Turfgrass Use on US Golf Courses

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Travis W. Shaddox Bluegrass Art and Science, 760 Winter Hill Lane, Lexington, KY 40509, USA

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J. Bryan Unruh West Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 4235 Experiment Drive, Jay, FL 32565, USA

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Mark E. Johnson Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049, USA

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Clark D. Brown National Golf Foundation, 501 N. Highway A1A, Jupiter, FL 33477, USA

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Greg Stacey Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049, USA

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Abstract

Golf facilities account for 2.3 million acres in the United States. Numerous turfgrass species are managed on US golf facilities, but golf facilities may change turfgrasses depending on numerous variables. Knowing which turfgrasses are grown and how turfgrass selection has changed would provide important information to scientists, turfgrass managers, and policymakers. The objective of this survey was to measure turfgrass use on US golf facilities in 2021 and to determine whether changes in turfgrass selection have occurred since 2005. A survey was developed and distributed via e-mail to 13,938 US golf facilities, with 1861 responding. From 2005 to 2021, the total projected area of maintained turfgrass on US golf facilities decreased by 14.2%, which was likely a result of course closures and maintenance operations. Nationally, bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) remained the most common warm- and cool-season turfgrasses, respectively. The area of winter-overseeded turfgrass declined by 60% between 2005 and 2021. The percentage of golf facilities that used zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.) and seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) increased depending on region and specific playing surface, albeit a pragmatically minor increase. In general, turfgrass selection on golf facilities in northern climates did not change, whereas turfgrass selection in southern climates favored a change from cool- to warm-season species, depending on the playing surface. Whether in historically cool-season or warm-season regions, it appears that many golf facilities are exploring alternatives to their traditional turfgrass species.

Golf facilities in the United States accounted for 2.3 million acres in 2015 (Gelernter et al. 2017). The use of these acres is important to local and regional communities that may realize the economic or environmental impact of the nearby golf facility. Most golf facility acres (60%) are covered with turfgrass (Gelernter et al. 2017). Turfgrass species and/or cultivars vary greatly according to numerous variables, including climate, topography, budget, and so on. As these variables change, so may turfgrass selection, leading to changes in management practices, resource requirements, etc. Thus, it is important to document the changes in turfgrasses being managed on US golf facilities so educators, turfgrass researchers, and policymakers can allocate resources efficiently and provide relevant best management practices.

Since 2006, comprehensive documentation of land-use characteristics on US golf courses has occurred twice via surveys conducted by the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA, Lawrence, KS, USA). The first survey, conducted in 2006 (Lyman et al. 2007), established the golf course industry baseline from which data derived from a subsequent longitudinal survey conducted in 2015 were compared (Gelernter et al. 2017). These surveys provide useful information on facility size, maintained turfgrass acreage (total and by course feature), and nonturfgrass acreage encompassing water features, natural areas, building assets, and more. Lyman et al. (2007) and Gelernter et al. (2017) provided projected and median values of turfgrass types (i.e., cool-season vs. warm-season) and their relative distribution across the United States. Both the projected and median values provided important information regarding turfgrasses used on US golf facilities, but the sole use of projected and median values does not provide the precision necessary to determine whether US golf facilities are shifting their turfgrass selection. Determining the percentage of golf facilities that use specific turfgrass types on each course feature would provide valuable information that has not yet been documented. Therefore, the objective of this survey was to garner a better understanding of turfgrass species use by measuring the percentage of US golf facilities that reported having specific turfgrasses by region and by course feature, and to elucidate changes in species selection that have occurred since 2005.

Materials and methods

A survey instrument was created that contained identical questions to those used by Gelernter et al. (2017) and Lyman et al. (2007) during prior evaluations of land use on US golf facilities. The survey was distributed in English via online software (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA). The electronic mailing lists of the National Golf Foundation (Jupiter, FL, USA) and GCSAA, which contain the largest known e-mail list of golf facilities, were used to distribute a link to the survey to 13,938 unique facilities. A golf facility was defined as a business where golf could be played on one or more golf courses. The survey was opened on 1 Sep 2022 and closed on 17 Oct 2022. Respondents’ names were omitted and replaced with a unique identification number to maintain anonymity. One response was allowed per golf facility. The turfgrass-use data were merged with the data from 2005 and 2015, which allowed for comparison of years. Responses were received from 1861 golf facilities, which was 13.3% of the known US total.

