The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 40% during the last decade [Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2010] as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. Mamey sapote is native to Mexico and Central American countries as far south as northern Nicaragua (Balerdi and Shaw, 1998; Morton, 1987; Mossler and Crane, 2009). It is also cultivated in the Caribbean, Florida, and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Téllez et al., 2009). The tree thrives from sea level to 900 m in elevation and under an annual rainfall of ≈2000 mm. It adapts to a wide range of soil types including sandy or heavy soils; however, it does not withstand dry periods or waterlogged soils (Almeyda and Martin, 1976; Morton, 1987). Depending on the cultivar, fruit shape varies from round to elliptical; it has a leathery brown skin and contains one to three large seeds. Fruit pulp is sweet, soft, and orange or deep red in color when ripe, and it is consumed fresh or processed to prepare ice cream or milkshakes. The fruit is high in vitamins A and E, minerals, and carotenoid content [Alia-Tejacal et al., 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2011]. The fruit has been shown not to be a host to the caribbean fruit fly [Anastrepha suspensa (Gould and Hallman, 2001)] or the west indian fruit fly [Anastrepha obliqua (Jenkins and Goenaga, 2007)], making its export possible to sites where these fruit flies are not present.
There is little information available on total production area of mamey sapote worldwide. Mexico is probably the largest producer with an estimated production of 16,000 Mg (Téllez et al., 2009), although small orchards are reportedly established in Spain, the Philippines, Vietnam, Australia, and India (Balerdi and Shaw, 1998). Florida and Puerto Rico are the only production areas in the United States with ≈140 ha (Mossler and Crane, 2009; Y. Aron, personal communication).
Commonly used cultivars for commercial production include Copan, Magaña, Andres-2, and Pantin (Balerdi and Shaw, 1998; Mossler and Crane, 2009). Production of fully mature trees of these cultivars is estimated to range from 200 to 500 fruit per year (Mossler and Crane, 2009). However, replicated field trials to evaluate these and other mamey sapote cultivars have been very limited. Further, very little is known on the agroenvironmental conditions and other factors that may limit productivity of mamey sapote (FAO, 1995). The objective of this study was to evaluate yield performance and fruit quality traits of six mamey sapote cultivars grown in two distinct agroenvironments.
Alia-TejacalI.Villanueva-ArceR.B.Pelayo-ZaldívarC.Colinas-LeónM.T.López-MartínezV.Bautista-BañosS.2007Postharvest physiology and technology of sapote mamey fruit (Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn)Postharvest Biol. Technol.45285297
AlmeydaN.MartinF.W.1976Cultivation of neglected tropical fruits with promise. Part 2. The mamey sapote. U.S. Dept. Agr. Publ. ARS-S-156.
BalerdiC.F.CraneJ.H.MaguireI.2008Mamey sapote growing in the Florida home landscape. Univ. of Florida Florida Coop. Ext. Serv. Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Publ. FC-30.
BalerdiC.F.ShawP.E.1998Sapodilla sapota and related fruit p. 78–136. In: P.E. Shaw H.T. Chan and S. Nagy (eds.). Tropical and subtropical fruits. AgScience Auburndale FL.
BentonJ.J.2001Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press Boca Raton FL.
CraneJ.H.2005Carambola growing in the Florida home landscape. Univ. of Florida Hort. Sci. Dept. Florida Coop. Ext. Serv. Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Fact Sheet HS 12 revised.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations1995Neglected crops: 1492 From a different perspective. FAO Plant Production and Protection Series no. 26. FAO Rome.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations2010FAOSTAT statistics database 2009. 30 Jan. 2012. <http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/default.aspx#ancor>.
Galan-SaucoV.MeniniU.G.TindallH.D.1993Carambola cultivation. FAO Plant Production and Protection paper no. 108. FAO Rome.
JenkinsD.A.GoenagaR.2007Host status of mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Sapotaceae), to the west indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Puerto RicoFlorida Entomol.90384388
MarlerT.E.GeorgeA.P.NissenR.J.AndersenP.C.1994Miscellaneous tropical fruits p. 206–211. In: B. Schaffer and P.C. Andersen (eds.). Handbook of environmental physiology of fruit crops: II. Subtropical and tropical crops. CRC Press Boca Raton FL.
MillsH.A.JonesB.J.Jr1996Plant analysis handbook II. Micromacro Publishing Athens GA.
MortonJ.F.1987Fruits of warm climates. Media Inc. Greensboro NC.
MosslerM.A.CraneJ.H.2009Florida crop/pest management profile: Mamey sapote and sapodilla. Univ. of Florida Florida Coop. Ext. Serv. Inst. Food Agr. Sci. Circulation 1414.
MulvaneyR.L.2007Nitrogen: Inorganic forms p. 1123–1184. In: D.L. Sparks (ed.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison WI.
NelsonD.W.SommersL.E.2007Total carbon organic carbon and organic matter p. 961–1010. In: D.L. Sparks (ed.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison WI.
Paz-VegaS.1997Alternate bearing in the avocado (Persea americana Mill.) p. 117–148. California Avocado Soc. 1997 Yrbk. 81.
SchafferB.AndersenP.C.1994Miscellaneous tropical fruits p. 3–37. In: B. Schaffer and P.C. Andersen (eds.). Handbook of environmental physiology of fruit crops: II. Subtropical and tropical crops. CRC Press Boca Raton FL.
ScholefieldP.B.SedgleyM.AlexanderD.McE.1985Carbohydrate cycling in relation to shoot growth, floral initiation and development and yield in the avocadoSci. Hort.2599110
SumnerM.E.MillerW.P.2007Cation exchange capacity and exchange coefficients p. 1201–1230. In: D.L. Sparks (ed.). Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Amer. Soc. Agron. Madison WI.
TéllezP.P.SaucedoV.C.ArévaloG.M.L.ValleG.S.2009Ripening of mamey fruits (Pouteria sapota Jacq.) treated with 1-methylcyclopropene and refrigerated storageCYTA J. Food74551
U.S. Department of Agriculture2011National nutrient database for standard reference. 30 Jan. 2012. <http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=8964>.