Pedigrees of 137 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) varieties released throughout the world since 1960 were used to calculate: 1) the genetic contribution of founding clones to these varieties; 2) genetic relatedness among them; and 3) their inbreeding coefficients. Fifty founding clones contributed to the pedigrees of these varieties with a mean genetic contribution ranging from <0.1% to 21%. Varieties were clustered according to the genetic contribution into groups strongly related to geographical origin. Varieties developed in the former USSR and derived from `Novost Kuzmina' formed a distinct cluster. The remaining varieties were clustered in groups based mainly on whether they were of North American or European origin. Varieties were clustered also on the basis of Wright's coefficient of relationship-a measure of genetic relatedness. Cluster groups were related to their geographical origin and the varieties within the groups could be traced to similar intermediate parents. Inbreeding coefficients ranged from 0.0 to 0.625 and were related, in part, to the numbers of generations of controlled hybridization from common ancestors. The British group, with the largest number of generations of breeding, had a low mean inbreeding coefficient, indicating that inbreeding can be minimized with attention to the mating system. Strategies are suggested for maintaining and increasing the genetic diversity in the world's red raspberry breeding populations.
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