Micropropagation of Cascade Huckleberry, Mountain Huckleberry, and Oval-leaf Bilberry Using Woody Plant Medium and Murashige and Skoog Medium Formulations

in HortTechnology

Two concentrations of two in vitro media formulations were evaluated for their effects on survival, shoot growth, and percentage rooting of cascade huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum), mountain huckleberry (V. membranaceum), and oval-leaf bilberry (V. ovalifolium). Two-node stem sections from established microshoots were cultured on full- or half-strength modified Murashige and Skoog medium (FSMS and HSMS) or full- or half-strength modified woody plant medium (FSWPM and HSWPM) unamended with plant growth regulators. Cultures were maintained at 21 °C with a 16-hour photoperiod for 98 days. Survival on FSMS was reduced by ≈44% for cascade huckleberry, 63% for mountain huckleberry, and 18% for oval-leaf bilberry compared with average survival on HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM. Explants on FSMS also produced new shoot growth having the lowest dry weights, fewest shoots, and shortest shoots of the four media. Explant rooting percentages were also least on FSMS. For cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry, HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM all appeared suitable for general culture. For mountain huckleberry, both woody plant medium formulations produced greater microshoot dry weights, average shoot lengths, and explant rooting percentages compared with HSMS. These results are the first published on micropropagation for cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry, and provide starting protocols for commercial propagation and further research on micropropagation of these species.

Abstract

Two concentrations of two in vitro media formulations were evaluated for their effects on survival, shoot growth, and percentage rooting of cascade huckleberry (Vaccinium deliciosum), mountain huckleberry (V. membranaceum), and oval-leaf bilberry (V. ovalifolium). Two-node stem sections from established microshoots were cultured on full- or half-strength modified Murashige and Skoog medium (FSMS and HSMS) or full- or half-strength modified woody plant medium (FSWPM and HSWPM) unamended with plant growth regulators. Cultures were maintained at 21 °C with a 16-hour photoperiod for 98 days. Survival on FSMS was reduced by ≈44% for cascade huckleberry, 63% for mountain huckleberry, and 18% for oval-leaf bilberry compared with average survival on HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM. Explants on FSMS also produced new shoot growth having the lowest dry weights, fewest shoots, and shortest shoots of the four media. Explant rooting percentages were also least on FSMS. For cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry, HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM all appeared suitable for general culture. For mountain huckleberry, both woody plant medium formulations produced greater microshoot dry weights, average shoot lengths, and explant rooting percentages compared with HSMS. These results are the first published on micropropagation for cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry, and provide starting protocols for commercial propagation and further research on micropropagation of these species.

The fruits of huckleberries and bilberries found in genus Vaccinium section Myrtillus and indigenous to the northwestern United States and western Canada are popular for commercial culinary and botanical products. Mountain huckleberry (synonymous with black huckleberry, thin-leaf huckleberry, or mountain bilberry), and cascade huckleberry (synonymous with cascade bilberry or blue huckleberry) are tetraploid species (Vander Kloet, 1988) rich in aroma and flavor chemicals (Fellman et al., 1998) and are highly sought after in the northwestern United States and western Canada for sales in fresh, frozen, and processing markets. These species are also moderately rich in antioxidant compounds, being similar to domestic blueberries (Lee et al., 2004; Taruscio et al., 2004). Oval-leaf bilberry [synonymous with oval-leaf blueberry or alaska blueberry (V. alaskaense)] is the third tetraploid [occasionally diploid (Vander Kloet, 1988)] species found in taxonomic section Myrtillus. Although its fruits lack high concentrations of flavor and aroma compounds (Fellman et al., 1998), they are particularly rich in antioxidant capacity (Lee et al., 2004; Taruscio et al., 2004), creating opportunities for value-added nutritional products. Currently, virtually all fruits of these three species are harvested from naturally occurring stands, most of which are on public lands in the northwestern United States. Oval-leaf bilberry is also harvested from the wild in southeastern Alaska. Demand for these fruits has increased while supplies from wild forest stands have decreased (Minore, 1972). The strong demand and limited supplies create opportunities for commercial production of these crops (Barney, 2003), and efforts are under way at the University of Idaho to produce cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry cultivars for field cultivation and managed forest systems. Vegetative propagation, however, has been problematic. Minore et al. (1979) reported no success in rooting mountain huckleberry stem cuttings. Stark and Baker (1992) reported only limited success in propagation of montana huckleberry [V. globulare; synonymous with V. membranaceum (Vander Kloet, 1988)] from stem cuttings. In the latter trials, ≈20% of cuttings rooted, but only when collected during a 2-week period during May. We have successfully propagated mountain huckleberry from rhizome cuttings (D.L. Barney, unpublished data), but this method was slow and the amounts of stock material limited. A literature search through the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Library failed to reveal research publications related to vegetative propagation of cascade huckleberry or oval-leaf bilberry.

