Common bacterial blight, incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) is a serious disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and flower color (V gene) previously were reported to be associated with six quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. However, the markers for the QTL were not confirmed in different populations and environments to indicate their merit in breeding. The objective was to determine if the associations of RAPD markers and the V gene with QTL for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in a recombinant inbred (RI) backcross population from the cross BC2F6 `PC-50' × XAN-159 and for leaf resistance to Xcp in an F2 population from a different cross pinto `Chase' × XAN-159 could be confirmed. One or two genes from XAN-159 controlled leaf and pod resistance to Xcp. Among six QTL previously detected, five in the RI backcross population and three in the F2 population were confirmed to be associated with resistance to Xcp. The V gene and RAPD marker BC437.1050 on linkage group 5 were most consistently associated with leaf and pod resistance to two to five Xcp strains in the RI backcross population and with leaf resistance to two Xcp strains in the F2 population. One to three QTL affecting leaf and pod resistance to Xcp accounted for 22% to 61% of the phenotypic variation. Gene number (one to two) estimations and number of QTL (one to three) detected for leaf and pod resistance to Xcp in the RI backcross population were generally in agreement. The marker BC437.1050 and V gene, along with other resistance genes from other germplasm, could be utilized to pyramid the different genes into a susceptible or partially resistant bean line or cultivar to enhance the level of resistance to Xcp.