Respondents were asked to identify the percentage of turfgrass type by golf course feature. Turfgrass types included creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), annual bluegrass (Poa annua), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), fine fescue (Festuca sp.), bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.), zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides). Golf course features included tees, putting greens, fairways, roughs, practice areas, and nurseries. Responses were stratified according to their agronomic region (Fig. 1). To provide a valid representation of US golf facilities, data were weighted based upon 1 of 35 categories, depending on facility type (public or private), number of golf holes (9, 18, or ≥ 27), and public green fee (< $55 or ≥ $55 per round) (Supplemental Table S1). The weights were calculated based on the proportion each group held within the total survey response.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Distribution of 2021 survey and the seven US agronomic regions.

Citation: HortTechnology 33, 4; 10.21273/HORTTECH05238-23

Graphic and numeric analysis of the data residuals indicated the data were not normally distributed (National Institute of Standards and Technology 2012). As a result, data were fit to a log-logistic model, which satisfied normality requirements. Projected values were based on 18-hole equivalents, which were calculated by assigning 9-, 18-, and 27-hole facilities an 18-hole-equivalent value of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5, respectively. Projected values were calculated by multiplying the 18-hole facility average acres by the respective 18-hole-equivalent value. Frequency values were calculated using all golf facilities and were not adjusted to 18-hole equivalents. Golf facility frequencies were analyzed using PROC SURVEYfreq in SAS (ver. 9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA), and years were separated by using the χ2 test at the 10% significance level on all pairwise comparisons.

Results and discussion

Bermudagrass accounted for the greatest percentage of total maintained turfgrass at 32% in 2021 (393,610 acres), which was a reduction from the 34% and 35% reported in 2005 and 2015, respectively (Fig. 2). Creeping bentgrass accounted for 9.3%, 9.5%, and 11.1% of the total turfgrass acres in 2005, 2015, and 2021, respectively. Similarly, an increase from 4.8% to 6.4% was reported for tall fescue from 2005 to 2021, whereas the percentage of turfgrass acres accounted for by all remaining turfgrasses in 2021 was consistent with the acres reported in 2005 and 2015.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Turfgrass types as a percentage of total turfgrass acres on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Citation: HortTechnology 33, 4; 10.21273/HORTTECH05238-23

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Turfgrass types [fine fescue (Festuca sp.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), intermediate ryegrass (Lolium ×hybridum), rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)] used for winter overseeding as a percentage of total winter-overseeded turfgrass area on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Citation: HortTechnology 33, 4; 10.21273/HORTTECH05238-23

Nationally, the projected area of annual bluegrass decreased by 17% from 2005 to 2021 to 139,026 acres (Table 1). Decreases between 2005 and 2021 were also reported within each region except the Upper West/Mountain (UWM) region (Fig. 1), with the greatest percentage decrease occurring in the Southeast region (77%) and the greatest decrease occurring in the North Central region (17,231 acres). The UWM region reported a 14.8% increase in annual bluegrass acreage. Combined, the North Central and Northeast regions comprised 64% of the annual bluegrass acres nationally. Despite being listed as the third most common weed in turfgrass and the most difficult weed to control (Van Wychen 2021), annual bluegrass has been the third most abundant turfgrass grown on US golf courses across all three land-use surveys. The extensive reliance on herbicides for annual bluegrass control has resulted in high levels of herbicide resistance in certain plant populations and the belief that effective chemical control measures no longer exist (Heap 2023). In addition, although the Latin name annua implies that the species is an annual, recent research supports the hypothesis that Poa annua (annual bluegrass) is of a perennial life cycle and can be influenced by environmental conditions (Carroll et al. 2022). Consequently, annual bluegrass prevalence on US golf courses is not likely to change in the foreseeable future.

Table 1.

Projected acres of grass species on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 1.

