Roses are one of the most popular plants in the horticulture industry, featuring a variety of plant forms, flower forms, colors, and scents that make them versatile landscape plants. Even though cultivar development has made rose cultivation possible around the world, growing roses in Florida can be difficult. Plant performance is diminished by the use of both cultivars and rootstocks unadapted to Florida’s climate and soils, as well as inadequate irrigation and fertilization (Manners, 1999). Moreover, mobile nutrients are easily leached from Florida’s sandy soils by characteristically heavy rains (Kottek et al., 2006; Simonne and Hochmuth, 2010). In addition, the subtropical climate of the region is favorable for the development of diseases, insects, and other pests to which roses are susceptible.
Foliar diseases caused by fungi are predominant and one of the limiting factors for growing roses in Florida (Miller, 1961). Although cultural practices can help reduce or eliminate the need for chemical control (Mueller et al., 2008), in Florida, fungicide applications may be necessary. Roses are also susceptible to a wide range of arthropods that can cause direct damage or are vectors of diseases, such as mites (Acaridae), thrips (Thysanoptera), aphids (Aphididae), beetles (Coleoptera), and leaf cutter bees (Megachile sp.) (Horst and Cloyd, 2007). Also, nematodes (Nematoda) cause severe damage to the roots of roses by interfering with water and nutrient absorption, ultimately decreasing plant vigor and flower production (Knox et al., 2008). Chemical control may not be effective or possible for some of these pests, and cultural practices such as release of natural enemies and removal of infested tissues are often recommended. Plant performance and appearance suffer as these pests often produce severe tissue damage, defoliation, and subsequent plant death. Grafting roses into ‘Double Cherokee’ (Rosa ×fortuniana) rootstock has shown to improve tolerance to nematodes and enhance plant vigor, flower production, and longevity on roses grown in Florida’s soils (Manners, 1999). However, own-root plants were used in this study so that cultivars that proved worthy of recommendation could be easily propagated by the nursery industry.
Roses are classified into two major groups: old garden (OGR), defined as horticultural classes and cultivars present before 1867; and modern roses (MR) which are the horticultural classes and cultivars developed after 1867. Numerous cultivars of OGR perform well in Florida on their own roots (Manners, 1999). However, most of the roses grown in U.S. gardens belong to MR and are typically grafted. Modern roses, specifically those of the horticultural class of hybrid teas, need rigorous pruning in addition to frequent applications of pesticides, fertilizers, and irrigation (Mackay et al., 2008). Moreover, the long growing season in Florida demands grooming, deadheading, and pruning on a regular basis. Low-maintenance roses have gained recent popularity because of the perceived negative impacts pesticides and synthetic fertilizers have on the environment and human health (Zlesak, 2007). In addition, governmental restrictions on landscape irrigation have also increased (Mackay et al., 2008). Growing roses in Florida can be successful without these maintenance practices by selecting vigorous and disease resistant or tolerant cultivars. The purpose of our study was to develop recommendations of shrub roses for landscape use in central Florida that can perform well under low maintenance.
HaganA.K.ArkidgeJ.R.2009Unknown leaf spotting and defoliation of Knock Out roses. Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 54:69–74
HaganA.K.ArkidgeJ.R.2010Search for the ‘no spray’ rose continued. Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 55:430–435
HarpD.A.ZlesakD.HammondG.GeorgeS.MackayW.2009Earth-Kind® rose trials: Identifying the world’s strongest, most beautiful landscape rosesFloricult. Ornamental Biotechnol.3166175
HodgesG.EdwardsG.B.DixonW.2005Chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). A new pest thrips for Florida. 30 June 2009. <http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/chillithrips.html>
HorstR.K.CloydR.A.2007Compendium of rose diseases and pests. 2nd ed. Amer. Phytopathol. Soc. St. Paul MN
KnoxG.W.ParetM.MizellR.F.III2008Rose pests and diseases in Florida. Univ. Florida. Inst. Food Agr. Sci. ENH 1108
LudwigS.W.BogránC.2007Chilli thrips: A new pest in the home landscape. Texas Coop. Ext. Serv. EEE-00041
MackayW.A.GeorgeS.W.McKenneyC.SloanJ.J.CabreraR.I.ReinertJ.A.ColbaughP.LockettL.CrowW.2008Performance of garden roses in north-central Texas under minimal input conditionsHortTechnology18417422
MaddenL.V.CampbellC.L.1990Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. Wiley New York NY
MarriottM.2003History of roses in cultivation Modern (Post 1800) p. 402–409. In: A.V. Roberts T. Debener and S. Gudin (eds.). Encyclopedia of rose science. Elsevier Academic Press San Diego CA
MoyerC.PeresN.A.DatnoffL.E.SimonneE.H.DengZ.2008Evaluation of silicon for managing powdery mildew on gerbera daisyJ. Plant Nutr.3121312144
MynesJ.WindhamM.WindhamA.LiY.CopesW.SpiersJ.2007‘No spray’ rose cultivars for the mid-south. Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 52:300–303
MynesJ.WindhamM.WindhamA.LiY.CopesW.SpiersJ.2009‘No spray’ rose cultivars for the mid-south. Proc. Southern Nursery Assn. Res. Conf. 54:83–85
SealD.R.KlassenW.2005Chilli thrips (castor thrips assam thrips yellow tea thrips strawberry thrips) Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood provisional management guidelines. Univ. Florida Inst. Food Agr. Sci. ENY-725
SimonneE.H.HochmuthG.J.2010Soil and fertilizer management for vegetable production in Florida p. 3–15. In: S.M. Olson and B. Santos (eds.). Vegetable production handbook for Florida 2010–2011. Vance Publishing Lenexa KS
Weeks Roses2010Home Run® roses. 21 July 2010. <http://www.home-run-rose.com/>
WhitakerV.M.HokansonS.C.BradeenJ.2007Distribution of rose black spot (Diplocarpon rosae) genetic diversity in eastern North America using amplified fragment length polymorphism and implications for resistance breedingJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.132534540
WilsonS.KnoxG.2006Landscape performance, flowering and seed viability of 15 japanese silver grass cultivars grown in northern and southern FloridaHortTechnology1618
ZlesakD.C.2007Rose Rosa ×hybrida p. 695–740. In: N.O. Anderson (ed.). Flower breeding and genetics: Issues challenges and opportunities for the 21st century. Springer Dordrecht The Netherlands