Greenhouse Evaluation of Pinewood Biochar Effects on Nutrient Status and Physiological Performance in Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia L.)

in HortScience
View More View Less
  • 1 Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
  • 2 Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Ft. Pierce, FL 34945
  • 3 Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
  • 4 Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611
  • 5 Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Muscadine grape is a perennial crop that is highly responsive to local environmental factors and viticulture practices. Biochar is a promising soil amendment used to improve soil water and nutrient retention and promote plant growth. The present study aimed to assess the effects of different pinewood biochar rates on nutrient status and vegetative parameters of muscadine grape cv. Alachua grown on a nutrient-poor sandy soil, Ultisols (97.2% sand, 2.4% silt, and 0.4% clay), and mixed with five different rates (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of biochar based on weight. Variations in soil moisture, temperature, and leaf greenness value [soil plant analysis development (SPAD) reading], net photosynthesis rate, and plant root and shoot dry weights were measured. In addition, the nutrient status of the soil, plant root, and shoot were determined. The results indicated that the higher rate of biochar could significantly (P < 0.05) improve soil moisture. Biochar can also decrease soil temperature, although there were no significant differences among treatments. Regarding the nutrient status, the biochar amendment increased the nutrient content of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), as well as the soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher nutrient contents in soil lead to increased P and Mg in both aboveground and belowground muscadine plant tissues and decreased nitrogen (N), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the root part. There were no significant differences observed in SPAD values, net photosynthesis, or dry weights of the root and shoot. This study demonstrates that the addition of biochar may enhance the soil water and nutrient status as well as improve plant P and Mg uptake; however, it showed no significant differences in the physiological performance of muscadine grape plants.

Abstract

Muscadine grape is a perennial crop that is highly responsive to local environmental factors and viticulture practices. Biochar is a promising soil amendment used to improve soil water and nutrient retention and promote plant growth. The present study aimed to assess the effects of different pinewood biochar rates on nutrient status and vegetative parameters of muscadine grape cv. Alachua grown on a nutrient-poor sandy soil, Ultisols (97.2% sand, 2.4% silt, and 0.4% clay), and mixed with five different rates (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) of biochar based on weight. Variations in soil moisture, temperature, and leaf greenness value [soil plant analysis development (SPAD) reading], net photosynthesis rate, and plant root and shoot dry weights were measured. In addition, the nutrient status of the soil, plant root, and shoot were determined. The results indicated that the higher rate of biochar could significantly (P < 0.05) improve soil moisture. Biochar can also decrease soil temperature, although there were no significant differences among treatments. Regarding the nutrient status, the biochar amendment increased the nutrient content of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca), as well as the soil organic matter content and cation exchange capacity. Higher nutrient contents in soil lead to increased P and Mg in both aboveground and belowground muscadine plant tissues and decreased nitrogen (N), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) in the root part. There were no significant differences observed in SPAD values, net photosynthesis, or dry weights of the root and shoot. This study demonstrates that the addition of biochar may enhance the soil water and nutrient status as well as improve plant P and Mg uptake; however, it showed no significant differences in the physiological performance of muscadine grape plants.

The Muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia L., Vitaceae) is the predominant grape cultivar commonly grown in the southeastern United States, with current markets existing for juice, wine, and fresh fruit (Duarte Alonso and O’Neill, 2012). Most Florida vineyard soils are characterized by poor soil fertility; the soil is highly susceptible to erosion (Collins, 2017; Gillette and Walker, 1977; Marchi et al., 2016) and has low organic matter contents (Brown et al., 2018), nutrient and water retention (Githinji, 2014), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) (Marx et al., 1996; Reichert et al., 2016). Rapid drainage leads to nutrient leaching through sand-based root zones (Bigelow et al., 2001; Mohamed et al., 2016; Petri and Petrovic, 2001). Therefore, plant growth is strongly limited by root growth and fewer available nutrients in sandy soil (Bruun et al., 2014). Undesirable soil conditions influence the annual nutrient consumption and total nutrient content of grapevine leaves as well as fruit quality.

Biochar is a pyrolysis product of organic materials, which means thermal degradation under anaerobic and hypoxic conditions (Kan et al., 2016; Lehmann and Joseph, 2015). It is also called black gold because it can improve soil fertility and increase agricultural crop production. There are three main reasons for improving soil fertility: increasing soil pH (Aamer et al., 2020; Rees et al., 2014; Weber and Quicker, 2018); improving nutrient retention through higher CEC (Gondek et al., 2019; Laghari et al., 2015; Nikravesh et al., 2019; Wang et al., 2019); and optimizing the physical properties, such as surface area and pore structure (Batista et al., 2018; Lehmann et al., 2011; Obour et al., 2019). All these directly affect the microbial biomass (Dempster et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2020), microbial community composition and abundance (Kaurin et al., 2018; Palansooriya et al., 2019; Zhu et al., 2017), and enzyme activities (Bailey et al., 2011; Irfan et al., 2019). Therefore, crop growth and production will be indirectly affected because of more fungi (Duan et al., 2019; Ohsowski et al., 2018; Schwartz et al., 2006) and rhizosphere bacteria (Aggangan et al., 2019; Compant et al., 2010).

