Permeability to the postharvest fumigant hydrogen cyanide (HCN) varied markedly among 13 plastic film-wrapping materials. Permeability was determined by comparing California red scale [Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell)] (CRS) surviving fumigation on film-wrapped and nonwrapped, insect-infested, fruit. HCN transmission rates for several films also were determined by a permeation cell technique. Some films partially restricted passage of the fumigant to the fruit and CRS survival was high, while permeability of other films differed little from unrestricted exposure on nonwrapped fruit and CRS survival was low. For films with low permeability to HCN, increasing the HCN concentration or the length of fumigation time are possible methods of increasing the amount of HCN that penetrates to the fruit for control of quarantined insects. The permeability of film wrapping materials to fumigants should be a prime consideration when selecting films for wrapping citrus fruit in quarantine situations.
Fruit and Vegetables Insects Research, ARS/USDA, Riverside, CA 92521. Present address: Fruit Protection and Production Research, ARS/USDA, Weslaco, TX 78596.
Consulting Statistician, Biometrical Services, ARS/USDA, Albany, CA 94710.
Received for publication 28 Oct. 1987. We gratefully acknowledge L. DiBello, Cryovac Analytical Laboratory, Cryovac Div., W.R. Grace Co., Duncan, S.C., for determination of HCN transmission rates in various films. Mention of a proprietary product or vendor does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products or vendors that may also be suitable. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.