The scarcity of green areas in urban zones and problems caused by environmental pollution have led to the investigation of alternatives to improve the relationship between human health and plants in urban areas (Gasperi et al., 2015). Even in countries of low socioeconomic status, people enjoy being surrounded by green spaces and cultivate plants to provide spices, condiments, food, and beauty (Wolf, 2015). Growing plants in dense urban areas is possible in part because of the invention by French botanist Patrick Blanc, who applied the term mur végétal (green wall) to a botanical and structural system for greening buildings (Blanc, 2008). Subsequently, researchers in urban geography, architecture, and landscape planning have been studying this form of plant production and have defined arrangements allowing vertical cultivation as green infrastructure [GI (Pérez et al., 2014)].
Green structures can be classified as an interconnected network of natural and seminatural elements capable of providing multiple functions and ecosystem services (Bartesaghi-Koc et al., 2017; Coma et al., 2016). This concept includes many different aspects and must consider a high number of variables such as the type of supporting materials, control of water, nutrients, and plants (Perini et al., 2011). Authors Medl et al. (2017) studied the structure and sustainable vegetation layer in shotcrete walls adjacent to road environments. They reported green walls as a promising technique in terms of establishing an optimal vegetation cover on vertical structures along roads built where there are slopes that can erode and wash away causing landslides and avalanches.
The benefits of greening buildings are well known, principally regarding water use and energy savings in extreme climates (McFarland, 2017; Timur and Karaca, 2013; van den Berg and van den Berg, 2015), but there is a need to increase the set of native plants with potential to be used in green vertical structures and buildings.
One of the reasons for adapting native plants to a new cropping system as a green roof or green wall was reported by Razzaghmanesh et al. (2014) in a study of the ecological aspects of green roofs in response to hot dry summer conditions. The benefits and adaptation of some native species were considered and evaluated, with the results showing that native succulent species could best tolerate that local climate conditions and had a 100% survival rate compared with other species. Stonecrops offer creative and aesthetic potential as well as high adaptation capacity (Lüttge, 2004). Succulent plants can also resist periods of prolonged drought (Nagase and Dunnett, 2010). Whole-plant growth and competitive ability of succulents depend not only on the photosynthetic rate of individual leaves but also on the geometry and dynamics of its canopy (Givnish, 1988). The use of plants in outdoor and indoor walls has an aesthetical feature. Covering the wall with plants is possible through a modular living wall system as reported by Manso and Castro-Gomes (2015) that implies the use of trays, vessels, planter tiles, and flexible bags. A VGS [according to classification reported by Bartesaghi-Koc et al. (2017)], offers flexibility in size and maintenance. Stonecrops may have the potential to grow in VGS with low water demand in a dry environment. Mexico has endemic species, which can offer this alternative. In the present work, parameters of adaptation to a VGS of native stonecrop species were tested.
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