Engaging Undergraduate Students in Research

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Chad T. Miller Kansas State University, 1712 Claflin Road, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

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Merritt Drewery Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA

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Tina M. Waliczek Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA

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Ryan N. Contreras Oregon State University, 4017 Agricultural and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA

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Chieri Kubota The Ohio State University, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA

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Abstract

A primary goal of undergraduate education is to provide a comprehensive and diverse educational experience to prepare and promote student success in their professional and personal pursuits. Increased academic success and program connectivity have been demonstrated when undergraduate students are engaged in research early in their degree programs. Despite the known benefits of undergraduates engaging in research, there are challenges associated with conducting undergraduate research programs. Reported barriers include the lack of student knowledge about research methods, lack of preparedness, and lack of student identification and understanding of their specific interests which may not facilitate research ideas and affinity to conduct research. Additional challenges are related to the lack of faculty resources (e.g., time, specific equipment, research space, etc.), the ability to train and supervise undergraduates who may have very limited or no research experience and those students who are true beginners lacking foundational skills. Moreover, involving, engaging, and supporting underrepresented students (e.g., first-generation college students, females, ethnic minorities) in undergraduate research experiences can require different approaches for mentors to be effective. The “Engaging Undergraduate Students in Research” workshop was organized by the Vice Presidents of the American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) Research and Education Divisions at the ASHS 2022 Annual Conference in Chicago, IL, USA. The workshop featured three speakers who described their experiences engaging undergraduate students in research. After each speaker provided comments for ≈5 minutes, the workshop attendees self-selected into three breakout groups with the speakers for roundtable discussions related to engaging students in research through coursework, engaging students via formal research projects, and engaging underrepresented students in research. After the breakout group discussions, a summary was given by each group, and whole group discussions and comments were facilitated. This is a summary of the information discussed and shared during the workshop, along with information that can assist faculty with developing and implementing undergraduate research experiences.

Engaging undergraduate students in undergraduate research experiences (UREs) is important for student development, both professionally and personally (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017). Increased involvement of undergraduates in research has been a major focus of science education (American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011). Undergraduate research experiences have been thought to improve critical thinking, writing, and speaking skills to such an extent that a challenge was presented to research institutions in the late 1990s to engage more undergraduates in research experiences (Boyer Commission on Educating Undergraduates in the Research University 1998). More recent research demonstrated a correlation between participation in UREs and increased grade point averages, even if the experience was as brief as only one semester (Fechheimer et al. 2011).

Many universities are strategically and actively developing UREs (Blanton 2008). To facilitate UREs, universities often have specific offices and collaborative efforts devoted to undergraduate research, such as the Office of Undergraduate Research and Creative Inquiry of Kansas State University (Manhattan, KS, USA), The Ohio State University (Columbus, OH, USA), and the Innovation, Discovery, Exploration, Analysis (IDEA) Center of Texas State University (San Marcos, TX, USA). As part of the Kansas State University 2025 Visionary Plan, an explicit goal of the undergraduate experience is to expand opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in high-impact experiential learning and research by promoting and increasing opportunities for undergraduate research and allocating resources and assigning responsibility to coordinate and lead applied learning efforts, including a formal program for undergraduate research, service, community-based learning, and internships (Kansas State University 2022).

Hernandez et al. (2018) demonstrated that underrepresented students who engaged in UREs benefitted in several areas, including academic performance, graduating with a scientific degree, being accepted into a science-based graduate degree program, and longer-term scientific workforce participation. Undergraduate research experiences were found to increase retention of students in science-related disciplines while also increasing enrollment in graduate school programs (Russell et al. 2007), including those of underrepresented groups of ethnic minorities and women (Bauer and Bennett 2008; Campbell and Skoog 2008; Gregerman 1999; Hathaway et al. 2002; Lopatto 2004; Nagda et al. 1998). Previous research also indicated that UREs build career confidence, self-awareness of career goals, leadership, and teamwork skills, especially when students complete collaborative projects with other researchers (Madan and Teitge 2013).

