Capsicum—An Abbreviated Compendium

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science

Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a major vegetable and spice crop worldwide. Global production of both fresh and dried fruit continues to increase steadily in terms of area harvested and yield. Various topics are addressed in this review, including recent additions to and clarification of Capsicum taxonomy, genetic resources of Capsicum, cytogenetic studies, the current status of our understanding of the mechanisms affecting the biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, the use of gene mutations to elucidate carotenoid biosynthetic pathways and their regulation, and recent advances in whole-genome sequencing and assembly.

Contributor Notes

This article is dedicated to the memory of friend and colleague Eduardo A. Moscone.

Corresponding author. E-mail: bob.jarret@ars.usda.gov.

Article Sections

Article Figures

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    Paprika drying in the sun at Cerro Prieto, Peru, in 2006 (upper). Paprika drying in the sun at Urumqi, China, in 2014 (middle). Dried chilies for sale in an open market in Hyderabad, India, in 2015 (lower).

  • View in gallery

    Half-long bell pepper harvest in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico in 2014 (upper). Red bell peppers being sorted on a packing line in Hermosillo, Mexico, in 2016 (middle). Aerial view of 40,000 acres of plastic houses in the Almeria province (lower left); Almeria pepper greenhouse Almeria, Spain, in 2011 (lower right).

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    Dendrogram adapted from Carrizo García et al. (2016) and Spalink et al. (2018) showing proposed taxonomic relationships among Capsicum species and Lycianthes.

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    Andean Clade species. (A, C, D) Capsicum geminifolium. (B) C. rhomboideum. (E) C. hookerianum. (F) C. dimorphum. (G) C. lycianthoides.

  • View in gallery

    Atlantic Forest and Flexuosum Clade species. (A) Capsicum campylopodium. (B) C. friburgense, (C) C. schottianum. (D, E) C. hunzikerianum. (F) C. recurvatum. (G, H) C. flexuosum.

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    Variation in published genome sizes in the Solanaceae. All genomes are diploid except for tobacco and potato, which are tetraploid. All genome sizes are listed in megabases (Mb).

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