The Colorado potato beetle [Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)] is a destructive pest of the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in northern latitudes. Combining resistance mechanisms of leptine glycoalkaloids and glandular trichomes with the synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cry3A gene in potato may be an effective strategy for controlling the Colorado potato beetle. Bt-cry3A transgenic plants were developed for three potato lines with differing levels of resistance to Colorado potato beetle ['Yukon Gold' (susceptible control), USDA8380-1 (leptine glycoalkaloids), and NYL235-4 (glandular trichomes)]. Polymerase chain reaction, and Southern and northern blot analyses confirmed integration and transcription of the cry3A gene in the transgenic lines. Detached-leaf bioassays of the cry3A engineered transgenic lines demonstrated that resistance effectively controlled feeding by first instar Colorado potato beetles. The susceptible `Yukon Gold' control suffered 32.3% defoliation, the nontransformed high foliar leptine line (USDA8380-1) had 3.0% defoliation, and the nontransformed glandular trichome line (NYL235-4) had 32.9% defoliation. Mean percentage defoliation for all transgenic lines ranged between 0.1% and 1.9%. Mean mortality ranged from 0.0% to 98.9% among the Bt-cry3A transgenic lines, compared to 20% for the susceptible `Yukon Gold' control, 32.2% for USDA8380-1, and 16.4% for NYL235-4. Results indicate that genetic engineering and the availability of natural resistance mechanisms of potato provide the ability to readily combine host plant resistance factors with different mechanisms in potato.
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