Identification and Mapping of Eastern Filbert Blight Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci in European Hazelnut Using Double Digestion Restriction Site Associated DNA Sequencing

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science

European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is an economically important edible nut producing species, which ranked sixth in world tree nut production in 2016. European hazelnut production in the United States is primarily limited to the Willamette Valley of Oregon, and currently nonexistent in the eastern United States because of the presence of a devastating endemic disease, eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Muller. The primary commercial means of control of EFB to date is through the development and planting of genetically resistant european hazelnut cultivars, with an R-gene introduced from the obsolete, late-shedding pollinizer ‘Gasaway’. Although the ‘Gasaway’ resistance source provides protection against EFB in the Pacific northwestern United States (PNW), recent reports have shown that it is not effective in parts of the eastern United States. This may be in part because the identification and selection of ‘Gasaway’ and ‘Gasaway’-derived cultivars occurred in an environment (PNW) with limited genetic diversity of A. anomala. The objectives of the current research were to develop a genetic linkage map using double digestion restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) markers associated with EFB resistance from the resistant selection Rutgers H3R07P25 from southern Russia. A mapping population composed of 119 seedling trees was evaluated in a geographic location (New Jersey) where the EFB fungus is endemic, exhibits high disease pressure, and has a high level of genetic diversity. The completed genetic linkage map included a total of 2217 markers and spanned a total genetic distance of 1383.4 cM, with an average marker spacing of 0.65 cM. A single QTL region associated with EFB resistance from H3R07P25 was located on european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 2 and was responsible for 72.8% of the phenotypic variation observed in the study. Based on its LG placement, origin, and disease response in the field, this resistance source is different from the ‘Gasaway’ source located on LG6. The current results, in combination with results from previous research, indicate that the H3R07P25 source is likely exhibiting resistance to a broader range of naturally occurring A. anomala isolates. As such, H3R07P25 will be important for the development of new european hazelnut germplasm that combines EFB resistance from multiple sources in a gene pyramiding approach. Identification of EFB resistance in high disease pressure environments representing a diversity of A. anomala populations is likely a requirement for identifying plants expressing durable EFB resistance, which is a precursor to the development of a commercially viable european hazelnut industry in the eastern United States.

Contributor Notes

This work was partly supported by the Rutgers Center for Turfgrass Science, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, Hatch Act Funds, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant 2014-67013-22421 and the Specialty Crops Research Initiative Competitive Grants 2016-04991 and 2009-51181).

Corresponding author. E-mail: honig@sebs.rutgers.edu.

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    A genetic linkage map constructed from 119 european hazelnut seedlings from a cross of Rutgers H3R07P25 × Oregon State University (OSU) 1155.009 showing eastern filbert blight (EFB) disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) region (gray box) on linkage group (LG) 2. Genetic distance (Kosambi) is reported in centimorgans.

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    The quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the genetic linkage map of the european hazelnut cross Rutgers H3R07P25 × Oregon State University 1155.009 from MapQTL6. The eastern filbert blight (EFB) disease resistance QTL and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers RUCaS1_14004 and RUCaS1_18603 are located on linkage group (LG) 2. Logarithm of odds (LOD) thresholds for QTL significance (dashed line) were determined by permutation test (n = 1000), with a genome-wide significance level of 0.05. QTL LOD scores (solid line) for RUCaS1_18603 and RUCaS1_14004 were 32.5 and 34.8, respectively. The average percent phenotypic variation (EFB disease response) explained by the QTL region spanning the two SNP markers was 72.8%.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 1. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 2. The eastern filbert blight (EFB) disease resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) region is denoted by “+++.” Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 3. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 4. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 5. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 6. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 7. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 8. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 9. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 10. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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    Representation of european hazelnut linkage group (LG) 11. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) anchor markers are highlighted in bold italics.

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