The projected area of creeping bentgrass in 2021 was about equal to the reported area in 2005 (Table 1). Like annual bluegrass, the majority (76%) of creeping bentgrass was in the North Central and Northeast regions. However, five of the seven regions reported an increase in creeping bentgrass acres, and only the Southeast and Transition regions (Fig. 1) reported decreases of 35% and 22%, respectively. Creeping bentgrass, a cool-season turfgrass, has been used extensively across the United States, especially on putting greens (Dernoeden 2013). The popularity of creeping bentgrass use on putting greens may be a result of the reduced maintenance costs relative to other options such as annual bluegrass (Bigelow and Tudor 2012). However, cool-season turfgrass performance is affected by water availability and temperature extremes. Improving drought and heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass has been and remains a major focus of turfgrass breeding programs (Jespersen et al. 2016, 2018; Merewitz et al. 2014; US Golf Association 2017).

Fine fescue was the least common cool-season turfgrass reported nationally in 2021 at 25,922 acres, which was a 46% reduction from 2005 (Table 1). The cause of this reduction is unknown, but is, at least in part, a result of course closures (Shaddox et al. 2023a). Tall fescue was the second least common cool-season turfgrass, but golf facilities reported having 15% more acres in 2021 than in 2005. Notable increases in tall fescue acreage were reported in the North Central region (32%) and Northeast region (73%); however, all other regions reported reduced acreage. More than 50% of the tall fescue acres were reported in the Transition region. Of the cool-season turfgrasses, the fescues generally possess better overall drought resistance than other species, and tall fescue has good cold and heat tolerance, making it favorable in the Transition zone, where the severity of cool-season turfgrasses injury resulting from extreme high temperatures and warm-season turfgrass injury resulting from extreme low temperatures often varies from one year to the next (Fry and Huang 2004). Efforts toward lower input systems have led to the evaluation of fine fescues for golf course use, but barriers to adoption remain (Cavanaugh et al. 2011; Petrella et al. 2021; Watkins et al. 2010).

Kentucky bluegrass was the most common cool-season species (292,926 acres) and the second most common turfgrass nationally, accounting for 24% of the total turfgrass area in 2021 (Table 1). The Southwest (Fig. 1) and UWM regions reported increases in acres of Kentucky bluegrass from 2005 to 2021, whereas all other regions reported decreases varying from 10% in the Northeast to 88% in the Southeast. Collectively, the North Central, Northeast, and UWM regions accounted for 90% of the total area of Kentucky bluegrass on US golf facilities.

Bermudagrass accounted for 393,610 acres of turfgrass on US golf facilities in 2021, which was a reduction of 21% from 2005 to 2021 (Table 1). This reduction is likely a result of course closures (Shaddox et al. 2023a). Of the total acres of bermudagrass on US golf facilities, 58% was reported in the Southeast region. The greatest percent reduction of bermudagrass acres was reported in the UWM (56%), whereas the only region that reported an increase in bermudagrass acres was the Pacific region (30%) (Fig. 1).

Nationally, zoysiagrass (23,670 acres) and seashore paspalum (14,704 acres) represented the fewest acres of all turfgrasses grown on US golf facilities (Table 1). However, the percentage increase in acres of zoysiagrass and seashore paspalum from 2005 to 2021 were 54% and 108%, respectively, which represented the greatest percent increases of any turfgrass nationally. The Southeast and Transition regions reported 97% of all zoysiagrass acres, whereas 99% of seashore paspalum acreage was reported in the Southeast and Southwest regions.

Zoysiagrass acreage in the Southwest region increased nearly 10-fold from 2005 to 2015, but in 2021 had 80% fewer acres than in 2005. Similarly, across the United States and in the Northeast and Transition regions, zoysiagrass acreage peaked in 2015, declined in 2021, yet remains greater than the 2005 baseline. The increase is likely associated with the increase in improved cultivars and increased sod availability in those regions (Patton et al. 2017). Despite the positive attributes of zoysiagrass, Patton et al. (2017) described the shortcomings of zoysiagrass, some of which may have manifested in certain regions, resulting in the reduction of acreage. Today, public- and private-sector breeding programs are focused on understanding and improving the zoysiagrass germplasm (Braun et al. 2022; Meeks et al. 2022; Patton et al. 2017).

