Progress was measured in four populations of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) improved by recurrent selection. The populations were the North Carolina wide base pickle (NCWBP), medium base pickle (NCMBP), elite pickle 1 (NCEP1), and hardwickii 1 (NCH1). Families from each of three cycles (early, intermediate, and late) from each population were randomly chosen and crossed with Gy 14 to produce gynoecious hybrids. Gy 14 is a gynoecious inbred used commonly as a female parent in the production of pickling cucumber hybrids. Once the plants had 10% oversized (>51 mm in diameter) fruit, plots were sprayed with paraquat to simulate once-over harvest. Selection cycles were evaluated for total, early, and marketable yield, and fruit shape. Testcross performance for fruit shape rating increased over cycles for the NCWBP and NCMBP populations when tested in either season. Testcross performance for total and early yield of the NCEP1 population tested in the spring decreased with selection, but remained constant over cycles in the summer season. The majority of yield traits in each population remained unchanged across selection cycles. Of the four populations studied, the NCMBP population had the greatest gain (7%) in testcross performance over cycles and averaged over all traits. In addition, testcross performance for fruit shape rating had the greatest gain (11%) with selection and averaged over populations. Years and seasons greatly influenced testcross performance for fruit yield and shape rating. In most instances, the fruit yield and shape of Gy 14 was higher than the testcross performance of population-cycle combinations. The performance of several families exceeded that of Gy 14 when testcross combinations were made. Those families could be selected for use in the development of elite cultivars. Chemical name used: 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion (paraquat).
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