Characterization of Various Color Parameters (Anthocyanins and Flavonols) of Leaves and Flowers in Different Autochthonous Genotypes of Cyclamen purpurascens

in Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science

Common cyclamen (Cyclamen pururascens Mill.) is a very interesting species not only for various breeding programs but also as an ornamental plant. The plants possess interesting floral and foliage characteristics, nice fragrances, and a very useful flavonol profile. The last is very important from the point of view of protecting against diseases and physiological disorders. Twenty-two different genotypes originating from different regions in Slovenia were analyzed in detail, based on their floral and foliage characteristics. Anthocyanin and flavonol contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array-mass spectrometry (MS). Color characteristics were colorimetrically evaluated separately for petals and leaves. In terms of color measurements, significant differences among the sites of origin were shown with parameters a* and L* when petals were analyzed, and with parameter a* when leaves were analyzed. The pH of petal sap stayed within the acid range, ranging from 3.96 to 4.82. Five different anthocyanins (malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, and delphinidine-3-rutinoside) were analyzed in flowers, and this is the first report of delphinidin metabolites naturally present in common cyclamen genotypes. In relation to plant leaves, malvidin-3,5-diglucoside, malvidin-3-rutinoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-neohesperidoside, and peonidin-3-neohesperidoside were measured. Fifteen different flavonols were determined in common cyclamen flowers and 10 different flavonols in common cyclamen leaves. Various glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were analyzed, as well as isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside, laricitin-3-rutinoside, and neohesperidin. The floral and foliage characteristics of the genotypes (physical and chemical) were mainly affected by the environmental conditions of the locality of origin of the genotypes (annual disposition of temperature and precipitation, structure of the soil, etc.).

Contributor Notes

This work is a part of the Program Horticulture No. P4-0013-0481 granted by the Slovenian Research Agency.

Corresponding author. E-mail: gregor.osterc@bf.uni-lj.si.

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    Position of the regions in Slovenia in which the Cyclamen purpurascens genotypes were collected. W = west Slovenia; WB = western border with Croatia; SW = southwest Slovenia; SE = southeast Slovenia; SEB = southeastern border with Croatia.

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    The most pronounced characteristics of Cyclamen purpurascens genotypes are significant variations in floral and foliage characteristics (color and marbling).

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    Comparison of average temperatures during the part of 2014 with the most intensive Cyclamen purpurascens development and the long-term annual average temperatures (1991–2010) for Ljubljana, Slovenia.

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    Comparison of average precipitation during the part of 2014 with the most intensive Cyclamen purpurascens development in Ljubljana and the average of long-term annual precipitation (1991–2010) for Slovenia.

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    Principal component analysis two-dimensional scatter plot based on the first two principal components (Factor 1 and Factor 2) generated for Cyclamen purpurascens clones and based on data of flavonol and anthocyanin derivative contents in leaves.

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    Principal component analysis two-dimensional scatter plot based on the first two principal components (Factor 1 and Factor 2) generated for Cyclamen purpurascens clones and based on data of flavonol and anthocyanin derivative contents in flowers.

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    Dendrogram of the results of cluster analysis using flavonol and anthocyanin contents as variables in analyzed Cyclamen purpurascens leaves.

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    Dendrogram of the results of cluster analysis using flavonol and anthocyanin contents as variables in analyzed Cyclamen purpurascens flowers.

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