Dibutylurea (DBU), a breakdown product of benomyl, may be partially responsible for the previously reported phytotoxicity of the fungicide Benlate DF. We quantified the effect of DBU on the growth of two popular bedding plant species, petunia (Petunia × hybrida) and impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook. f.). DBU reduced photosynthesis of both species, and its effect strongly depended on the amount of DBU applied. The effects of DBU were most apparent 2 to 4 days after treatment, at which time 1.20 g·m-2 (corresponding to 10% DBU in Benlate DF at maximum labeled drench rate) inhibited photosynthesis completely. DBU also decreased flower number and caused marginal necrosis. DBU effects were more pronounced in low relative humidity. Benlate DF containing 3.1% DBU and an equivalent amount of reagent grade DBU had similar effects on photosynthesis and petunia necrosis. Our results showed that DBU is responsible for at least part of the phytotoxic symptoms that can be caused by Benlate DF. However, other ingredients or breakdown products may also contribute to the phytotoxic symptoms of Benlate DF.