article image

In vitro culture offers one method for rapidly producing many genetically uniform plants for evaluation and distribution to growers. Little information has been published on in vitro culture of Vaccinium section Myrtillus species, however. Barney (1999) reported on the effects of plant growth regulators on in vitro culture and microshoot rooting of mountain huckleberry, although those trials were limited to modified woody plant medium (WPM) (Lloyd and McCown, 1980). Reed and Abdelnour-Esquivel (1991) reported on in vitro trials involving section Myrtillus diploid species red huckleberry (V. parvifolium) and bilberry (V. myrtillus). They obtained 100% explant survival during establishment of red huckleberry on WPM modified by doubling the calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] concentration and adding 4 mg·L−1 zeatin. Initiation rates for bilberry were reported to be intermediate on the same medium, but data and additional details were absent from the paper. Shibli et al. (1997) investigated the causes of hyperhydration of bilberry explants, testing various combinations of Fe sources, N6-[2-isopentenyl]adenine (2iP), zeatin, and zeatin riboside in WPM. Hyperhydration and chlorosis were absent on media amended with 2iP, although growth was less than on zeatin- or zeatin riboside-amended media. In combination with ferric ethylenediamine tetraacetate as the sole iron source, however, the latter two growth regulators induced explant hyperhydration and chlorosis. Adding supplemental Fe in the form of sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetate) in combination with zeatin or zeatin riboside dramatically reduced the incidence of hyperhydration and eliminated chlorotic symptoms. Jaakola et al. (2001) also reported on in vitro culture of bilberry using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) modified according to Economou and Read (1984) and containing various concentrations of 2iP. In these trials, the MS medium was modified by reducing the concentrations of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and potassium nitrate (KNO3), adding ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4], omitting potassium iodide (KI), and providing iron as diethylenetriaminepentaacetate containing 10% Fe. A 2iP concentration of 10.0 mg·L−1 was found to be optimal for establishment, with higher concentrations causing an increase in the number of brownish explants. Explants collected during the spring established better than those collected in autumn.

Extensive work has been published on micropropagation of other Vaccinium species, including highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) (Reed and Abdelnour-Esquivel, 1991), lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) (Brissette et al., 1990; Debnath, 2004), cranberry (V. macrocarpon) (Marcotrigiano and McGlew, 1991), and lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea) (Debnath, 2005; Jaakola et al., 2001). Wolfe et al. (1983) evaluated seven media for micropropagating highbush blueberry, concluding that WPM produced the best growth and highest number of shoots 10 mm or longer. Other media evaluated by Wolfe et al. (1983) included full- and half-strength modified MS (FSMS, HSMS), Zimmerman's medium, both original and modified (Zimmerman and Broome, 1980), and Lyrene's medium (Lyrene, 1980).

The objectives for our trials were to identify suitable media for micropropagation of cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry to facilitate cultivar development and commercialization of these emerging crops, and to establish baselines for additional research on media formulations. Our approach was to evaluate modifications of MS and WPM media, focusing on mineral nutrient concentrations.

Materials and methods

Establishment and maintenance of in vitro shoot cultures.