These are important considerations because undergraduate enrollment has decreased steadily over the past several decades in agricultural-related fields (Arnold et al. 2014; Dole 2015). Suggested reasons include increased urbanization and a poor image associated with agriculture as a major and career choice (Hansen et al. 2007). However, more recent research revealed a lack of public awareness of the term “horticulture” and the career opportunities that the field provides (Meyer et al. 2016). Exposing students to various disciplines within agriculture while also increasing their awareness of the application of the majors to real-world environmental issues generally help attract environmentally conscious urban students to programs (Hansen et al. 2007). Engaging students in UREs also gave students confidence in their career choice and abilities (Lopatto 2004; Madan and Teitge 2013).

Research has suggested that the most positive outcomes regarding undergraduate research experiences come from highly engaged and organized faculty mentors facilitating the experience (Russell et al. 2007). With typical university teaching, research, and service workloads, the additional mentoring of an undergraduate can be a challenge for some faculty (Fechheimer et al. 2011; Shortlidge et al. 2015). Other obstacles to including undergraduates in research are finding funding to support students as well as for research questions that fit into an undergraduate timeline (O’Donnell et al. 2015). Furthermore, undergraduate students require more supervision than graduate students (Russell et al. 2007). It should be noted, however, that previous research suggested that faculty members experience great satisfaction and benefits from participating in UREs (Chopin 2002; Russell et al. 2007; Shortlidge et al. 2015; Zydney et al. 2002).

Workshop overview

The goal of the workshop was to provide American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) members an opportunity to learn and explore methods used by faculty at different institutions to recruit, implement, and engage undergraduate students in research within horticultural and agricultural disciplines. Workshop participants learned about successes and challenges associated with the different methods implemented by the speaker panel.

Dr. Ryan Contreras (Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA), Vice President of the ASHS Research Division, and Dr. Tina Marie (Waliczek) Cade (Texas State University), Vice President of the ASHS Education Division, were the workshop organizers and coordinators. The panelists were Dr. Chad Miller (Kansas State University), who shared insight about integrating undergraduate research activities in the classroom, Dr. Chieri Kubota (The Ohio State University), who provided details about engaging undergraduates through formal research projects, and Dr. Merritt Drewery (Texas State University), who shared experiences and approaches to engage underrepresented students in research. Dr. Contreras was the moderator during the session.

Engaging students Through CourseWork

Course-based UREs (CUREs) are UREs incorporated into program coursework and curriculum as an avenue to engage students in research. These CUREs can improve critical thinking and writing skills, along with the opportunity to broaden student awareness and knowledge of topic areas that may not be extensively covered in-depth through the course (Allyn 2013). The UREs in coursework can range from a single laboratory period to several weeks over a semester, or longer, depending on the course structure. Several challenges have been identified by faculty when developing and implementing CUREs (Shortlidge et al. 2015). Three challenges when incorporating URE into coursework discussed during the workshop (across all three topic areas) were: addressing background/experience with the scientific method and process, because many students are not familiar; some students are not interested in research or scientific inquiry; and time and resource limitations or constraints.

Research experiences should be designed and implemented based on the appropriate level for the students enrolled. These types of experiences can influence students in their educational and career trajectories (Dolan 2016). For example, simple and guided research projects and assignments would be more appropriate for introductory or lower-level courses. Moreover, introductory courses taken early in a degree program in which students experience (positive) scaffolded research activities can assist students with learning scientific methods, building confidence, and preparing them for scientific writing/reporting in other higher-level courses and ongoing research activities (Beatty et al. 2021; Buffalari et al. 2020). With upper-level or advanced courses, students would have a more “authentic” CURE (Beatty et al. 2021), characterized by less guidance and more autonomy, and perform tasks like data analysis and poster or manuscript writing. UREs of these upper-level courses can provide students an opportunity to confirm their career interests and confirm their desire to pursue science research via additional CUREs during their undergraduate program and/or their career paths (Dolan 2016). One method discussed during the workshop to address background differences involved the instructor facilitating group or class wikis and/or small groups, where information can be and is encouraged to be shared. With this approach, students can assist each other by using their individual strengths. Moreover, near-peer mentoring, which involves pairing current graduate students in the department or course with undergraduates, can be helpful.

