1986, respectively) and provided 60% of the stored N for the next season (Conradie, 1992).
Potassium uptake in whole vines was examined in several studies (Conradie, 1981; Schreiner et al., 2006; Williams and Biscay, 1991). These studies showed that the bulk of K uptake occurred between bloom and veraison. Of the three studies, only Conradie (1981) in South Africa and Schreiner et al. (2006) in an Oregon field study examined P, Ca, and Mg uptake in their whole-vine studies. Their results agreed that the time of maximum Ca and Mg uptake was between bloom and veraison. However, the Oregon study on 23-year-old ‘Pinot Noir’ showed that P uptake occurred predominantly before bloom, while the South African study on 2-year-old ‘Chenin Blanc’/99 Richter vines showed peak uptake between bloom and veraison. This is probably because differences in subtle factors such as vine age, rootstock, soil texture, temperature, water management, root density, and nutrient availability, contribute to differences in grapevine performance and nutrient uptake.
‘Concord’ grape is the dominant cold climate American cultivar. Washington is the leading state in ‘Concord’ grape production, accounting for ≈50% of the U.S. production (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008). ‘Concord’ grape does not reach full production until about the fifth year after planting (Aegerter and Folwell, 1996). Size and seasonal duration of vegetative, reproductive, and storage sinks might vary with vine age (Borchert, 1976), cultivars (Colugnati et al., 1997), and variable weather conditions (Robinson, 2005). Direct comparison of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and ‘Concord’ nutrient uptake and portioning may not be possible due to differences in management strategies (e.g., pruning and thinning) as well as desired crop yield levels [typically less than 8 Mg·ha−1 for wine grape and over 20 Mg·ha−1 for ‘Concord’ (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008)]. Whole plant sampling can be used to look at nutrient partitioning and distribution/redistribution to provide a full picture of nutrient dynamics. The present study was conducted to investigate the seasonal pattern of macronutrient uptake and redistribution in mature ‘Concord’ grapes.
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Volder, A. Smart, D.R. Bloom, A.J. Eissenstat, D.M. 2005 Rapid decline in nitrate uptake and respiration with age in fine lateral roots of grape: Implications for root efficiency and competitive effectivenessNew Phytol. 165 493 502 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01222.x
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