Performance characteristics for eighteen strawberry cultivars (Fragaria ×ananassa), nine from California and nine from other North American sources, were evaluated in annual hill culture, with and without preplant soil fumigation (2 methyl bromide : 1 chloropicrin, 392 kg·ha-1). Plants grown in nonfumigated soil yielded 57% and 46% of the fruit produced by plants on adjacent fumigated soil for cultivars from California and other North American origins, respectively. Plants in nonfumigated soils also developed fruit with lower berry weight (94% and 95% of fumigated trials) and smaller spring plant diameter (83% and 76%) for California and other sources, respectively. Trait values for exotic cultivars ranged from 39% to 80% of those for California cultivars, and the variance component due to germplasm sources explained 41% to 81% of the phenotypic variance of random effects in the experiment. Conversely, significant germplasm source × fumigation interactions were not detected for any of the growth or performance traits evaluated, and the proportion of variance attributable to these interactions was at most 2% of that due to germplasm source. These results demonstrate that strawberry growth and productivity for California and other North American germplasm sources are increased similarly by fumigation. Despite differing selection history, germplasm developed outside of California contains no obvious genetic diversity useful for developing cultivars specifically adapted to the sublethal effects of organisms in nonfumigated soils.
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