Alternative water sources, such as reclaimed water, are being used to irrigate urban landscapes and agricultural crops due to the limited supply of fresh water, especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Reclaimed water contains relatively high levels of soluble salts compared with fresh water, and its salinity level depends on the source of water and treatment. For example, in California, the electrical conductivity (EC) of reclaimed water is typically two to three times that of fresh water (Wu et al., 2001). In addition to elevated salinity of irrigation water, soil salinization has occurred in more than 100 countries (Rengasamy, 2006). The soil salinity problem is even worse in arid and semiarid regions due to high evaporation rates, low rainfall, and irrigation with alternative water sources. Therefore, salt-tolerant plants are required in arid and semiarid regions to maintain aesthetically appealing landscapes.
The rose is one of the most economically important and widely grown ornamental crops worldwide. Information available on the salt tolerance of roses as cut flowers (Bernstein et al., 2006; Cabrera, 2001, 2002, 2003; de Vries, 2003; Fernández-Falcón et al., 1986; Hughes and Hanan, 1978; Raviv et al., 1998; Wahome et al., 2001) indicates that like other crops, salinity tolerance of rose plants depends on species, rootstock selection, substrate or soil type, and environmental conditions. However, little research has been conducted on garden roses under elevated salinity conditions.
Most garden roses are produced by grafting using the T-budding technique (Pemberton, 2003). Different rootstocks are recommended in various areas in the world based on regional differences in climate and soil conditions, in addition to the consideration of rootstock and scion compatibility. For example, R. multiflora is used in the south-central United States, Canada, and Japan, whereas ‘Dr. Huey’ is used in the western United States (Pemberton, 2003). R. ×fortuniana is used in areas with year-round temperate climate (Morrell, 1983). In the United States, R. ×fortuniana is mainly used in Florida and in the southwestern region (Martin, 2008). R. odorata is one of the most popular rose rootstocks for greenhouse cut flowers, but the species is also valued for garden roses (Cabrera, 2002; Singh and Chitkara, 1982, 1987).
Limited research compares the salt tolerance of various rose rootstocks. Wahome et al. (2001) compared the salt tolerance of two rose rootstocks and found that R. rubiginosa L. was more tolerant to NaCl stress than was R. chinensis Jacq. ‘Major’. Cabrera (2003) investigated the salt tolerance of ‘Bridal White’ grafted onto five rose rootstocks and found that its salt tolerance was higher when grafted onto Rosa ‘Manetti’ and ‘Natal Briar’ than R. odorata (syn. R. indica L. ‘Major’), R. multiflora ‘Rum 9’, and ‘Dr. Huey’. However, the relative salt tolerance of the five rootstocks alone (without grafting with scions) remains unknown. Comparison of the response of rose rootstocks alone to salinity will be helpful in understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance of major commercial rose rootstocks.
Most saline water and saline soils are dominated by chloride or sulfate salts (Manchanda and Sharma, 1989; Rogers et al., 1998). However, much of the research quantifying the salt tolerance of plant species has been based on experiments in which NaCl is the predominant salt. The degree of salt tolerance depends on the dominant salt type and species (Khan et al., 1995; Rogers et al., 1998). For example, sulfate salts were less deleterious than chloride salts to sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) (Navarro et al., 2002), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) (Manchanda and Sharma, 1989), and siberian larch (Larix siberica L.) (Carter, 1980). Specific ions can affect mineral metabolism by promoting or inhibiting the uptake of other minerals (Carter, 1980). Salt type may also affect physiological parameters such as photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates (Meiri et al., 1971). Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare the growth, ion uptake, and the daily evapotranspiration rate (ET) of four major rose rootstocks ‘Dr. Huey’, R. ×fortuniana, R. multiflora, and R. odorata in response to various salinity levels of irrigation solutions and to investigate if the dominant salt type affects the degree of salt tolerance of these rootstocks.
