The influence of six rootstock on growth, yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral nutrient concentration of `Fairchild' mandarin [`Clementine' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) × `Orlando' tangelo (C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata)] is reported for the arid climate of southwestern Arizona. Trees on macrophylla (Alemow) (C. macrophylla Wester) were precocious and produced high yield 4 years after planting. Six-year cumulative yields of trees on Volkamer lemon (C. limon Burro f.), Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Taiwanica (C. taiwanica Tan. & shin.), and rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) were similar and higher than those of trees on macrophylla and Batangas mandarin (C. reticulata). `Fairchild' mandarin tree canopies were large with Volkamer lemon and Taiwanica; intermediate with Carrizo citrange, rough lemon, and Batangas mandarin; and small with macrophylla rootstock. Fruit from trees on Carrizo citrange had the highest soluble solids concentration (SSC), while those on Volkamer lemon and rough lemon had the lowest SSC and total acids. `Fairchild' trees on macrophylla had higher levels of leaf N, Mn, and Fe but lower Ca, while trees on Batangas mandarin and Carrizo citrange had higher leaf K than those on the other rootstock. Trees on Volkamer lemon had higher leaf Zn than those on Carrizo citrange, Taiwanica, rough lemon, and Batangas mandarin rootstock. Considering yield, growth, fruit quality, and/or leaf nutrient concentration, Volkamer lemon, Carrizo citrange, Taiwanica, and rough lemon are suitable for `Fairchild' mandarin in the arid regions of southwestern Arizona. Trees on macrophylla could be advantageous for short-term planting, but would not be satisfactory for long-term planting because of gradual decline in growth and yields. Batangas mandarin is not recommended for `Fairchild' mandarin due to poor production.
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