In the HORT 350 Plant Propagation course at Kansas State University, select laboratory activities are designed and implemented as research experiences. The scope of these laboratories could be considered “inquiry laboratories” (Dolan 2016); the activities are guided, and a research question and experiment protocol already exist. During these activities, students are tasked with developing their own questions and experimental details (e.g., treatments, data collection). Students are responsible for creating two formally graded laboratory reports that follow a scientific manuscript template. During the first laboratory meeting, students are given a sample laboratory report with a discussion about and explanation of the different parts of scientific research and reporting (e.g., abstract, materials and methods, results). The first laboratory report is submitted near the end of the first half of the semester. The report is graded based on a rubric, and comments and suggestions are provided. A second report is submitted near the end of the semester, with the goal being that students can improve the second report based on feedback from the first report.

One challenge highlighted by faculty is that incorporating UREs into courses can require significant amounts of time, which is not to be ignored. Although time commitments may be relatively high, several benefits from a faculty standpoint can be realized, including opportunities to incorporate disciplinary research into teaching. When properly documented and recognized, these opportunities could assist faculty in the performance and promotion review process (Shortlidge et al. 2015). Workshop participants also raised the issue of a lack of interest among some students. These students may view research as “extra” work that is not applicable to their career path and, as such, disengage in the CURE. The discussion of this topic encouraged faculty to stress the transferability of skills developed during the research process and to help design experiments for which the applicability of the problem is clear and cuts across crops and disciplines to appeal to the widest audience of students. Moreover, providing students with data and information about the demand for employees in careers related to science and engineering disciplines in the food, agriculture, renewable natural resources, and environmental industries (Fernandez et al. 2020) could increase student engagement in CUREs and participation in UREs.

Engaging Students through Formal Research Projects

Undergraduate research experiences in the United States related to the Bachelor of Science (BS) curricula are often implemented through honors programs or senior capstone courses; however, they may not be required for successful degree completion. In contrast, BS curricula in other countries include undergraduate research and senior theses as core requirements for graduation, depending on the institution (van der Rijst and Visser-Wijnveen 2011; Wuetherick 2020). Undergraduate research and thesis writing experiences are invaluable for students because they help them build their skill sets that are required to be effective in a professional work setting (Lopatto 2007). In the United States, a major goal of the BS curriculum for horticultural sciences is to provide students with a broad understanding of core scientific concepts and horticulture industry practices to prepare students for careers related to plant science or horticulture. Hands-on project experiences, discussions of scientific data, and technical writing experiences enrich undergraduate educational experiences and are often effective for connecting classroom knowledge to professional practices. For faculty members, undergraduate students on their research team provide unique opportunities. First, undergraduate students can provide opportunities to examine research ideas that have not been tested and are therefore considered “risky” because they may or may not generate data that warrant scientific publications or graduate student theses. These could be “pilot studies” useful for further research endeavors. Second, having undergraduate students in the laboratory provides opportunities for graduate students to mentor students who do not have laboratory research experiences. These mentoring opportunities can provide valuable experience and training useful to the professional development of graduate students while also reducing time demands on faculty. Third, in some cases, students in different majors (e.g., engineering or computer sciences) can join the research team. In these situations, the undergraduates may bring valuable insight and knowledge that can enhance the research laboratory and program.

In Dr. Kubota’s Controlled Environment Plant Physiology and Technology Laboratory at The Ohio State University, there are typically two to three undergraduate students who conduct their own research at any given time during an academic year. They are often recruited by the principal investigator (PI), or they are students who seek and approach the PI for UREs. The laboratory conducts science-based technology development in controlled-environment agriculture (CEA). The research requires a solid understanding of plant responses to environmental factors and environmental control. Typically, undergraduate students who have a limited understanding of CEA (e.g., when they have never taken courses taught by the PI) will be asked to start as an undergraduate student worker assisting with ongoing projects of the laboratory before being assigned to their own project. Students can choose to conduct research as a paid research experience (student research assistant) or for research credit (typically three to four credit hours per semester). For the former option, the research project must be relevant to the funded research projects of the PI so that expenses can be justified. Expenses for student participation in scientific meetings can be funded by project grants or gift funds and other revenues earned by the program.