Seeds from the three species were collected from geographically distinct sources in Idaho and Washington. Cascade huckleberry clone UIVADE 003A was derived from a seed accession collected from a 1300-m-elevation site in Washington State's Olympic National Forest, and UIVADE 005A from a 1300-m-elevation site near Stevens Pass in Washington's Wenatchee National Forest. Mountain huckleberry clone UIVAME 002A was derived from a 745-m-elevation seed collection site near Priest Lake in Idaho's Kaniksu National Forest, and UIVAME 031C from a 1600-m-elevation site near Lake Pend Oreille in the Kaniksu National Forest. Oval-leaf bilberry clone UIVAOF 007C was derived from seeds collected from a 360-m-elevation site in the Olympic National Forest. This was the only oval-leaf bilberry clone available for the micropropagation trials during both 2004 and 2005. One vigorous seedling from each seed source was selected for in vitro establishment, and each seedling served as the stock plant for one clone. The same clones were used for all treatments during both years of the trials. Explants were established on full-strength modified WPM (FSWPM) using single-node sections from actively growing 2-year-old seedlings. Either 4 mg·L−1 zeatin or 5 mg·L−1 2iP was added to the medium during establishment. Before the trials described herein, the clones were subcultured at least twice over a minimum of 6 months on modified FSWPM prepared without plant growth regulators to minimize the residual effects of the 2iP and zeatin used during establishment. Inclusion of zeatin or 2iP in the micropropagation medium induces these species to produce clumps of numerous, short, heavily branched microshoots. All stock cultures exhibited individual, tall, unbranched, or lightly branched microshoots, suggesting no residual effects of these plant growth regulators.

Media trials.

Two-node explants from microshoots were subcultured onto FSMS and HSMS, and FSWPM and half-strength modified WPM (HSWPM). The FSWPM was modified from the original formulation by replacing manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4·H2O) at 22.3 mg·L−1 with manganese sulfate (MnSO4) at 22.3 mg·L−1. The FSMS medium was modified by replacing manganese sulfate tetrahydrate (MnSO4·4H20) at 22.3 mg·L−1 with MnSO4 at 15.1 mg·L−1 and replacing zinc sulfate tetrahydrate (ZnSO4·4H20) at 8.6 mg·L−1 with zinc sulfate heptahydrate (ZnSO4·7H20) at 10.6 mg·L−1. The modifications to the MS medium produced Mn and Zn concentrations equivalent to the original formulation. The modification of the WPM increased the Mn concentration from 7.3 mg·L−1 in the original formula to 8.1 mg·L−1 in our full-strength medium. Composition and concentrations of organic components were the same as used in the original WPM (Lloyd and McCown, 1980) and were identical for all media tested. The media were adjusted to pH 5.2 using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and were solidified with 7 g·L−1 agar, except for FSMS, which required 8 g·L−1 to solidify properly. Mineral nutrient concentrations in the media are shown in Table 1.

Table 1.

Mineral nutrient concentrations in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant media (WPM) used for micropropagating cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry.

Table 1.

Baby food jars (200-mL capacity and 96 mm tall; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis) containing 50 mL medium served as culture vessels. Translucent polyethylene lids were sealed to the jars with self-cling plastic film. The cultures grew for 98 d at 21 ± 1 °C under cool-white fluorescent lights at an average 30.5 μmol·m−2·s−1 with a 16-h photoperiod. Tetraploid species in Vaccinium section Myrtillus often grow slowly in vitro, and the extended cultivation time was required to develop sufficient new microshoot tissues for evaluation. After 98 d, the tallest microshoots were ≈55 mm tall. The cultures were destructively harvested and percentage survival, percentage of explants forming roots, shoot dry weight (less original explants), and numbers and lengths of microshoots were recorded. For microshoot measurements, we counted and measured initial shoots arising from the original explants as well as secondary lateral shoots without distinguishing between the two. The species studied in these trials often develop adventitious roots on original explants and new microshoots, even in the absence of root-promoting plant growth regulators in the media. Roots at or below the medium surface are typically plump and white. Aerial roots arising at leaf axils above the medium are thin, brown, and wiry. For these trials we considered a culture to have rooted if either root form could be visually distinguished, without magnification, on the original explant or new microshoots. Quantities of roots formed were usually insufficient for accurate quantitative measurement. Separate studies are underway to evaluate the effects of root-promoting growth regulators on in vitro and ex vitro rooting of these species.

Experimental design and data analysis.

