Alteration of Cellular Compartmentation and Membrane Permeability to Sugars in Immature and Mature Apple Fruit

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
Authors:
Shohei YamakiLaboratory of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464, Japan

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Migifumi InoLaboratory of Horticulture, School of Agriculture, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464, Japan

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A study was conducted to determine the distribution of sugars in vacuoles, cytoplasm, and free space in apples (Malus domestica Bork) picked at the immature and mature stage of maturity. The volumes of free space and air space were 13.4% and 14.5%, respectively, in immature fruit, and 14.6% and 25.6%, respectively, in mature fruit. The inner cellular volume (vacuole + cytoplasm) was 72% and 60% for immature and mature fruit, respectively. About 90% of each sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) was found in the vacuole. The concentration of total sugar in the inner cell or free space was 326 or 128 mm each in immature fruit and 937 or 406 mm each in mature fruit. Permeability to sugars across the plasma membrane and tonoplast also increased with fruit maturation, 7- to 30-fold for the tonoplast and 4- to 5-fold for the plasma membrane in mature compared to immature fruit. Cells in immature fruit apparently enlarge through higher turgor pressure from sequestering of sugars into vacuoles, and cease to enlarge in mature fruit as the amount of sugar unloading into the fruit is reduced due to the accumulation of sugar in the free space or cytoplasm.

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