Some challenges of working with undergraduate students were discussed during the workshop. Because the research is not a curriculum requirement and is an extracurricular activity, students could leave the project without completing the planned experiment. This risk can be avoided with better communication by assuring a realistic timeline and establishing guidelines (Beer and Myers 1995). In the Kubota Laboratory, all students with their own research projects meet with the PI at least once weekly to discuss their progress. Additionally, all laboratory members meet weekly or every other week to discuss research. During each of the 1.5-h meetings, one student gives a research progress presentation, and another student introduces a research paper that they found interesting and relevant to their research. These meetings help undergraduate students build a sense of community, which prevents early termination of their project without completion. A second challenge is that the availability of undergraduate students may not work for seasonal research cycles. It is necessary to adapt the research plan to the academic cycle of the students. Undergraduate students often leave for home or internships during the summer. Flexibility is required when planning undergraduate student research; however, this presents a major hurdle when the research is related to seasonal occurrences outside of controlled environments, such as flowering time, planting dates, and other activities with limited ability to change timing.

Engaging Underrepresented Students in Research

Black and Hispanic students are underrepresented among degree recipients and in the workforce of the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), as well as agricultural sciences (National Science Foundation 2019). Underrepresented students encounter additional barriers to academic engagement, including a lack of same-race peers and faculty mentors, a lack of faculty contact and mentorship, a lack of emotional support and encouragement from family, a lack of finances, which prevents participation in research, and a lack of validation from meaningful scientific others (Carlone and Johnson 2007; Chang et al. 2011; Hurtado et al. 2008). These barriers contribute to the lack of science identity and sense of belonging that underrepresented students feel (Hazari et al. 2013), especially in male-dominated fields (Sinclair et al. 2014), such as agricultural sciences. When students do not feel they are legitimate or valued members of their discipline, they are less likely to persist (Zaniewski and Reinholz 2016).

Benefits of UREs for STEM students have been documented (Haeger and Fresquez 2017; Hernandez et al. 2018; Slovacek et al. 2012) and could arguably help underrepresented students overcome the aforementioned barriers to academic engagement. However, underrepresented students (e.g., Hispanic) are less likely to engage in UREs at primarily White institutions and minority-serving institutions (Haeger et al. 2015), perhaps because education and culture in STEM departments often align with masculine and White culture norms that may make UREs challenging and negative (Carlone and Johnson 2007; Thompson and Jensen-Ryan 2018).

When engaging underrepresented students in UREs, especially in male-dominated fields (e.g., agricultural sciences), it is important to understand the aforementioned barriers and implement strategies that maximize recruitment, retention, and success. We outline best practices that are evidence-based and/or informed through our experiences in engaging underrepresented students in our laboratories that were also presented during the workshop and discussed during the breakout sessions.

Recruiting and hiring underrepresented students for UREs

Noninclusive or intimidating recruiting and hiring practices can introduce barriers to entry in UREs for underrepresented students. When promoting UREs to students, faculty should communicate early and often. A best practice is to introduce UREs in lower-level undergraduate courses, even if these students are not the target population. This early introduction familiarizes underrepresented students with UREs and prepares them to participate in later stages of their academic careers. When recruiting, it is also important to be authentic; faculty mentors should share their stories and identities. Women identify with other women in STEM who they believe have encountered strggles similar to their own (Pietri et al. 2018a), especially if they are the same ethnicity (Pietri et al. 2018b). If faculty mentors do not belong to an underrepresented population, then they can educate themselves about the adversity and bias that these groups face and publicly identify themselves as an ally. Alternatively, or additionally, faculty can allow a current student who is underrepresented to lead the recruitment. If recruitment involves physical or verbal advertisements for URE positions, then those advertisements should not tokenize target populations, because this can cause underrepresented students to feel isolated and individually disregarded (Hall and Stevenson 2007; Stroshine and Brandl 2011). A best practice is to allow other underrepresented students to design or approve advertisements to ensure that the verbiage and graphics are welcoming and inclusive. Finally, the application process should not introduce additional barriers to URE entry. Data indicate that underrepresented college students tend to be less academically prepared because of lower academic achievement and underdeveloped academic skills in high school (Terenzini et al. 2001; Zalaquett 1999); therefore, if the application process relies on the grade point average, writing samples, or letters of recommendation, then they may be eliminated from the candidate pool.