The experiment was set up as a randomized complete block design. An experimental unit consisted of one baby food jar containing five explants of a single clone. Each clone and treatment combination was replicated with three jars per block. Within each block, the three jars representing a clone–treatment combination were kept together in a randomly assigned location within that block. The experiment was repeated in 2004 and 2005. Survival and rooting percentages, dry weights, and shoot lengths were normally distributed. We analyzed these data with analysis of variance (ANOVA) or general linear model estimate models using SYSTAT software (version 10; SPSS, Chicago). Data for the number of microshoots were square root transformed and analyzed by the same method. Tukey's hsd model was used to compare treatment means if ANOVA indicated statistically significant differences at P ≤ 0.05.

Results and discussion

Results for all species and clones were generally similar for 2004 and 2005 trials. Although parameter values differed significantly between years for all species and most parameters, the patterns of plant responses to the treatments were similar for both years and the data were combined for analyses (Table 2). The differences in growth between the 2 years may have been the result of aging of the stock cultures and variations in laboratory environmental conditions.

Table 2.

Explant and microshoot survival, growth, and rooting of cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry as affected by media formulations and concentrations.

Table 2.

Survival was consistently lower on FSMS during both years for all species and clones. Compared with survival on the other media, survival on FSMS averaged ≈44% less for cascade huckleberry, 63% less for mountain huckleberry, and 18% less for oval-leaf bilberry. Survival on HSMS was generally high, averaging 94% for cascade huckleberry, 90% for mountain huckleberry, and 100% for oval-leaf bilberry. With the exception of one mountain huckleberry clone in 2005 (44% survival on FSWPM), survival on FSWPM and HSWPM ranged between 98% and 100% for all species, clones, and years.

As for survival, the dry weights of shoots formed after placing explants onto the test media were significantly lower on FSMS than on other media for all species, clones, and years (Table 2). Dry weights were similar for shoots produced on HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM for cascade huckleberry, and were significantly lower on HSMS than on either WPM formulation for mountain huckleberry. For oval-leaf bilberry, dry weights were similar on HSMS and both WPM formulations, although dry weights were significantly less on HSWPM than on FSWPM.

Culturing cascade huckleberry and mountain huckleberry explants on FSMS reduced the number of new shoots compared with the other media for all clones and years (Table 2). Shoot numbers were similar for explants cultured on FSMS and HSWPM, and were significantly less than for explants grown on the other media for oval-leaf bilberry. For cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry, explants grown on HSMS and FSWPM produced significantly more shoots than did explants cultured on HSWPM. The latter three media produced generally similar numbers of new shoots from mountain huckleberry explants.

Average shoot lengths were significantly reduced on FSMS compared with all other media for cascade huckleberry and oval-leaf bilberry (Table 2). Shoots produced on HSMS were also significantly shorter than for those produced on either WPM formulation for cascade huckleberry. The HSMS and both WPM formulations produced similar average shoot lengths for oval-leaf bilberry. For mountain huckleberry, HSMS and FSMS formulations produced similar average shoot lengths, which were significantly shorter than for shoots produced on either WPM formulation.

Although root-promoting plant growth regulators were excluded from the media, we determined the percentages of explants and newly formed shoots that formed roots (Table 2). Adventitious root formation percentages were significantly reduced on FSMS compared with other media for all species, clones, and years except for mountain huckleberry in 2005 when the two MS formulations produced similar rooting percentages (data not shown). Explants cultured on HSMS tended to produce lower rooting percentages than on either WPM formulation for all of the species, although the differences were not significant for oval-leaf bilberry explants cultured on HSMS and FSWPM.

For cascade huckleberry and mountain huckleberry, we observed genotypic differences in all evaluation criteria except survival percentages. Accessions × medium interactions were also generally significant. The differences were not always consistent or significant for both years. Clones UIVADE 003A and UIVADE 005A generally provided similar results except that UIVADE 003A usually produced greater dry weights and UIVADE 005A usually rooted at higher percentages. For mountain huckleberry, clone UIVAME 031C consistently produced greater total shoot growth, individual shoot lengths, and dry weights, and usually produced greater rooting percentages than clone UIVAME 002A. Only a single oval-leaf bilberry clone was available for the full course of the 2-year study. Despite the observed genotypic differences in growth parameter values, the overall responses of all clones to the test media were generally similar. Variability in responses of Vaccinium genotypes to in vitro formulations has also been observed in rabbiteye (V. ashei) and northern highbush blueberries (Reed and Abdelnour-Esquivel, 1991), cranberry (Marcotrigiano and McGlew, 1991), and lingonberry (Debnath, 2005).