Soil amendment with biochar has been recommended as a new way to improve soil properties, including the water-holding capacity (Kammann et al., 2012; Marshall et al., 2019), water infiltration (Ippolito et al., 2012; Novak et al., 2016), soil water availability, nutrient retention (Clough et al., 2013; Sorrenti et al., 2016; Ventura et al., 2013), hydraulic conductivity (Buss et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2016), and soil aeration (Case et al., 2012; Obia et al., 2018). Significant increases in soil fertility, plant growth, and yield have been reported when biochar was applied to the soil surface in tropical and subtropical regions (Agegnehu et al., 2016a; Atkinson et al., 2010; Jeffery et al., 2017; Major et al., 2010). However, no studies have considered the effects of biochar on the intrinsic properties of the sandy soil in Florida vineyards.

Biochar can provide essential elements (Glaser et al., 2002) and promote nutrient retention in soil (Berek et al., 2018; Buss et al., 2018; Laird, 2008). Research of common beans showed that biochar can improve K, Ca, P, boron (B), and molybdenum (Mo) availability. However, under the high application rate of biochar, the available N and common beans biomass (although not yield) were decreased (Rondon et al., 2007). Moreover, research of other plants, such as grape, wheat, maize, rice, peanut, and tomato, indicated that, with an appropriate rate of biochar, the plant yield will be increased (Agegnehu et al., 2015, 2016b; Akhtar et al., 2014; Alburquerque et al., 2013; Ferreira et al., 2017; Liu et al., 2016; Vaccari et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012a, 2012b). The response of soil fertility and plant productivity to biochar application has been highly variable. Fertility responses can vary with the nature of the biochar feedstock, total application rate, crop species, soil type, and other soil inputs, such as compost, as well as a combination of these factors (Gao et al., 2016).

No studies have reported the influences of pinewood biochar application on muscadine growth. This study aimed to examine whether pinewood biochar would: 1) improve soil nutrient and water retention; 2) increase nutrient uptake by muscadine grapes; and 3) promote muscadine grape growth.

Materials and Methods

Experimental site and materials.

‘Alachua’, a planted muscadine grape cultivar, was used for this experiment. One-month-old tissue-cultured vines were purchased from AgriStarts propagating nursery (Lakeland, FL). The activated biochar, produced by pyrolysis of southern yellow pine at 400 °C, was produced by Mirimichi Green Express, LLC (Castle Hayne, NC). The particle size is generally uniformly distributed between 0.6 and 10 mm. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the experimental soil and the pinewood biochar. The organic matter concentration of biochar was 616 g·kg−1, which is 33.7-times that of sandy soil (<18.3 g·kg−1). In addition, the CEC value of pinewood biochar is 20.13 meq/100 g, which is 7.1-times higher than that of sandy soil (2.83 meq/100 g). The surface morphology of the biochar sample was then studied using a FEI Nova 430 scanning electron microscope (SEM; FEI Company, Hillsboro, OR). Pinewood is one of the cheapest biochar feedstocks, and it is the most viable and suitable for growers; therefore, it was used during the present study.

Table 1.

Physiochemical properties of the tested soil and pinewood biochar in this study.

Table 1.

Experimental design.

This study was performed in a greenhouse at the University of Florida, Plant Science Research and Education Unit (PSREU; lat. 29.40°N, long. 82.17°W, altitude 21 m) in Citra, FL. To simulate the natural growth environment, the surface soil was taken from an assigned organic area (soil was free from herbicides and pesticide residuals) at a depth of 30 cm at the PSREU. This area is characterized by sandy soil (972 g·kg−1 of sand, 2.4 g·kg−1 of silt, and 4% g·kg−1 of clay). This is a typical soil type in the southeastern United States, especially Florida. The limited water-holding capacity of sand leads to increased leaching of nutrients (Yu et al., 2013). Biochar was applied and incorporated in the soil 3 d before planting in different proportions of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% on a dry weight basis. A control treatment comprising soil with unenriched biochar was used to compare the results with those of the other treatments incorporating different biochar rates. Then, the volume of the total potting media across biochar rate gradient was adjusted to a constant. Different percentages of sandy soil and biochar were thoroughly and gently mixed by hand to avoid damaging the biochar particle structure. This experiment had a randomized complete block design with five treatments and six blocks. Each replication plot consisted of two plants.

To monitor the effects of biochar on muscadine seedlings growth, 60 tissue-cultured muscadine plants were planted individually in 1.5-gal pots filled with the five different proportions of biochar/soil mixtures. Then, the pots were used for a short-term study lasting 16 weeks. Two data loggers were installed in the greenhouse to record the temperature and humidity values every 15 min during the experiment.

Environmental conditions.

