Thirteen species of woody ornamentals were treated over-the-top with glyphosate in a 6 × 6, rate by time factorial experiment. The influence of application timing on glyphosate phytotoxicity was significant for all species. The times of maximum tolerance and injury were species dependent. Species were organized into 4 response groups based on the effects of application time. Group 1 species, including ajuga (Ajuga reptans L.), azalea (Rhododendron obtusum Planch. ‘Coral Bells’), and a variegated liriope (Liriope muscari L.H. Bailey), were injured on all application dates. Species in groups 2, 3, and 4 exhibited tolerance to fall applications of glyphosate. Group 2, including wax leaf privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), sustained maximal injury from spring applications. Group 3 species, including Compacta holly (Ilex crenata Thunb. ‘Compacta’), were injured most by summer applications of glyphosate. However, Blue Rug juniper (Juniperus horizontalis Moench ‘Wiltonii’), a representative of group 4, was tolerant of glyphosate applications, sustaining only temporary tip chlorosis from spring and early summer treatments. First season evaluations were not sufficient to describe the ultimate effects of glyphosate on plant quality. Visual and objective evaluations in the 2nd growth season also were necessary. Chemical name used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate).
Formerly Graduate Research Assistant, currently Assistant Professor of Weed Science Dept. of Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY 14853.
Received for publication 5 Nov. 1984. Paper No. 9578 of the J. Ser. of the North Carolina Agr. Res. Serv., Raleigh, NC 27695-7601. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the products named nor criticism of similar products not mentioned. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.