The results we observed were generally similar to those obtained by Wolfe et al. (1983) with ‘Bluecrop’ highbush blueberry. The salt concentrations in FSMS may be too high for optimal in vitro survival and growth of cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry. Electrical conductivity values for the media were 1.61 and 2.93 mmho/cm for HSWPM and FSWPM, and 3.08 and 5.78 mmho/cm for HSMS and FSMS respectively. The chloride concentration was 358% greater in FSMS than in FSWPM (Table 1). Eck (1988) noted that blueberries are less tolerant of high soluble salt levels than most other crops, with high chloride concentrations causing toxicity symptoms. Ballinger (1962) suggested that a high chloride-to-S ratio favored Ca uptake in blueberries, noted as being calcifuges, whereas high S-to-chloride ratios favored blueberry growth. The MS media in our trials had a S-to-chloride ratio of 0.3:1, whereas the WPM formulations had a S-to-chloride ratio of 5.2:1. The high salt concentrations may also have interfered with gelling of the agar in FSMS, which required 8 g·L−1 of agar to gel compared with 7 g·L−1 for the other media. The higher agar concentration in FSMS was unlikely to have affected survival and growth. In previous trials we successfully micropropagated these species using 6 to 8 g·L−1 agar (D.L. Barney, unpublished data).

Several marked differences in mineral nutrient concentrations between the media may have contributed to the different growth responses observed (Table 1). Total N, NH4, and NO3 concentrations were ≈200% to 400% higher in HSMS and FSMS respectively than in FSWPM. The ratio of NH4 to NO3 was similar for all media: ≈0.15:1. For related Vaccinium species, results have been mixed in trials comparing physiological and growth responses with NH4 and NO3 forms of N. Perhaps pertinent to our results was the observation by Herath and Eaton (1968) that high NO3 concentrations caused marginal necrosis and leaf abscission in container-grown highbush blueberry. Nitrate concentrations were particularly high in the FSMS treatment, in which we observed explant necrosis and death. Eck (1988) concluded that highbush blueberry can use either form of N at soil pH values less than 5.0, but favored NH4 nitrogen at pH values more than 5.0. The relationship between medium pH and N utilization in micropropagated Vaccinium has not been determined. The media pH in our trials was adjusted to 5.2. Although the K concentration in FSMS was comparatively high, Eck (1988) noted that blueberries tolerate high K concentrations without toxicity.

For cascade huckleberry, the HSMS and both FSWPM and HSWPM formulations produced high explant survival rates and high new shoot dry weights. Although the WPM formulations generally produced higher rooting percentages and longer microshoots than the HSMS, all three formulations produced suitable results for in vitro propagation of cascade huckleberry.

For mountain huckleberry, the FSWPM and HSWPM formulations produced longer shoots, greater dry weights, and higher rooting percentages than either MS media. Both WPM formulations provided acceptable results. The HSWPM tended to favor in vitro adventitious root formation, although we did not determine how the explants would have responded to the various formulations if the explants were treated with indole-3-butyric acid or other root-promoting growth regulators, or whether those growth regulators were incorporated into the media.

Oval-leaf bilberry survived and grew equally well on HSMS, HSWPM, and FSWPM. The WPM formulations favored higher percentages of in vitro adventitious root formation than HSMS in the absence of root-promoting growth regulators. All three formulations proved suitable for in vitro propagation of oval-leaf bilberry.

These results provide baseline protocols for commercial or research micropropagation of cascade huckleberry, mountain huckleberry, and oval-leaf bilberry. The ability to propagate these species vegetatively in large numbers will facilitate evaluation of select genotypes, and development and production of cultivars that provide commercially viable yields and fruit quality.