Seashore paspalum generally lacks cold tolerance, thus limiting its adaptation to the warmer regions of the Southeast and Southwest (Duncan and Carrow 2000). An advantage of using seashore paspalum is its ability to tolerate saline/sodic soils and poor water quality often found in reclaimed water and coastal environments (i.e., Southeast region and California) (Duncan and Carrow 2000). Shaddox et al. (2022) reported that 87% of all reclaimed water use on golf courses occurs in the Southeast and Southwest regions.

In general, turfgrass managers engage in three types of overseeding: reestablishment of thin areas, interseeding into existing swards, and winter overseeding of warm-season turfgrasses. The latter is intended to provide temporary seasonal color and was the only type of overseeding measured in our survey. Nationally, total winter-overseeded area on US golf facilities decreased by 60% from 2005 to 2021 (147,681 to 58,884 acres) (Table 2). The decrease was reported on each course feature, with 49% of the 88,797-acre reduction accounted for by fairways. Fairways and roughs accounted for 76% of the total winter-overseeded area on US golf facilities in 2021. The North Central and Pacific regions reported an increase in winter-overseeded area, whereas all other regions reported a decrease. Similar to 2005 and 2015, the Southeast and Southwest regions reported the greatest number of winter-overseeded acres, and together accounted for 81% of all the winter-overseeded acres on US golf facilities in 2021. However, both the Southeast and Southwest regions reported the greatest reductions in winter-overseeded acres from 2005 to 2021 at 45,942 and 27,991 acres, respectively.

Table 2.

Projected acres of winter-overseeded turfgrass by course feature for US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 2.

In the Southeast region, reductions in winter-overseeded area were consistent over all course features, averaging ∼68% reduction. However, in the Southwest region, reductions in overseeded roughs (69%) and practice areas (68%) were twice that of the greens, tees, and fairways, which averaged 33%. We postulate three primarily explanations for the reduction of winter overseeding. First, winter overseeding is resource intensive, especially with water and nutrients (Shaddox et al. 2022, 2023b). Reductions in winter-overseeded area may be attributed to resource conservation practices, especially in the Southwest region where water supply constraints are prevalent (Shaddox et al. 2022). Second, the use of pigments and dyes used to color dormant warm-season turfgrasses green likely increased from 2005 to 2021, which would replace winter-overseeded area. Last, the cost of seed increased disproportionately from 2005 to 2021 (Isom 2021). Increased seed cost may be a result of several factors, including supply, inflation, and so on.

In those regions that overseed in the winter months, perennial ryegrass was used on >85% of overseeded acres followed by rough bluegrass (Fig. 3). The majority of turfgrasses in the North Central region were cool-season turfgrasses, and less than 1% of golf facilities reported having warm-season turfgrasses in 2005, 2015, and 2021 (Table 3). The percentage of golf facilities in the North Central region with bentgrass putting greens declined to 86% from 2005 to 2021, whereas the percentage with annual bluegrass remained equivalent to 2005 at 66%. The frequency of bentgrass on fairways in the North Central region increased to 56% of golf facilities from 2005 to 2021, whereas Kentucky bluegrass and annual bluegrass declined to 56% and 61%, respectively. Annual bluegrass was the most commonly reported turfgrass on tees in 2005, but declined to 55% of facilities in 2021, resulting in bentgrass now being the most commonly reported turfgrass on tees in the North Central region. The frequency of Kentucky bluegrass on roughs declined to 79% of golf facilities from 2005 to 2021, but remained the most common turfgrass on roughs.

Table 3.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US North Central region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 3.

Golf facilities in the Northeast region consisted almost entirely of cool-season turfgrasses, with less than 2% of facilities having warm-season turfgrasses in 2021 (Table 4). Putting greens in the Northeast region were primarily bentgrass or annual bluegrass in 2005, 2015, and 2021. Similar percentages of golf facilities reported having the same turfgrasses on fairways and tees. Fairways and tees consisted primarily of bentgrass and annual bluegrass, followed by perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass between 2005 and 2021. Seventy-three percent of golf facilities reported having Kentucky bluegrass in roughs in 2021, which was a decrease from 86% reported in 2005. Golf facilities in the Northeast region reported having several cool-season turfgrasses in practice areas, with no single species being dominant.

Table 4.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Northeast region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 4.