The temperature inside the greenhouse was set between 18 and 26 °C. Fertilizer was applied weekly through the irrigation system with standard N–P–K (10–10–10) plus micronutrients. One dripper with a flow rate of 40 mL·min−1 was installed in each pot. The irrigation system worked three times per day for 2 min at 8:00 am, 2 min at 2:00 pm, and 2 min at 8:00 pm, resulting in a total of 240 mL·d−1 of water received. The trellis system was installed to support grape growth 2 weeks after transplanting.

Soil characteristic measurements.

The soil moisture was measured biweekly with a double-probe soil moisture meter (HydroSense II Handheld Soil Moisture Sensor; Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). The soil temperature was measured monthly by a digital laboratory thermometer with a stainless-steel probe (DT301LAB stem thermometer; General Tools, New York, NY). Soil moisture and temperature were both measured at a depth of 15 cm, which is the main root zone. The measured soil moisture content should be based on the gravimetric water content percentage (GWC%) because the percentages of biochar in the mixtures were considered weight-based. However, the data from the soil moisture meter were recorded as the volumetric water content percentage (VWC%). The conversion equation was performed using the following formula (El-Dine and Hosny, 2000):

VWC%=GWC%×(BDρw),

BD refers to the bulk density of soil and ρw refers to water density equal to 1 g·cm−3. In this case, the following formula was used:

GWC%=VWC%BD.

Nutrient content analysis.

At the end of the experiment, the nutrient contents, including N, P, K, Ca, Mg, sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), Fe, Cu, Mn, and B, as well as the organic matter (OM) in soil, root, and shoot tissues were analyzed using an ICAP-Open vessel wet digestion system (Digi Block 3000; Waters Agricultural Laboratories Inc., Camilla, GA; https://watersag.com/services/). The nutrient measurements followed the protocol described by Isaac and Johnson (1985).

The base saturation percentage (BS%) represents the CEC value occupied by the basic cations, such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+. The base saturation percentage was expressed as follows:

%BS=Ca2++Mg2++K+CEC×100%.

Muscadine grape physiological performance.

The chlorophyll values of the first four mature and healthy leaves from the growing point of each plant were recorded 35 and 54 d after transplanting with a portable SPAD 502 chlorophyll fluorimeter (Konica Minolta, Tokyo, Japan). The net photosynthetic rate was determined by using a LI-COR 6400 XT Portable Photosynthesis System (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE) 16 weeks after transplanting and before harvesting. LI-COR readings were obtained between 11:00 am and 2:00 pm. After a destructive harvest, all the plants in each pot were collected and separated into roots and shoots. Dry weights of roots and shoots were determined using a digital scale with a precision of 1 g after 72 h at 55 °C in a drying oven.

Statistical analysis.

All collected data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure with SAS statistical software (ANOVA SAS 9.1; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The mean analysis was performed with the Tukey-Kramer test at P ≤ 0.05.

Results and Discussion

SEM characterization and soil physical properties.

The SEM micrographs of the pinewood biochar particles at magnifications of ×100, ×500, and ×1000 are shown in Fig. 1. These SEM images represent the porous structure of the biochar samples used. Also, the SEM images show that raw biochar had smooth particles with a polygonal shape. The large channel-like structures proliferate the surface of biochar, showing at least partial retention of the morphology of the initial input biomass.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images (bar, 50 μm; ×1000 magnification) of the pinewood biochar particles at magnifications of ×100 (A, D, J), ×500 (B, E, H), and ×1000 (C, F, I).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

During the first two measurements, the soil temperature at a depth of 15 cm decreased with the increased biochar rate. The third measurement showed a downward trend; however, no statistically significant difference was found between groups (Fig. 2). According to Zhang et al. (2013), the thermal conductivity of the soil significantly decreased by 3.48% and 7.49% with 4.5 and 9 Mg·ha−1·year−1, respectively, following the application of biochar. This was also consistent with the decrease in soil bulk density. The same author reported that biochar treatment might regulate the extreme soil temperature, thus reducing the temperature when the soil temperature is high and increasing it when the soil temperature is low. The adjustment capabilities of the daily average temperature and diurnal range of the soil were mostly within ±0.4 and ±0.8 °C, respectively. Zhang et al. (2013) assumed that the regulation of soil temperatures by biochar might be explained by the combined action of changes in soil thermal conductivity and reflectance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Soil temperatures measured in May, June, and July, respectively. (A) Measured on transplanting day. (B) Measured 33 d after transplanting. (C) Measured 52 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

Figure 3 illustrates the soil moisture content in terms of the gravimetric water content percentage. Apparently, biochar significantly improved the soil moisture content. The first soil moisture measurement was performed 35 d after transplanting. The second measurement was performed 54 d after transplanting, after the soil was treated with drought stress by stopping irrigation for 24 h. The first measurement indicated that the moisture of the amended soil with the highest biochar rate (20%) was 17-times higher than that of the control group. The second measurement indicated that the average soil moisture rates were 0.03% and 20.9% in the control group and 20% in the biochar-amended group, respectively. In this case, a moisture rate of 20% in the biochar-amended soil is 847-times higher than that of pure sandy soil during the bag experiment and pot experiment. Therefore, it has been concluded that biochar can significantly (P < 0.05) increase soil moisture, especially under drought stress conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Soil moisture in gravimetric water content (GWC%) in the bag and pot in June and July. (A) Measurements of the plants in a pot 33 d after transplanting. (B) Measurements of the plants in a pot 54 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