Bernstein, N. , Asher, B.T. , Haya, F. , Pini, S. , Ilona, R. , Amram, C. & Marina, I. 2006 Application of treated wastewater for cultivation of roses (Rosa hybrida) in soil-less culture Scientia Hort. 108 185 193
Cabrera, R.I. 2001 Effect of NaCl salinity and nitrogen fertilizer formulation on yield and nutrient status of roses Acta Hort. 547 255 260
Cabrera, R.I. 2002 Rose yield, dry matter partitioning and nutrient status responses to rootstock selection Scientia Hort. 95 75 83
Cabrera, R.I. & Perdomo, P. 2003 Reassessing the salinity tolerance of greenhouse roses under soilless production conditions HortScience 38 533 536
Carter, M.R. 1980 Effects of sulphate and chloride soil salinity on growth and needle composition of siberian larch Can. J. Plant Sci. 60 903 910
de Vries, D.P. 2003 Rootstock 2 633 638 Robert A.V. , Debener T. & Gudin S. Encyclopedia of rose science Elsevier Academic Press San Diego
Fernández-Falcón, M. , Álvarez, C.E. , Garcia, V. & Baez, J. 1986 The effect of chloride and bicarbonate levels in irrigation water on nutrient content, production and quality of cut roses ‘Mercedes’ Scientia Hort. 29 373 385
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Fernández-Falcón, M. Álvarez, C.E. Garcia, V. Baez, J. 1986 The effect of chloride and bicarbonate levels in irrigation water on nutrient content, production and quality of cut roses ‘Mercedes’Scientia Hort. 29 373 385 10.1016/0304-4238(86)90021-X
Franklin, J.A. , Zwiazek, J.J. , Renault, S. & Croser, C. 2002 Growth and elemental composition of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings treated with sodium chloride and sodium sulfate Trees (Berl.) 16 325 330
Hughes, H. & Hanan, J. 1978 Effect of salinity in water supplies on greenhouse rose production J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103 694 699
Khan, A.H. , Ashraf, M.Y. , Naqvi, S.S.M. , Khanzada, B. & Ali, M. 1995 Growth, ion and solute contents of sorghum grown under NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity stress Acta Physiol. Plant. 17 261 268
Manchanda, H.R. & Sharma, S.K. 1989 Tolerance of chloride and sulfate salinity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) J. Agr. Sci. 113 407 410
Martin, D. 2008 An overview of Rosa fortuniana rootstock 30 Mar. 2008 <http://www.pswdistrict.org/text/articles/rosaFortunianaRootstock.html>.
Meiri, A. , Kamburoff, J. & Poljakoff-Myber, A. 1971 Response of bean plants to sodium chloride and sodium sulphate salinization Ann. Bot. (Lond.) 35 837 847
Navarro, J.M. , Garrido, C. , Carvajal, M. & Martinez, V. 2002 Yield and fruit quality of pepper plants under sulphate and chloride salinity J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 77 52 57
Niu, G. & Rodriguez, D.S. 2006b Relative salt tolerance of selected herbaceous perennials and groundcovers Scientia Hort. 110 352 358
Niu, G. , Rodriguez, D. & Aguiniga, L. 2008 Response of growth and ion uptake of three rose rootstocks to saline water irrigation HortScience 43 1479 1484
Pemberton, H.B. 2003 Overview of roses and culture 2 570 573 Robert A.V. , Debener T. & Gudin S. Encyclopedia of rose science Elsevier Academic Press San Diego
Raviv, M. , Krasnovsky, A. , Medina, S. & Reuveni, R. 1998 Assessment of various control strategies for recirculation of greenhouse effluents under semi-arid conditions J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73 485 491
Rogers, M.E. , Grieve, C.M. & Shannon, M.C. 1998 The response of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) to sodium sulphate and chloride salinity Plant Soil 202 271 280
Singh, B.P. & Chitkara, S.D. 1982 Effect of different salinity and sodicity levels on establishment and bud take performance of various rose rootstocks Haryana J. Hort. Sci. 11 204 207
Singh, B.P. & Chitkara, S.D. 1987 Effect of different salinity levels on water potential and proline content in leaves of various rose rootstocks Indian J. Hort. 44 265 267
Soltanpour, P.N. , Al-Wardy, M.M. , Ippolito, J.A. , Rodriguez, J.B. , Self, J. , Gillaume, M. & Mathews, D. 1999 Chloride versus sulfate salinity effects on alfalfa shoot growth and ionic balance Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 63 111 116
- Search Google Scholar
- Export Citation
Soltanpour, P.N. Al-Wardy, M.M. Ippolito, J.A. Rodriguez, J.B. Self, J. Gillaume, M. Mathews, D. 1999 Chloride versus sulfate salinity effects on alfalfa shoot growth and ionic balanceSoil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 63 111 116 10.2136/sssaj1999.03615995006300010017x
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1983 Methods of chemical analysis of water and wastes (EPA-600/4-79-020) U.S. Govt. Printing Office Washington, DC
Wahome, P.K. , Jesch, H.H. & Grittner, I. 2001 Mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in two rose rootstocks: Rosa chinensis ‘Major’ and R. rubiginosa Scientia Hort. 87 207 216
Wu, L. , Chen, J. , Lin, H. , Van Mantgem, P. , Ali Harivandi, M. & Harding, J.A. 1995 Effects of regenerant wastewater irrigation on growth and ion uptake of landscape plants J. Environ. Hort. 13 92 96
Wu, L. , Gue, X. & Harivandi, A. 2001 Salt tolerance and salt accumulation of landscape plants irrigated by sprinkler and drip irrigation systems J. Plant Nutr. 24 1473 1490