Golf facilities in the Pacific region reported having primarily cool-season turfgrasses but as many as 21% reported using a warm-season turfgrass in fairways and roughs (Table 5). Putting greens were dominated by annual bluegrass and bentgrass, with 68% and 63% of golf facilities, respectively, reporting their use in 2021. In fairways, tees, roughs, and practices areas, golf facilities reported a consistent percentage of turfgrass use, with perennial ryegrass and annual bluegrass being the most common, followed by bentgrass and bermudagrass.

Table 5.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Pacific region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 5.

The Southeast region reported using primarily warm-season turfgrasses on each course feature from 2005 to 2021 (Table 6). The use of bermudagrass on putting greens decreased from 79% to 72% between 2005 and 2021, whereas the percentage of facilities that reported using zoysiagrass and seashore paspalum increased to 7% and 8%, respectively. The percentage of golf facilities that reported having bentgrass on putting greens decreased from 16% to 8% between 2005 and 2021. The percentage of facilities that reported using bermudagrass decreased on fairways, tees, roughs, and practice areas between 2005 and 2021, whereas the use of seashore paspalum increased on each course feature. The increase in seashore paspalum mostly occurred before 2015, yet its use has remained the same since then. The significant increase occurred following an era in which much research was conducted on seashore paspalum culture and management (Raymer et al. 2008; Unruh et al. 2007). The percentage of facilities that reported using zoysiagrass also increased between 2005 and 2021 on each course feature except tees. A notable increase in zoysiagrass on golf course putting greens has occurred since 2005. This increase is likely attributed to the recent development of dense, fine-textured cultivars and their suitability for putting green heights of cut (Chandra et al. 2020; Doguet and Lehman 2014; Doguet et al. 2016a, 2016b).

Table 6.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Southeast region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 6.

Golf facilities in the Southwest region reported using both cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses, with bentgrass and annual bluegrass being the primary turfgrasses on putting greens, and bermudagrass being most common on all remaining course features (Table 7). Although bentgrass was the most reported turfgrass on putting greens, the frequency of use on golf facilities decreased from 60% to 48% between 2005 and 2021, respectively—a shift likely attributed to water scarcity issues in the Southwest region. The frequency of facilities that reported using seashore paspalum on putting greens and in roughs increased to 6% in 2021. As noted previously, the use of reclaimed water in the Southwest region is common and bodes well for the irrigation of seashore paspalum.

Table 7.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Southwest region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 7.

The Transition region reported the most diverse use of turfgrasses among regions (Table 8). The primary turfgrass reported on fairways, tees, roughs, and practice areas was bermudagrass (45–52%), depending on playing surface. Following bermudagrass, the next most dominant fairway species were zoysia, bentgrass, and annual bluegrass at 25%, 20%, and 18%, respectively. A variety of cool-season species was also reported on each course feature. Bentgrass and annual bluegrass were the dominant species on putting greens, but their frequency decreased from 95% to 72% and from 45% to 36% between 2005 and 2021, respectively. The frequency of bermudagrass on putting greens increased from 5% to 17% from 2005 to 2021. Brosnan et al. (2022) reported that the distribution of warm- and cool-season turfgrass species on putting greens across the United States differed from historical maps of growing zones, and suggested that the shift could be associated with a changing climate. Brosnan et al. (2022) found that nearly 87% of survey respondents indicated that winter protective covers were used to maintain bermudagrass putting greens, including 100% of respondents in the US Transition region states of Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. These protective covers are typically used when low-temperature injury is expected (DeBoer et al. 2019). The frequency of golf facilities in the Transition region using zoysiagrass increased on each course feature between 2005 and 2021.

Table 8.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Transition region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 8.

The UWM region reported using mostly cool-season turfgrasses, with ≤ 6% reporting the use of warm-season turfgrasses (Table 9). Golf facilities reported using bentgrass and annual bluegrass most frequently on putting greens, and ≤ 3% of facilities reported using other turfgrasses. The diversification of turfgrasses on all remaining course features was somewhat consistent, with Kentucky bluegrass being the most common, followed by annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass.

Table 9.

Frequency of golf facilities in the US Upper West/Mountain region (Fig. 1) that have the listed turfgrass species on greens, fairways, tees, roughs, or practice areas in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

Table 9.

