Root Growth of Avocado is More Sensitive to Salinity than Shoot Growth

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
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  • 1 Institute of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
  • 2 Ministry of Agriculture Extension Service, Bet-Dagan, 50250, Israel

In most crop species, growth of the shoot is more sensitive to salt stress than root growth. Avocado [Persea americana Mill.] is very sensitive to NaCl stress. Even low concentrations of salt (15 mm) inhibit tree growth and decrease productivity. Observations in experimental orchards have suggested that root growth in avocado might be more restricted by salinity than shoot growth. In the present study, we evaluated quantitatively the inhibitory effects of salt stress on growth of the avocado root in comparison to the shoot. Seedling plants of the West-Indian rootstock `Degania 117' were grown in complete nutrient solution containing 1, 5, 15, or 25 mm NaCl. The threshold NaCl concentration causing root and shoot growth reduction occurred between 5 and 15 mm. At all concentrations, root growth was much more sensitive to salinity than shoot growth. A concentration of 15 mm NaCl, which did not affect the rate of leaf emergence on the plant and decreased leaf biomass production only 10%, induced a 43% reduction in the rate of root elongation and decreased root volumetric growth rate by 33%. Under 25 mm NaCl, leaf biomass production, leaf initiation rate and leaf elongation rate were reduced 19.5%, 12%, and 5%, respectively, while root volumetric growth and root elongation rate were reduced 65% and 75%, respectively. This strong root growth inhibition is expected to influence the whole plant and therefore root growth under salinity should be considered as an important criterion for rootstocks' tolerance to NaCl.

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