The application of biochar can improve negative effects of drought and salt stress on plants. According to a recent study by Ali et al. (2017), the application of biochar improved the growth, biomass, and yield of the plants, and it enhanced photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and gas exchange characteristics of treated plants exposed to drought salt stress. In addition, it indicated that biochar improved the soil water-holding capacity and physical and biological properties, as well as decreased the absorption of Na+ and increased the absorption of K+ by plants under salt stress (Ali et al., 2017). The results of a biochar experiment performed in a nonirrigated vineyard in central Italy also indicated that an increase in grape productivity was inversely proportional to precipitation during the vegetative period, thus confirming the vital role of biochar in managing plant water availability (Genesio et al., 2015). Similarly, a biochar experiment conducted in southwest Spain for sunflower (one of the most important nonirrigated crops in Southern Europe) showed better growth of amended plants during the drought period. A higher reduction of stomatal conductance, indicating an improvement in water use efficiency, is the main reason for better crop performance following biochar treatment (Paneque et al., 2016).

Nutrient content analysis.

The contents of P, K, Mg, Ca, BS-K (the value of CEC occupied by K+), BS-Mg (the value of CEC occupied by Mg2+), and organic matter significantly increased with a higher rate of biochar amendment, whereas the contents of BS-H (the value of CEC occupied by H+) decreased significantly (Table 2). There was no difference in the BS-K content, which was confirmed by another biochar experiment using sugarcane seedlings (Yang et al., 2015). These basic cations are different from acid cations H+ and Al3+. Therefore, soils with a high percentage of base saturation generally have more fertility because soils with a high percentage of base saturation show lower BS-H and higher pH (Gaspar and Laboski, 2016). Therefore, they have a greater buffering effect on acid cations from plant roots and soil acidification. Furthermore, they contain greater amounts of essential plant nutrient cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ for plant use.

Table 2.

Nutrient content in postharvest soil as influenced by the biochar treatments.

Table 2.

The concentrations of nutrients in root tissues are presented in Table 3. The contents of P and Mg increased 4% and 20%, respectively, with the 20% biochar rate compared with the control group. In contrast to the trend observed for P and Mg, N significantly decreased following the 20% biochar amendment. However, Fe and Cu significantly decreased on soil amendment with 10% biochar. The K, Ca, S, B, Zn, and Mn contents were not significantly affected by the treatments. The concentrations of nutrients in shoot tissues are presented in Tables 4. Biochar treatment had no significant effects on N, K, S, B, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Cu contents; however, it did have an effect on the P and Mg contents in shoot tissues.

Table 3.

Nutrient content in root tissues as influenced by the biochar treatments.

Table 3.
Table 4.

Nutrient content in shoot tissues as influenced by biochar treatments.

Table 4.

Muscadine roots responded to soil improvement because biochar can serve as a nutrient source through the addition of soluble P and biochar N retention and by changing the soil nutrient content (Prendergast-Miller et al., 2014). Although the soil nutrients were significantly increased after biochar amendment, only a few mineral nutrients, such as P and Mg, increased in plant tissues. Decreases in Fe and Cu may have been attributable to an increase in soil pH caused by the liming effect of biochar. A higher soil pH was negatively correlated with the availability of Fe and Cu, leading to reductions in their uptake by the plant (Bravo et al., 2017). Decreased N can be explained by the porous structure of biochar because its high surface area and CEC determine the higher absorption ability of biochar for ammonium (through cation exchange) and nitrate (in solution in biochar pores) (Prendergast-Miller et al., 2014). According to Olmo et al. (2016), biochar addition reduced N availability but increased available P to plants. They expected that the N availability reduction also must have decreased the plant aboveground and belowground N concentrations. However, they only observed significant effects in wheat aboveground tissue, not in underground tissue. Decreased N content in the root but not in the plant aboveground part was observed during the current study.

Phosphorus has a major role in the growth of new tissues and cell division of plants (Vance et al., 2003). It is the main component of the nucleic acid structure, which is responsible for regulating the synthesis and stability of membranes in plant cells. Furthermore, P is a critical component of nucleic acid synthesis. The structures of both deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are linked by P (Huang et al., 2019). Third, plants perform complex energy transmissions that require P fertilization. Phosphorus is crucial for denosine-5′-triphosphate components. ATP exists in all plants from early growth to maturity and is essential for energy generation and carbohydrate metabolism (Bieleski and Ferguson, 1983).

