Preclimacteric avocado [Persea americana (Mill.) cv. Hass] fruit or fruit disks as well as fruit harvested in either June (midseason) or August (late season) and partially ripened were kept in air (21% O2 + 78% N2), 20% CO2 + 17% O2 (63% N2), or 40% CO2 + 13% O2 (47% N2) at either 10 or 20 °C. Ethylene production by preclimacteric fruit was completely inhibited during CO2 exposure, whereas there was only partial inhibition of ethylene production when partially ripened fruit were exposed. Compared to the fruit stored in air, O2 uptake of fruit stored in 20% CO2 was decreased by 20%, whereas the fruit stored in 40% CO2 showed 25% more O2 uptake than air-stored fruit. Fruit subjected to a storage regime of 40% CO2 at 10 °C followed by 2 d in air had the best visual quality. In general, climacteric fruit treated with 20% CO2 at 10 °C showed increased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and decreased cytochrome oxidase (CytOx) activity. Fruit stored in 40% CO2 had reduced CytOx activity compared to air-stored fruit, and PDH activity was variable depending on the harvest season of the fruit. Our results show that the effect of elevated CO2 on a given enzyme depends on concentration of CO2, duration of exposure, physiological state of the fruit, and type of tissue exposed.