Effect of Cultivar and Site on Fruit Quality as Demonstrated by the NE-183 Regional Project on Apple Cultivars

in HortTechnology
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  • 1 USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 2217 Wiltshire Rd., Kearneysville, WV 25430.
  • 2 University of Arkansas, Agricultural Statistics Laboratory, Fayetteville
  • 3 Washington State Univ., Wenatchee
  • 4 Univ. of Vermont, Burlington
  • 5 Cornell Univ., Geneva, N.Y.
  • 6 Univ. of Guelph, Simcoe, Ont., Canada
  • 7 Univ. of Mass., Amherst
  • 8 Rutgers Univ., Flemington, N.J.
  • 9 Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park
  • 10 Univ. of Vermont, Burlington
  • 11 Univ. of Mass., Amherst
  • 12 Pennsylvania State Univ., Biglerville
  • 13 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, B.C.
  • 14 Cornell Univ., Geneva, N.Y.
  • 15 Ohio State Univ., Wooster
  • 16 Univ. of Maine, Monmouth
  • 17 Univ. of Arksnsas, Fayetteville
  • 18 Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison
  • 19 Univ. of Maine, Monmouth and Cornell Univ., Highland, N.Y. (currently Pennsylvania State Univ., Biglerville)
  • 20 Cornell Univ., Highland, N.Y. (currently USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, Calif.)

Cultivar and planting site are two factors that often receive minimal attention, but can have a significant impact on the quality of apple (Malus ×domestica) produced. A regional project, NE-183 The Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars, was initiated in 1995 to systematically evaluate 20 newer apple cultivars on Malling.9 (M.9) rootstock across 19 sites in North America. This paper describes the effect of cultivar and site on fruit quality and sensory attributes at a number of the planting sites for the 1998 through 2000 growing seasons. Fruit quality attributes measured included fruit weight, length: diameter ratio, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness, red overcolor, and russet. Fruit sensory characteristics rated included crispness, sweetness, and juiciness, based on a unipolar intensity scale (where 1 = least and 5 = most), and acidity, flavor, attractiveness, and desirability based on a bipolar hedonic scale (where 1 = dislike and 5 = like extremely). All fruit quality and sensory variables measured were affected by cultivar. The two-way interaction of cultivar and planting site was significant for all response variables except SSC, TA, russet, crispness, and sweetness ratings. The SSC: TA ratio was strongly correlated with sweetness and acidity sensory rating, but was weakly correlated with flavor rating. The results demonstrate that no one cultivar is ideally suited for all planting sites and no planting site is ideal for maximizing the quality of all apple cultivars.

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Contributor Notes

To whom reprint requests should be addressed; e-mail: smiller@afrs.ars.usda.gov