During this experiment, interesting results were found regarding the absorption of P and Mg, which are the only elements that are increased in soil, root, and leaf exposed to biochar treatment. Similarly, in a biochar experiment involving wheat root development, Olmo et al. (2016) reported that the application of biochar reduced N and Mn availability in soil but significantly increased the available concentration of P. However, the present study further indicated that soil amendment with biochar could affect the whole absorption pathway of P. At present, the global P demand for agricultural crop production is alleviated by a large amount of mineral P fertilizer that has more than 15,000,000 Mg (Wang et al., 2012). Phosphorus in fertilizer is divided into two parts. Only 5% to 30% of P is eventually consumed by crops. The rest of P is fixed, complexed, precipitated, and leached into the soil, thereby making the plants unable to use it (Pierzynski et al., 2005). In tropical and subtropical areas, such as Florida, most soils are acidic because of high weathering rates and heavy rainfall. Acidic cations, such as aluminum (Al) and Fe, are predominate in such soils, and they can fix a large amount of applied inorganic P depending on the soil pH (Adnan et al., 2003). It has been reported that biochar may improve P availability by minimizing P fixation in acid soils because of its high affinity to Al and Fe in soils (Chang et al., 2014). Their affinity enables the long-term chelation of Al and Fe instead of P. The mechanisms behind soil P availability with biochar treatment are not fundamentally understood (Mukherjee et al., 2019). It has also been speculated that soil amendment with biochar may affect the availability of soil P by regulating the activities of microbial enzymes in soil (Chen et al., 2011; Zhai et al., 2015).

Muscadine grape physiological performance.

There was no significant difference in SPAD readings among the treatments (Fig. 4). Similarly, Quilliam et al. (2012) reported that biochar had no significant effect on SPAD measurements or plant height of dwarf bean during a 3-year field experiment in the United Kingdom. However, another field experiment in northern Laos showed that the application of biochar reduced the SPAD value of rice leaves; it was reported that biochar application can potentially improve soil productivity of upland rice production in Laos, but the effect is highly dependent on fertilizer management (Asai et al., 2009).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Leaf chlorophyll [soil plant analysis development (SPAD) reading] values of the newest six mature leaves of muscadine grape at (A) 35 d and (B) 54 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

The net photosynthesis data collected 16 weeks after transplantation are shown in Fig. 5. The results illustrated that pinewood biochar did not affect the leaf net photosynthesis in muscadine grape. Similarly, Xu et al. (2015) reported that peanut shell biochar application to an acidic (pH 5.6) sandy loam soil with low contents of many mineral nutrients generally did not affect the photosynthesis of peanut leaves. Other studies also suggested no detectable differences in the physiological variables of leaves, such as photosynthesis, under various salinity and fertilization treatments (Alburquerque et al., 2013; Thomas et al., 2013). However, some other research showed the opposite results. Wang et al. (2014) found rice husk biochar applied to replant soil at 80 g·kg−1 can enhance plant height, fresh weight, and photosynthetic parameters (Wang et al., 2014). In addition, biochar application enhanced the in situ leaf photosynthetic rate of tomato and grape plants under drought stress (Akhtar et al., 2014). In contrast, Kammann et al. (2011) found that crop photosynthesis declined in quinoa on biochar-ameliorated soil when the soil moisture remained constant (Kammann et al., 2011).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Leaf photosynthesis net of muscadine grape plants measured 16 weeks after transplanting with the three newest mature leaves. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

Figure 6 shows that 20% biochar had a negative effect on the dry stem weight during the pot experiment. In general, there was no significant difference in the stem and root dry weights among treatments. Other studies confirmed no significant differences in the aboveground biomass and levels of foliar nutrients (Quilliam et al., 2012). In addition, Peng et al. (2016) found that soil amendment with biochar did not significantly improve the peanut yield and aboveground biomass, and they suggested that the application of organic manure was a more appropriate practice for hillslope Ultisols management than biochar. According to Abrishamkesh et al. (2015), the biochar type, interaction between biochar type, and biochar application rate had no significant effects on the aboveground and belowground biomass of lentils. Biochar application had no significant effect on the aboveground dry biomass, but it had a significant effect (P < 0.01) on the root dry biomass.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(A) Shoot and (B) root dry weight of muscadine grapes determined after 72 h at 45 °C in a drying oven. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 2; 10.21273/HORTSCI15428-20

Conclusion

This is the first report of the effect of biochar application on muscadine grape growth. Soils in Citra, FL (Central Florida) are dominated by sandy soils, which have a naturally high leaching capacity and limited water-holding capacity. According to the results, biochar amendment had a strong impact on improving soil physical properties, explaining its positive effects on root traits. Pinewood biochar reduced soil temperature and soil bulk density and increased soil moisture, CEC, organic matter, and pH. Another interesting result of this experiment was that pinewood biochar increased the nutrient contents of P, K, Mg, and Ca in the soil. However, when the nutrients were transferred to plant root and leaf successively, a significant increase was only detected in the P content rather than the contents of other nutrient elements.

On the contrary, biochar did not affect leaf greenness, photosynthesis, or plant biomass. However, during this greenhouse experiment, our work focused on the influence of biochar application on muscadine grape growth during the early stage only. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of biochar application on plant nutrient uptake and physiological performance, and especially on the nutrient absorption pathway and utilization efficiency.

