Plant Age, Fertilization, and Biological Control Affect Damage Caused by Twospotted Spider Mites on Ivy Geranium: Development of an Action Threshold

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, 123 West Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-4004
  • | 2 Department of Horticulture, Forestry, and Recreation Resources, Kansas State University, 2021 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, Manhattan, KS 66506-5506
  • | 3 Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, 123 West Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-4004

In three experiments, damage caused by twospotted spider mite (TSSM; Tetranychus urticae Koch) was correlated with the quality of ivy geranium [Pelargonium peltatum (L.) L'Her ex Aiton], and the action threshold for TSSM on ivy geranium was developed. Ivy geranium quality was measured as overall plant quality—plant size and form, and leaf greenness and glossiness—leaf browning, and leaf distortion. Young plants with high initial TSSM numbers (30 TSSM/plant) exhibited the greatest damage, suggesting that monitoring for TSSM early in the plant production cycle is necessary to prevent extensive damage. The leaf distortion index and overall plant quality were correlated with cumulative TSSM density and marketability in 4-week-old plants infested with 30 TSSM, whereas leaf browning was not correlated with either. Thus, either leaf distortion or overall plant quality can be used to measure economic damage resulting from TSSM. The action threshold for TSSM on ivy geranium was determined using overall plant quality. When the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, is used to control TSSM, the action threshold was found to be 2 TSSM/leaf. Results also showed that fertilizer combinations of 8 or 24 mm nitrogen and 0.32, 0.64, or 1.28 mm phosphorus had no effect on cumulative TSSM density. When P. persimilis was released at predator: prey ratios of 1:60, 1:20, and 1:4, TSSM damage, measured as both leaf distortion and overall plant quality, was significantly reduced at 1:4 and 1:20, but not at 1:60. A 1:4 rate resulted in the most marketable plants. These results suggest that P. persimilis should be released at a rate of 1:4 when the TSSM action threshold is reached.