Conclusion

The total area of maintained turfgrass on US golf courses declined from 2005 to 2021, which may be a result of both course closures and a reduction of maintained acres at operational golf facilities. Winter-overseeded area declined to historic lows in all regions except the North Central and Pacific regions. Minor but significant increases in the use of zoysiagrass and seashore paspalum were reported in most regions where both cool-season and warm-season turfgrasses are commonly grown. Whether in historically cool-season or warm-season regions, it appears that many golf facilities are incorporating alternative species/cultivars on their landscape and playing surfaces.

Units

TU1

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  • Shaddox TW, Unruh JB, Johnson ME, Brown CD, Stacey G. 2023b. Nutrient use and management practices on United States golf courses. HortTechnology. 33:7997. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech05118-22.

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  • Unruh JB, Brecke BJ, Partridge DE. 2007. Seashore paspalum performance to potable water. USGA Turfgrass Environ Res Online. 6:110.

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Supplemental Table S1. 2021 Turfgrass-use survey responses and weighting factors categorized by US region (Fig.1), facility type, number of holes, and green fee.

TS1
  • Fig. 1.

    Distribution of 2021 survey and the seven US agronomic regions.

  • Fig. 2.

    Turfgrass types as a percentage of total turfgrass acres on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

  • Fig. 3.

    Turfgrass types [fine fescue (Festuca sp.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), intermediate ryegrass (Lolium ×hybridum), rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)] used for winter overseeding as a percentage of total winter-overseeded turfgrass area on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

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  • Shaddox TW, Unruh JB, Johnson ME, Brown CD, Stacey G. 2022. Water use and management practices on U.S. golf courses. Crop Forage Turfgrass Manage. 8:e20182. https://doi.org/10.1002/cft2.20182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaddox TW, Unruh JB, Johnson ME, Brown CD, Stacey G. 2023a. Land-use and energy practices on US golf courses. HortTechnology. 33:296304. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech05207-23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaddox TW, Unruh JB, Johnson ME, Brown CD, Stacey G. 2023b. Nutrient use and management practices on United States golf courses. HortTechnology. 33:7997. https://doi.org/10.21273/horttech05118-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Unruh JB, Brecke BJ, Partridge DE. 2007. Seashore paspalum performance to potable water. USGA Turfgrass Environ Res Online. 6:110.

  • Van Wychen L. 2021. WSSA survey ranks most common and most troublesome weeds in grass crops, pasture and turf. https://wssa.net/2021/05/wssa-survey-ranks-most-common-and-most-troublesome-weeds-in-grass-crops-pasture-and-turf. [accessed 28 Mar 2023].

  • Watkins E, Hollman AB, Horgan BP. 2010. Evaluation of alternative turfgrass species for low-input golf course fairways. HortScience. 45:113118. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.45.1.113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Travis W. Shaddox Bluegrass Art and Science, 760 Winter Hill Lane, Lexington, KY 40509, USA

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J. Bryan Unruh West Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 4235 Experiment Drive, Jay, FL 32565, USA

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Mark E. Johnson Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049, USA

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Clark D. Brown National Golf Foundation, 501 N. Highway A1A, Jupiter, FL 33477, USA

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Greg Stacey Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, 1421 Research Park Drive, Lawrence, KS 66049, USA

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Contributor Notes

Funding for this project was provided by the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America and the United States Golf Association.

Mark E. Johnson is the director of environmental programs at the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America. Clark D. Brown is the director of research at the National Golf Foundation, which was responsible for managing the survey instrument and data collection. Greg Stacey is the senior manager of market research and data at the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America.

T.W.S. is the corresponding author. E-mail: travisshaddox@gmail.com.

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  • Fig. 1.

    Distribution of 2021 survey and the seven US agronomic regions.

  • Fig. 2.

    Turfgrass types as a percentage of total turfgrass acres on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

  • Fig. 3.

    Turfgrass types [fine fescue (Festuca sp.), creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera), intermediate ryegrass (Lolium ×hybridum), rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)] used for winter overseeding as a percentage of total winter-overseeded turfgrass area on US golf facilities in 2005, 2015, and 2021.

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