Literature Cited

  • Aamer, M., Shaaban, M., Hassan, M.U., Guoqin, H., Ying, L., Ying, T.H., Rasul, F., Qiaoying, M., Zhuanling, L. & Rasheed, A. 2020 Biochar mitigates the N2O emissions from acidic soil by increasing the nosZ and nirK gene abundance and soil pH J. Environ. Manage. 255 109891 doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109891

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abrishamkesh, S., Gorji, M., Asadi, H., Bagheri-Marandi, G. & Pourbabaee, A. 2015 Effects of rice husk biochar application on the properties of alkaline soil and lentil growth Plant Soil Environ. 61 475 482 doi: 10.17221/117/2015-PSE

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adnan, A., Mavinic, D.S. & Koch, F.A. 2003 Pilot-scale study of phosphorus recovery through struvite crystallization examining the process feasibility J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2 315 324 doi: 10.1139/s03-040

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N. & Bird, M.I. 2016 Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil Sci. Total Environ. 543 295 306 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Muirhead, B., Wright, G. & Bird, M.I. 2015 Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 213 72 85 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.07.027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aggangan, N.S., Cortes, A.D., Opulencia, R.B., Jomao-as, J.G. & Yecyec, R.P. 2019 Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and bamboo biochar on the rhizosphere bacterial population and nutrient uptake of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Seedlings. Philipp. J. Crop Sci. (PJCS) 44 1 9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akhtar, S.S., Li, G., Andersen, M.N. & Liu, F. 2014 Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation Agr. Water Manage. 138 37 44 doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2014.02.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alburquerque, J.A., Salazar, P., Barron, V., Torrent, J., del Campillo, M.D., Gallardo, A. & Villar, R. 2013 Enhanced wheat yield by biochar addition under different mineral fertilization levels Agron. Sustain. Dev. 33 475 484 doi: 10.1007/s13593-012-0128-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Qayyum, M.F., Ok, Y.S., Ibrahim, M., Riaz, M., Arif, M.S., Hafeez, F., Al-Wabel, M.I. & Shahzad, A.N. 2017 Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: A critical review Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24 12700 12712 doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8904-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T. & Horie, T. 2009 Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield Field Crops Res. 111 81 84 doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2008.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson, C.J., Fitzgerald, J.D. & Hipps, N.A. 2010 Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review Plant Soil 337 1 18 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0464-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, V.L., Fansler, S.J., Smith, J.L. & Bolton, H. 2011 Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization Soil Biol. Biochem. 43 296 301 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.10.014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batista, E.M., Shultz, J., Matos, T.T., Fornari, M.R., Ferreira, T.M., Szpoganicz, B., de Freitas, R.A. & Mangrich, A.S. 2018 Effect of surface and porosity of biochar on water holding capacity aiming indirectly at preservation of the amazon biome Sci. Rep. 8 10677 doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28794-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berek, A.K., Hue, N.V., Radovich, T.J. & Ahmad, A.A. 2018 Biochars improve nutrient phyto-availability of Hawai’i’s highly weathered soils Agronomy 8 203 doi: 10.3390/agronomy8100203

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bieleski, R. & Ferguson, I. 1983 Physiology and metabolism of phosphate and its compounds, p. 422–449. In: Inorganic plant nutrition. Springer, Berlin, Germany. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-68885-0_15

  • Bigelow, C.A., Bowman, D.C. & Cassel, D.K. 2001 Nitrogen leaching in sand-based rootzones amended with inorganic soil amendments and sphagnum peat J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126 151 156 doi: 10.21273/JASHS.126.1.151

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bravo, S., Amorós, J., Pérez-De-Los-Reyes, C., García, F., Moreno, M., Sánchez-Ormeño, M. & Higueras, P. 2017 Influence of the soil pH in the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn) and other elements (Ca, K, Al, Sr and Ba) in vine leaves, Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) J. Geochem. Explor. 174 79 83 doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.12.012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, S. P., Treadwell, D., Stephens, J. & Webb, S. 2018 Florida vegetable gardening guide. UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program Publication SP 103

  • Bruun, E.W., Petersen, C.T., Hansen, E., Holm, J.K. & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. 2014 Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention Soil Use Manage. 30 109 118 doi: 10.1111/sum.12102

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buss, W., Kammann, C. & Koyro, H.W. 2012 Biochar reduces copper toxicity in chenopodium quinoa willd. in a sandy soil J. Environ. Qual. 41 1157 1165 doi: 10.2134/jeq2011.0022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buss, W., Shepherd, J.G., Heal, K.V. & Mašek, O. 2018 Spatial and temporal microscale pH change at the soil-biochar interface Geoderma 331 50 52 doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.06.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Case, S.D.C., McNamara, N.P., Reay, D.S. & Whitaker, J. 2012 The effect of biochar addition on N2O and CO2 emissions from a sandy loam soil - The role of soil aeration Soil Biol. Biochem. 51 125 134 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, B., Chen, Z. & Lv, S. 2011 A novel magnetic biochar efficiently sorbs organic pollutants and phosphate Bioresour. Technol. 102 716 723 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.067

