Dwarf Flower Stalk in Onion: Characterization, Genetic Control, and Physiological Response to Ethephon and Gibberellic Acid

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
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  • 1 The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agriculture, Rehovot, Israel
  • | 2 Hazera Seed Company, Mivhor Farm, Mobile Mail Sde-Gat, Israel

Recently, a dwarf scape mutant was found in `Autumn Beit-Alpha' onion (Allium cepa L.). The development of dwarf scape in onion, the genetic control of this attribute, and its response to external application of ethephon and GA3 were studied. Data from segregating populations conclusively showed that a single recessive gene, designated dw1, controls scape dwarfness in onions. Its expression is slightly modified by minor genes. Relatively slow growth and early cessation of cell elongation are the characteristics associated with scape dwarfness. A similar developmental pattern characterized emerging normal flower stalks treated with ethephon. GA3 application at 50 ppm had no effect on scape elongation of dwarf plants. In each of 3 years, dwarf genotypes always produced scapes about half the length of normal ones. The marked expression stability of the dw1 gene will facilitate its introduction into onion cultivars. Providing there is no negative pleiotropic effect, the dwarfness gene is expected to reduce lodging and, thus, improve mechanical harvest of onion seed. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl phosphoric acid (ethephon), gibberellic acid (GA3).

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