Changes in the Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes during Apple Development

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
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  • 1 School of Bioresources, Hiroshima Prefectural University, Shobara, Hiroshima 727-0023, Japan
  • | 2 Department of Grape and Persimmon Research, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Akitsu, Hiroshima 729-2494, Japan
  • | 3 Department of Plant, Cell and Environment, National Institute of Fruit Tree Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8605, Japan
  • | 4 Department of Food Science Technology, College of Horticulture, Minami-Kyushu University, Takanabe, Miyazaki 884-0003, Japan

Cyanidin 3-galactoside was the primary anthocyanin in red `Tsugaru' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.]. The concentration of cyanidin 3-galactoside in the skin decreased from 20 to 62 days after full bloom (DAFB), then increased rapidly after 104 DAFB. Small amounts of cyanidin 3-arabinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside were detected at 122 and 133 DAFB (harvest). The expression of five anthocyanin biosynthetic genes of chalcone synthase (MdCHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MdF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (pDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (MdANS), and UDP glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (pUFGluT) was examined in the skin of red and nonred apples. In general, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in red apples was strong in juvenile and ripening stages. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS was observed before ripening stage when anthocyanin was not detected. In contrast, the expression of pUFGluT was detected in the development stage only when anthocyanin was detected. However, the expression of all five genes was observed at 20 DAFB in fruit bagged after fertilization, and anthocyanin was not detected. The expression of MdCHS, MdF3H, pDFR, and MdANS, excluding pUFGluT, was detected at 98 DAFB in fruit bagged after 30 DAFB, and anthocyanin was not detected. These results suggest that pUFGluT may be closely related to the anthocyanin expression in apple skin at the ripening stage.