Literature cited

  • BallingerW.E.1962Studies of sulfate and chloride ion effects upon Wolcott blueberry growth and compositionProc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.80331339

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarneyD.L.1999Domestication of western huckleberriesProc. Northwest Ctr. Small Fruit Res.878

  • BarneyD.L.2003Prospects for domesticating western huckleberriesSmall Fruits Rev.21529

  • BrissetteL.TremblayL.LordD.1990Micropropagation of lowbush blueberry from mature field-grown plantsHortScience25349351

  • DebnathS.C.2004In vitro culture of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.)Small Fruits Rev.3393408

  • DebnathS.C.2005Micropropagation of lingonberry: Influence of genotype, explant orientation, and overcoming TDZ-induced inhibition of shoot elongation using zeatinHortScience40185188

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EckP.1988Blueberry scienceRutgers UniversityNew Brunswick, N.J

  • EconomouA.S.ReadP.E.1984In vitro shoot proliferation of Minnesota deciduous azaleasHortScience196061

  • FellmanJ.ThorngateJ.BarneyD.1998Identification of western huckleberry flavor componentsProc. Northwest Ctr. Small Fruit Res.76263

  • HerathH.EatonG.1968Some effects of water table, pH, and nitrogen fertilization upon growth and composition of highbush blueberryProc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.92274283

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JaakolaL.TolvanenA.LaineK.HohtolaA.2001Effect of N6-isopentenyladenine concentration on growth initiation in vitro and rooting of bilberry and lingonberry microshootsPlant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.667377

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeJ.FinnC.E.WrolstadR.E.2004Anthocyanin pigment and total phenolic content of three Vaccinium species native to the Pacific Northwest of North AmericaHortScience39959964

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LloydG.McCownB.1980Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip cultureCombined Proc. Intl. Plant Prop. Soc.30421427

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LyreneP.M.1980Micropropagation of rabbiteye blueberriesHortScience158081

  • MarcotrigianoM.McGlewS.P.1991A two-stage micropropagation system for cranberriesJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.116911916

  • MinoreD.1972The wild huckleberries of Oregon and Washington: A dwindling resource. Res. paper 143U.S. Dept. Agr. Pacific Northwest Forest Range Expt. StaPortland, Ore

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MinoreD.SmartA.W.DubrasichM.E.1979Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Research note PNW-236U.S. Dept. Agr. Pacific Northwest Forest Range Expt. StaPortland, Ore

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurashigeT.SkoogF.1962A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culturePhysiol. Plant.15473497

  • ReedB.M.Abdelnour-EsquivelA.1991The use of zeatin to initiate in vitro cultures of Vaccinium species and cultivarsHortScience2613201322

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShibliR.A.SmithM.A.L.NasrR.1997Iron source and cytokinin mitigate the incidence of chlorosis and hyperhydration in vitroJ. Plant Nutr.20773781

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StarkN.BakerS.1992The ecology & culture of montana huckleberries: A guide for growers and researchers. Miscellaneous publ. 52Univ. Montana School For., Montana For. Conservation Expt. StaMissoula, Mont

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TaruscioT.G.BarneyD.L.ExonJ.2004Content and profile of flavanoid and phenolic acid compounds in conjunction with the antioxidant capacity for a variety of Northwest Vaccinium berriesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5231693176

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vander KloetS.P.1988The genus Vaccinium in North AmericaPublication 1828, Res. Branch AgrCanada, Ottawa

    • Export Citation
  • WolfeD.E.EckP.ChinC.-K.1983Evaluation of seven media for micropropagation of highbush blueberryHortScience18703705

  • ZimmermanR.H.BroomeO.C.1980Blueberry micropropagation. Proc. Conf. on Nursery Production of Fruit Plants through Tissue Culture: Applications and Feasibility. Beltsville MD 21–22 Apr. 1980U.S. Dept. Agr.-Sci. Educ. Administration Agr. Res. Results ARR-NE-11

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Contributor Notes

Funding was provided by the University of Idaho, U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service Northwest Center for Small Fruit Research, and Hatch Act funds project IDA 01262.This paper represents a portion of the thesis “Seed and in Vitro Propagation of Vaccinium Species Native to Western North America” submitted by Omar A. Lopez in fulfilling the requirements of an M.S. degree.Mention of trade or company names does not imply endorsement by the Idaho Agricultural Expt. Sta. nor criticism of similar products not mentioned.

