Transgenic grape plants were regenerated from somatic embryos derived from leaves of in vitro-grown plants of `Thompson Seedless' grape (Vitis vinifera L.) plants. Somatic embryos were either exposed directly to engineered Agrobacterium tumefaciens or they were bombarded twice with 1-μm gold particles and then exposed to A. tumefaciens. Somatic embryos were transformed with either the lytic peptide Shiva-1 gene or the tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) coat protein (CP) gene. After cocultivation, secondary embryos proliferated on Emershad/Ramming proliferation (ERP) medium for 6 weeks before selection on ERP medium containing 40 μg·mL-1 kanamycin (kan). Transgenic embryos were identified after 3 to 5 months under selection and allowed to germinate and develop into rooted plants on woody plant medium containing 1 μm 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.5% sucrose, 0.3% activated charcoal, and 0.75% agar. Integration of the foreign genes into these grapevines was verified by growth in the presence of kanamycin (kan), positive β-glucuronidase (GUS) and polymerase chain-reaction (PCR) assays, and Southern analysis.
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