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, H.Y., Ahmed, O.H. & Majid, N.M.A. 2014 Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes ScientificWorldJournal doi: 10.1155/2014/506356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clough, T., Condron, L., Kammann, C. & Müller, C. 2013 A review of biochar and soil nitrogen dynamics Agronomy 3 275 293 doi: 10.3390/agronomy3020275

  • Collins, M.E. 2017 Soils of Florida and the Caribbean: LRRs U and Z, p. 281–303. In: The soils of the USA. Springer, Berlin, Germany

  • Compant, S., Clement, C. & Sessitsch, A. 2010 Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo- and endosphere of plants: Their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and prospects for utilization Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 669 678 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.11.024

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dempster, D.N., Gleeson, D.B., Solaiman, Z.M., Jones, D.L. & Murphy, D.V. 2012 Decreased soil microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralisation with Eucalyptus biochar addition to a coarse textured soil Plant Soil 354 311 324 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-1067-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duan, Y., Awasthi, S.K., Liu, T., Chen, H., Zhang, Z., Wang, Q., Ren, X., Tu, Z., Awasthi, M.K. & Taherzadeh, M.J. 2019 Dynamics of fungal diversity and interactions with environmental elements in response to wheat straw biochar amended poultry manure composting Bioresour. Technol. 274 410 417 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte Alonso, A. & O’Neill, M.A. 2012 Consumption of muscadine grape by-products: An exploration among Southern US consumers Brit. Food J. 114 400 415 doi: 10.1108/00070701211213492

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El-Dine, T.G. & Hosny, M.M. 2000 Field evaluation of surge and continuous flows in furrow irrigation systems Water Resources Manag. 14 77 87 doi: 10.1023/A:1008189004992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferreira, C., Verheijen, F., Puga, J., Keizer, J. & Ferreira, A. 2017 Biochar in vineyards: Impact on soil quality and crop yield four years after the application, p. 1600. EGU General Assembly Conf. (abstr.)

  • Gao, S., Hoffman-Krull, K., Bidwell, A. & DeLuca, T. 2016 Locally produced wood biochar increases nutrient retention and availability in agricultural soils of the San Juan Islands, USA Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 233 43 54 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaspar, A.P. & Laboski, C.A. 2016 Base saturation: What is it? Should I be concerned? Does it affect my fertility program, p. 55–61. In: Proc. 2016 Wis. Crop Manage. Conf

  • Genesio, L., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S. & Vaccari, F.P. 2015 Biochar increases vineyard productivity without affecting grape quality: Results from a four years field experiment in Tuscany Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 201 20 25 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2014.11.021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillette, D.A. & Walker, T.R. 1977 Characteristics of airborne particles produced by wind erosion of sandy soil, high plains of west Texas Soil Sci. 123 97 110

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githinji, L. 2014 Effect of biochar application rate on soil physical and hydraulic properties of a sandy loam Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 60 457 470 doi: 10.1080/03650340.2013.821698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. & Zech, W. 2002 Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review Biol. Fertil. Soils 35 219 230 doi: 10.1007/s00374-002-0466-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gondek, K., Mierzwa-Hersztek, M., Kopeć, M., Sikora, J., Głąb, T. & Szczurowska, K. 2019 Influence of biochar application on reduced acidification of sandy soil, increased cation exchange capacity, and the content of available forms of K, Mg, and P Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 28 103 111 doi: 10.15244/pjoes/81688

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, J., Huang, Z., Zhou, X., Xia, C., Imran, M., Wang, S., Xu, C., Zha, M., Liu, Y. & Zhang, C. 2019 Tissue-specific transcriptomic profiling of Plantago major provides insights for the involvement of vasculature in phosphate deficiency responses Mol. Genet. Genomics 294 159 175 doi: 10.1007/s00438-018-1496-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ippolito, J.A., Laird, D.A. & Busscher, W.J. 2012 Environmental Benefits of Biochar J. Environ. Qual. 41 967 972 doi: 10.2134/jeq2012.0151

  • Irfan, M., Hussain, Q., Khan, K.S., Akmal, M., Ijaz, S.S., Hayat, R., Khalid, A., Azeem, M. & Rashid, M. 2019 Response of soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activity to biochar amendment in the organic carbon deficient arid soil: A 2-year field study Arab. J. Geosci. 12 95 doi: 10.1007/s12517-019-4239-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isaac, R.A. & Johnson, W.C. 1985 Elemental analysis of plant tissue by plasma emission spectroscopy: Collaborative study J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 68 499 505 doi: 10.1093/jaoac/68.3.499

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeffery, S., Abalos, D., Prodana, M., Bastos, A.C., Van Groenigen, J.W., Hungate, B.A. & Verheijen, F. 2017 Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields Environ. Res. Lett. 12 053001 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa67bd

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kammann, C., Ratering, S., Eckhard, C. & Muller, C. 2012 Biochar and hydrochar effects on greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) fluxes from soils J. Environ. Qual. 41 1052 1066 doi: 10.2134/jeq2011.0132