Corresponding author. E-mail: dbarney@uidaho.edu.

  • BallingerW.E.1962Studies of sulfate and chloride ion effects upon Wolcott blueberry growth and compositionProc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.80331339

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarneyD.L.1999Domestication of western huckleberriesProc. Northwest Ctr. Small Fruit Res.878

  • BarneyD.L.2003Prospects for domesticating western huckleberriesSmall Fruits Rev.21529

  • BrissetteL.TremblayL.LordD.1990Micropropagation of lowbush blueberry from mature field-grown plantsHortScience25349351

  • DebnathS.C.2004In vitro culture of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.)Small Fruits Rev.3393408

  • DebnathS.C.2005Micropropagation of lingonberry: Influence of genotype, explant orientation, and overcoming TDZ-induced inhibition of shoot elongation using zeatinHortScience40185188

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EckP.1988Blueberry scienceRutgers UniversityNew Brunswick, N.J

  • EconomouA.S.ReadP.E.1984In vitro shoot proliferation of Minnesota deciduous azaleasHortScience196061

  • FellmanJ.ThorngateJ.BarneyD.1998Identification of western huckleberry flavor componentsProc. Northwest Ctr. Small Fruit Res.76263

  • HerathH.EatonG.1968Some effects of water table, pH, and nitrogen fertilization upon growth and composition of highbush blueberryProc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.92274283

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JaakolaL.TolvanenA.LaineK.HohtolaA.2001Effect of N6-isopentenyladenine concentration on growth initiation in vitro and rooting of bilberry and lingonberry microshootsPlant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.667377

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeJ.FinnC.E.WrolstadR.E.2004Anthocyanin pigment and total phenolic content of three Vaccinium species native to the Pacific Northwest of North AmericaHortScience39959964

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LloydG.McCownB.1980Commercially-feasible micropropagation of mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia, by use of shoot-tip cultureCombined Proc. Intl. Plant Prop. Soc.30421427

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LyreneP.M.1980Micropropagation of rabbiteye blueberriesHortScience158081

  • MarcotrigianoM.McGlewS.P.1991A two-stage micropropagation system for cranberriesJ. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.116911916

  • MinoreD.1972The wild huckleberries of Oregon and Washington: A dwindling resource. Res. paper 143U.S. Dept. Agr. Pacific Northwest Forest Range Expt. StaPortland, Ore

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MinoreD.SmartA.W.DubrasichM.E.1979Huckleberry ecology and management research in the Pacific Northwest. Research note PNW-236U.S. Dept. Agr. Pacific Northwest Forest Range Expt. StaPortland, Ore

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurashigeT.SkoogF.1962A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culturePhysiol. Plant.15473497

  • ReedB.M.Abdelnour-EsquivelA.1991The use of zeatin to initiate in vitro cultures of Vaccinium species and cultivarsHortScience2613201322

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShibliR.A.SmithM.A.L.NasrR.1997Iron source and cytokinin mitigate the incidence of chlorosis and hyperhydration in vitroJ. Plant Nutr.20773781

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StarkN.BakerS.1992The ecology & culture of montana huckleberries: A guide for growers and researchers. Miscellaneous publ. 52Univ. Montana School For., Montana For. Conservation Expt. StaMissoula, Mont

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TaruscioT.G.BarneyD.L.ExonJ.2004Content and profile of flavanoid and phenolic acid compounds in conjunction with the antioxidant capacity for a variety of Northwest Vaccinium berriesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5231693176

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vander KloetS.P.1988The genus Vaccinium in North AmericaPublication 1828, Res. Branch AgrCanada, Ottawa

    • Export Citation
  • WolfeD.E.EckP.ChinC.-K.1983Evaluation of seven media for micropropagation of highbush blueberryHortScience18703705

  • ZimmermanR.H.BroomeO.C.1980Blueberry micropropagation. Proc. Conf. on Nursery Production of Fruit Plants through Tissue Culture: Applications and Feasibility. Beltsville MD 21–22 Apr. 1980U.S. Dept. Agr.-Sci. Educ. Administration Agr. Res. Results ARR-NE-11

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 244 198 18
PDF Downloads 49 39 3