Retaining and supporting underrepresented students in UREs

Financial considerations should be made for any student facing economic challenges or hardships. Regarding underrepresented students, finances are often a barrier for underrepresented student participation in UREs (Hurtado et al. 2008). Black and Hispanic first-generation college students often finance college themselves, and White first-generation college students often receive financial support from their parents early during their college career; however, these funds are eventually depleted (McCabe and Jackson 2016). Therefore, underrepresented students should be compensated at or above fair market value for UREs, but they still may need to have an additional job. Faculty mentors should be mindful of these external pressures and adjust timelines and expectations accordingly. Furthermore, underrepresented students will likely not understand their role in the URE. A best practice is for the faculty mentor and student mentee to jointly develop and sign contracts clarifying performance and behavior expectations. This will demystify the URE process for the student.

Positive mentorship is especially critical for underrepresented students in STEM (McCormick et al. 2014; Tsui 2007); however, student characteristics (e.g., ethnicity, first-generation status, sex, financial resources, age, etc.) impact the type of faculty contact they have. For example, first-generation college students have less frequent and less satisfying interactions with faculty (Kim and Sax 2009). Near-peer mentoring is an effective approach for supporting underrepresented students (Zaniewski and Reinholz 2016) involved in UREs and could complement traditional mentorship received from faculty. Near-peer mentoring, especially when the mentor is from a similar background as the mentee, connects students with role models from similar communities (Inzlicht and Good 2006). Role models alleviate negative stereotypes and provide representation because students see others like themselves who can be and are successful in their fields. Therefore, providing an underrepresented student who is beginning the URE with an experienced student to serve as a mentor can increase the success of that URE while also providing the experienced student an opportunity to develop as a mentor. The near-peer pair should be encouraged to discuss academic and nonacademic topics; furthermore, the struggles associated with being an underrepresented student in STEM should be normalized to provide academic and psychosocial support (Zaniewski and Reinholz 2016).

Underrepresented students often feel isolated in the classroom and are intimidated by peers and faculty (Shehab et al. 2007). Whereas ethnic majority students require relationships with peers to feel they belong in their discipline, underrepresented students require formal relationships with both faculty and peers (Meeuwisse et al. 2010). Social integration in college increases the students’ sense of belonging and perceived social support (Hurtado and Carter 1997; Strayhorn 2008; Wilcox et al. 2005). Therefore, faculty engaging with underrepresented students in UREs should cultivate environments that involve experiential learning and dynamic social interactions. To achieve this, faculty mentors can arrange laboratory field trips or “lunch and learn” events. These opportunities provide a venue for supportive interactions in academic and social environments that enhance the students’ sense of belonging (Hoffman et al. 2003) and community.

Perhaps most importantly, to support underrepresented students in UREs, faculty mentors should meet students where they are and acknowledge them as valid members of the STEM fields and their specific discipline. Faculty–student engagement and faculty validation significantly predict underrepresented students’ sense of belonging with faculty (Cole et al. 2020; Newman et al. 2015).

Conclusions

Conducting and facilitating UREs can be challenging for both students and faculty; however, the end product can be rewarding for all involved. It is important, regardless of a student’s background and previous experiences, that faculty and mentors ensure inclusivity and equitability when mentoring students. There are various techniques and opportunities to provide UREs that can be adapted to fit the individual terms of faculty and students. Including undergraduate students in UREs increases their awareness of areas within their discipline and of the industry that they may otherwise overlook. Furthermore, it aids in the success of students beyond their time in the URE. Moreover, UREs can assist in graduate student recruitment when undergraduate programs overlap with a master’s degree program. Examples include a 3 + 2 Program (Kansas State University, Horticulture and Natural Resources 2022) and the Accelerated Master’s Program (Oregon State University Graduate School 2022).

