Intercropping—the growing of two or more crops simultaneously on the same land—makes efficient use of limited arable land. However, it can complicate chemical pest control as a result of residues and label restrictions, and it is a labor-intensive practice. Traditionally, intercropping has been practiced most widely in developing countries (Francis and Decoteau, 1993). However, the advantages of intercropping, particularly the potential for increasing sustainability (Coolman and Hoyt, 1993), have stimulated interest in the practice in the United States and other developed countries.
The concept of a “land equivalent ratio” (LER) was developed by Mead and Willey (1980). The LER is the most common index for measuring the advantages of using intercropping systems on the combined yield of both crops (Francis and Decoteau, 1993). The LER is calculated as the yield of a crop in an intercrop system relative to the yield of that crop in a monocrop system (that is, intercrop yield/monocrop yield).
Many different species have been intercropped with peppers. The reviewed literature has been organized by botanical family of the primary intercropped species.
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De CostaW.A.J.M.PereraM.K.K.W.1998Effects of bean population and row arrangement on the productivity of chilli/dwarf bean (Capsicum annuum/Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intercropping in Sri LankaJ. Agron. Crop Sci.1805358
EmeasorK.C.EzuehM.I.1997The influence of companion crops in the control of insect pests of cowpea in intercropping systemsTrop. Agr.74285289
GuldanS.J.MartinC.A.Cueto-WongJ.SteinerR.L.1996Interseeding legumes into chile: Legume productivity and effect on chile yieldHortScience3111261128
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GuldanS.J.MartinC.A.SteinerR.L.1997bInterseeding forage brassicas into chile: Forage productivity and effect on chile yieldJ. Sustain. Agr.114149
GuldanS.J.MartinC.A.FalkC.L.1998Interseeding snap pea into stands of chile pepper reduces yield of pea more than that of chileHortScience33660662
HooksC.R.R.JohnsonM.W.2001Broccoli growth parameters and level of head infestations in simple and mixed plantings: Impact of increased flora diversificationAnn. Appl. Biol.138269280
HulugalleN.R.WillattS.T.1987Seasonal variation in the water uptake and leaf water potential of intercropped and monocropped chilliesExp. Agr.23273282
HusseinM.Y.Abdul SamadN.1993Intercropping chilli with maize or brinjal to suppress populations of Aphis gossypii Glov., and transmission of chilli virusesIntl. J. Pest Manage.39216222
KaburaB.H.MusaB.OdoP.E.2008Evaluation of the yield components and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.)–pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) intercrop in the Sudan savannaJ. Agron.78892
LawalA.B.RahmanS.A.2007Effect of irrigation, fertiliser and manure on yield and economic return of okra/pepper intercropsTrop. Sci.474548
MallangoudaB.SulikeriG.S.MurthyB.G.PrathibhaN.C.1995Productivity and economics of chilli (Capsicum annuum)-based intercropping systems under different fertility levelsIndian J. Agron.40502504
OlasantanF.O.SalauA.W.OnuhE.E.2007Influence of cassava (Manihot esculenta) intercrop on growth and fruit yields of pepper (Capsicum spp.) in south-western NigeriaExp. Agr.437995
RamM.KumarS.1998Intercropping medicinal, spice and oil seed crops with geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) for improving productivity in assured input system of a subtropical environmentJ. Medicinal Aromatic Plant Sci.2010601066
RamamurthyV.HavanagiG.V.NanjappaH.V.1993Intercropping of chilli (Capsicum annuum) and fingermillet (Eleusine coracana) under dryland conditionIndian J. Agron.38283285
SharmaG.C.BajajB.K.1998Effect of inter-cropping bell-pepper with ginger on plant parasitic nematode populations and crop yieldsAnn. Appl. Biol.133199205
Uriza-ÁvilaD.E.Rebolledo-MartínezA.Rebolledo-MartínezL.2005Short cycle crops intercropped with pineapple: An option to increase productivityActa Hort.666287294