Projects that focus on restoration, mitigation, and enhancement of aquatic and wetland regions provide valuable ecosystem services and habitat for native flora and fauna (Brix, 1994). These projects call for a mixture of plant types and sizes to create the diverse architecture needed to provide good habitat for native animals (Ma et al., 2010; Tews et al., 2004). There is strong demand for the native littoral zone (shoreline or shallow water) plants required to execute these projects, but many wetland nurseries are unable to produce sufficient quantities of “right-sized” plant material due to inadequate facilities and infrastructure. This problem can be viewed as an opportunity and may be addressed by determining how to cultivate these species using the greenhouse techniques that are employed to culture landscape plants. In these experiments we focused on four littoral zone species: arrow arum, blue-eyed grass, golden club, and lemon bacopa. All four species are perennials native to the United States and are easily propagated via division [arrow arum (Supplemental Fig. 1), blue-eyed grass (Supplemental Fig. 2), golden club (Supplemental Fig. 3)] or cuttings [lemon bacopa (Supplemental Fig. 4)]. Our objective was to determine optimum greenhouse cultivation conditions for these littoral plants by examining their growth and performance in a variety of substrates and irrigation methods. These experiments were designed to provide guidelines for growers who are interested in capturing part of the growing niche market for littoral zone plants without costly infrastructure upgrades.
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