There are many benefits to faculty facilitating UREs, including broadening research interests, connecting research and teaching programs, and publications. All of these can positively impact performance reviews, promotion, and tenure. Because of the benefits derived by the students, faculty, individual academic units, and institutions, increased incentives for faculty who engage undergraduates in UREs should be considered.

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  • McCormick, M., Barthelemy, R.S. & Henderson, C. 2014 Women’s persistence into graduate astronomy programs: The roles of support, interest, and capital J. Women Minor. Sci. Eng. 20 4 317 340 https://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2014009829

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  • O’Donnell, K., Botelho, J., Brown, J., González, G.M. & Head, W. 2015 Undergraduate research and its impact on student success for underrepresented students New Dir. Higher Educ. 169 27 38 https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20120

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  • Shehab, R., Murphy, T., Davidson, J., Foor, C., Reed Roads, T., Trytten, T. & Walden, S. 2007 AC 2007-1691: Experiences as a non-majority engineering student Proc Amer Soc Eng Educ. https://www.academia.edu/19359368/AC_2007_1691_EXPERIENCES_AS_A_NON_MAJORITY_ENGINEERING_STUDENT?from_sitemaps=true. [accessed 25 Oct 2022]

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  • Lopatto, D. 2007 Undergraduate research experiences support science career decisions and active learning Cell Biol. Educ. 6 4 297 306 https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.07-06-0039

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  • Madan, C.R. & Teitge, B.D. 2013 The benefits of undergraduate research: The student’s perspective Mentor. 15 https://doi.org/10.26209/mj1561274

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCabe, J. & Jackson, B.A. 2016 Pathways to financing college: Race and class in students’ narratives of paying for school Soc. Currents 3 4 367 385 https://doi.org/10.1177/2329496516636404

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCormick, M., Barthelemy, R.S. & Henderson, C. 2014 Women’s persistence into graduate astronomy programs: The roles of support, interest, and capital J. Women Minor. Sci. Eng. 20 4 317 340 https://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.2014009829

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meeuwisse, M., Severiens, S.E. & Born, M.P. 2010 Learning environment, interaction, sense of belonging and study success in ethnically diverse student groups Res. High. Educ. 51 6 528 545 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-010-9168-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, M.H., Needham, D., Dole, J., Trader, B., Fox, J., Conley, M., Neff, M. & Shaw, J. 2016 Importance of horticulture and perception as a career HortTechnology 26 2 114 120 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.26.2.114

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagda, B.A., Gregerman, S., Jonides, J., von Hippel, W. & Lerner, J. 1998 Undergraduate student-faculty research partnerships affect student retention Rev. High. Educ. 22 1 55 72 https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.1998.0016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2017 Undergraduate research experiences for STEM students: Successes, challenges and opportunities National Academies Press Washington, DC, USA https://doi.org/10.17226/24622

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Science Foundation 2019 Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering https://ncses.nsf.gov/pubs/nsf21321/data-tables. [accessed 19 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newman, C.B., Wood, J.L. & Harris, F. III 2015 Black mens’ perceptions of sense of belonging with faculty members in community colleges J. Negro Educ. 84 4 564 577 https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.84.4.0564

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Donnell, K., Botelho, J., Brown, J., González, G.M. & Head, W. 2015 Undergraduate research and its impact on student success for underrepresented students New Dir. Higher Educ. 169 27 38 https://doi.org/10.1002/he.20120

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oregon State University Graduate School 2022 Accelerated Master’s platform https://gradschool.oregonstate.edu/accelerated-masters-platform. [accessed 25 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pietri, E.S., Johnson, I.R., Ozgumus, E. & Young, A.I. 2018a Maybe she is relatable: Increasing women’s awareness of gender bias encourages their identification with women scientists Psychol. Women Q. 42 2 192 219 https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684317752643

