Interest in cacti and succulents as ornamental-potted and landscape plants has increased recently. Cacti and succulents can have ornamental foliage, or spines, unique forms and occasionally showy flowers. Cacti and succulents originate from a variety of climates (temperate, tropical, desert) but are similar in that each environment has periodic or prolonged drought (Anderson, 2001; Bailey, 1976).
Temperature effects on development rate are often quantified by assessing the impact of temperature on leaf unfolding over time. In general, leaf-unfolding rate per day (development rate) increases as average daily temperature increases within a limited temperature range (Roberts and Summerfield, 1987; Vaid and Runkle, 2013). There is little or no information on how temperature affects development rate of many commercially grown cacti and succulents. Succulents and cacti differ in indigenous habitat, which differ in temperature, and how temperature impacts development rate of each species may differ. Understanding how temperature affects cacti and succulent development rate would facilitate greenhouse environment management and help identify geographic locations to successfully produce and schedule each crop. The objective of research summarized here was to determine temperature effects (10 to 28 °C) on cacti and succulent development rate to determine appropriate greenhouse temperatures and/or optimal geographic locations to produce these crops.
Anderson, E.F. 2001 The cactus family. Timber Press, Portland, OR
Bailey, L.H. 1976 Hortus third. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Carvalho, S.M.P., Wuillai, S.E. & Huevelink, E.P. 2006 Combined effects of light and temperature on product quality of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Acta Hort. 711 121 126
Erwin, J.E., Heins, R.D., Berghage, R.D. & Kovanda, B. 1990 Temperature effects on Schlumbergera truncata ‘Madisto’ flower initiation Acta Hort. 272 97 101
Nobel, P.S. & Bobich, E.G. 2002 Environmental biology, p. 57–74. In: P.S. Nobel (ed.). Cacti biology and uses. Univ. California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles, CA
Nobel, P.S. & De la Barrera, E. 2003 Tolerances and acclimation to low and high temperature for cladodes, fruits and roots of a widely cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica New Phytol. 157 271 279
Raveh, E., Gersani, M. & Nobel, P.S. 1995 CO2 uptake and fluorescence responses for shade-tolerant cactus Hylocereus undatus under current and doubled CO2 concentrations Physiol. Plant. 93 505 511
Roberts, E.H. & Summerfield, R.J. 1987 Measurement and prediction of flowering in annual crops, p. 17–50. In: J.G. Atherton (ed.). Manipulation of flowering. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK
Vaid, T.M. & Runkle, E.S. 2013 Developing flowering rate models in response to mean temperature for common annual ornamental crops Sci. Hort. 161 15 23