Superficial Scald, Carbon Dioxide Injury, and Changes of Fermentation Products and Organic Acids in `Cortland' and `Law Rome' Apples after High Carbon Dioxide Stress Treatment

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
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  • 1 Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853

`Cortland' and `Law Rome' apples [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were either nontreated or treated with the inhibitor of superficial scald development, DPA, and exposed to air or CO2 (40 or 45 kPa) in air at 2 °C for up to 12 days. Fruit exposed to air or 45 kPa CO2 were sampled during treatment, and peel and flesh samples taken for fermentation product and organic acid analyses. After treatment, fruit were air stored for up to 6 months at 0.5 °C for evaluation of disorder incidence. `Cortland' apples were most susceptible to external CO2 injury and `Law Rome' to internal CO2 injury. DPA treatment markedly reduced incidence of both external and internal injury. Fermentation products increased in peel and flesh of both cultivars with increasing exposure to CO2, but the extent of the increase was cultivar dependant. Acetaldehyde concentrations were about 10 times higher in peel and flesh of `Law Rome' than that of `Cortland' apples. Ethanol concentrations in the flesh were similar in both cultivars, but were about twice as high in `Cortland' than in `Law Rome' peels. Neither acetaldehyde nor ethanol concentrations were affected consistently by DPA treatment. Succinate concentrations, often regarded as the compound responsible for CO2 injury, increased with CO2 treatment, but were not affected by DPA application. Citramalate concentrations were reduced by CO2 treatment in `Law Rome' peel, but other acids were not consistently affected by CO2. Results indicate that acetaldehyde, ethanol or succinic acid accumulation are not directly responsible for CO2 injury in apples. Chemical name used: diphenylamine (DPA).

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Contributor Notes

Corresponding author; e-mail: cbw3@cornell.edu.
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