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pietri, E.S., Johnson, I.R. & Ozgumus, E. 2018b One size may not fit all: Exploring how the intersection of race and gender and stigma consciousness predict effective identity-safe cues for Black women J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 74 1 291 306 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2017.06.021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Rijst, R.M. & Visser-Wijnveen, G.J. 2011 Undergraduate research and inquiry in the Netherlands Counc. Undergrad. Res. Q. 32 2 32 36 https://hdl.handle.net/1887/44766. [accessed 19 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Russell, S.H., Hancock, M.P. & McCullough, J. 2007 Benefits of undergraduate research experiences Science 316 5824 548 549 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1140384

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shehab, R., Murphy, T., Davidson, J., Foor, C., Reed Roads, T., Trytten, T. & Walden, S. 2007 AC 2007-1691: Experiences as a non-majority engineering student Proc Amer Soc Eng Educ. https://www.academia.edu/19359368/AC_2007_1691_EXPERIENCES_AS_A_NON_MAJORITY_ENGINEERING_STUDENT?from_sitemaps=true. [accessed 25 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shortlidge, E.E., Bangera, G. & Brownell, S.E. 2015 Faculty perspectives on developing and teaching course-based undergraduate research experiences Bioscience 66 1 54 62 https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biv167

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sinclair, S., Carlsson, R. & Björklund, F. 2014 The role of friends in career compromise: Same-gender friendship intensifies gender differences in educational choice J. Vocat. Behav. 84 2 109 118 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.12.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slovacek, S., Whittinghill, J., Flenoury, L. & Wiseman, D. 2012 Promoting minority success in the sciences: The minority opportunities in research programs at CSULA J. Res. Sci. Teach. 49 2 199 217 https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20451

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strayhorn, T.L. 2008 Sentido de pertenencia. A hierarchal analysis predicting sense of belonging among Latino college students J. Hisp. High. Educ. 7 4 301 320 https://doi.org/10.1177/1538192708320474

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stroshine, M.S. & Brandl, S.G. 2011 Race, gender, and tokenism in policing: An empirical elaboration Police Q. 14 4 323 343 https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611111423738

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Terenzini, P.T., Cabrera, A.F. & Bernal, E.M. 2001 Swimming against the tide: The poor in American higher education https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED562879.pdf. [accessed 19 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, J.J. & Jensen-Ryan, D. 2018 Becoming a “science person”: Faculty recognition and the development of cultural capital in the context of undergraduate biology research CBE Life Sci. Educ. 17 62 1 17 https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.17-11-0229

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsui, L. 2007 Effective strategies to increase diversity in STEM fields: A review of the research literature J. Negro Educ. 76 4 555 581 https://www.jstor.org/stable/40037228. [accessed 19 Oct 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilcox, P., Winn, S. & Fyvie-Gauld, M. 2005 ‘It was nothing to do with the university, it was just the people’: The role of social support in the first-year experience of higher education Stud. High. Educ. 30 6 707 722 https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070500340036

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wuetherick, B. 2020 Transforming undergraduate research at Canadian Universities 265 280 Hensel, N.H. & Blessinger, P. International perspectives on undergraduate research. Palgrave Macmillan Cham, Switzerland https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53559-9_15

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zalaquett, C.P. 1999 Do students of noncollege-educated parents achieve less academically than students of college educated parents? Psychol. Rep. 85 2 417 421 https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1999.85.2.417

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zaniewski, A.M. & Reinholz, D. 2016 Increasing STEM success: A near-peer mentoring program in the physical sciences Int. J. STEM Educ. 3 14 1 12 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40594-016-0043-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zydney, A., Bennett, J., Shahid, A. & Bauer, K.W. 2002 Faculty perspectives regarding the undergraduate research in science and engineering J. Eng. Educ. 91 3 291 297 https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2168-9830.2002.tb00706

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Chad T. Miller Kansas State University, 1712 Claflin Road, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

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Contributor Notes

C.T.M. is the corresponding author. E-mail: ctmiller@ksu.edu.

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