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kammann, C.I., Linsel, S., Gößling, J.W. & Koyro, H.-W. 2011 Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and on soil–plant relations Plant Soil 345 195 210 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-0771-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kan, T., Strezov, V. & Evans, T.J. 2016 Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: A review of product properties and effects of pyrolysis parameters Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 57 1126 1140 doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaurin, A., Cernilogar, Z. & Lestan, D. 2018 Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance Chemosphere 193 726 736 doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laghari, M., Mirjat, M.S., Hu, Z., Fazal, S., Xiao, B., Hu, M., Chen, Z. & Guo, D. 2015 Effects of biochar application rate on sandy desert soil properties and sorghum growth Catena 135 313 320 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2015.08.013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laird, D.A. 2008 The charcoal vision: A win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality Agron. J. 100 178 181 doi: 10.2134/agronj2007.0161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehmann, J. & Joseph, S. 2015 Biochar for environmental management: Science, technology and implementation. Routledge, London, UK

  • Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C. & Crowley, D. 2011 Biochar effects on soil biota - A review Soil Biol. Biochem. 43 1812 1836 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., Dugan, B., Masiello, C.A., Barnes, R.T., Gallagher, M.E. & Gonnermann, H. 2016 Impacts of biochar concentration and particle size on hydraulic conductivity and DOC leaching of biochar–sand mixtures J. Hydrol. 533 461 472 doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S.J. & Lehmann, J. 2010 Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol Plant Soil 333 117 128 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0327-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marchi, E.C., Zotarelli, L., Delgado, J.A., Rowland, D.L. & Marchi, G. 2016 Use of the Nitrogen Index to assess nitrate leaching and water drainage from plastic-mulched horticultural cropping systems of Florida Intl. Soil Water Conserv. Res. 4 237 244 doi: 10.1016/j.iswcr.2016.12.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J., Muhlack, R., Morton, B.J., Dunnigan, L., Chittleborough, D. & Kwong, C.W. 2019 Pyrolysis temperature effects on biochar–Water interactions and application for improved water holding capacity in vineyard soils Soil Syst. 3 27 doi: 10.3390/soilsystems3020027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marx, E., Hart, J. M. & Stevens, R. G. 1996 Soil test interpretation guide. Oregon State University Extension Service, Corvallis, OR

  • Mohamed, B.A., Ellis, N., Kim, C.S., Bi, X. & Emam, A.E.-r. 2016 Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil Sci. Total Environ. 566 387 397 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukherjee, S., Mavi, M. & Singh, J. 2019 Differential response of biochar derived from rice-residue waste on phosphorus availability in soils with dissimilar pH Intl. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17 3065 3074 doi: 10.1007/s13762-019-02575-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nikravesh, I., Boroomandnasab, S. & Abd Ali Naseri, A.S.M. 2019 Wheat straw biochar application to loam-sand soil: impact on yield components of summer maize and some soil properties WORLD 8 54 60

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novak, J., Sigua, G., Watts, D., Cantrell, K., Shumaker, P., Szogi, A., Johnson, M.G. & Spokas, K. 2016 Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer Chemosphere 142 160 167 doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obia, A., Mulder, J., Hale, S.E., Nurida, N.L. & Cornelissen, G. 2018 The potential of biochar in improving drainage, aeration and maize yields in heavy clay soils PLoS One 13 e0196794 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196794

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obour, P.B., Danso, E.O., Yakubu, A., Abenney-Mickson, S., Sabi, E.B., Darrah, Y.K. & Arthur, E. 2019 Water retention, air exchange and pore structure characteristics after three years of rice straw biochar application to an Acrisol Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 83 1664 1671 doi: 10.2136/sssaj2019.07.0230

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohsowski, B.M., Dunfield, K., Klironomos, J.N. & Hart, M.M. 2018 Plant response to biochar, compost, and mycorrhizal fungal amendments in post-mine sandpits Restor. Ecol. 26 63 72 doi: 10.1111/rec.12528

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olmo, M., Villar, R., Salazar, P. & Alburquerque, J.A. 2016 Changes in soil nutrient availability explain biochar’s impact on wheat root development Plant Soil 399 333 343 doi: 10.1007/ s11104-015-2700-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palansooriya, K.N., Wong, J.T.F., Hashimoto, Y., Huang, L., Rinklebe, J., Chang, S.X., Bolan, N., Wang, H. & Ok, Y.S. 2019 Response of microbial communities to biochar-amended soils: A critical review Biochar 1 3 22 doi: 10.1007/s42773-019-00009-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paneque, M., José, M., Franco-Navarro, J.D., Colmenero-Flores, J.M. & Knicker, H. 2016 Effect of biochar amendment on morphology, productivity and water relations of sunflower plants under non-irrigation conditions Catena 147 280 287 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2016.07.037

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, X., Zhu, Q., Xie, Z., Darboux, F. & Holden, N.M. 2016 The impact of manure, straw and biochar amendments on aggregation and erosion in a hillslope Ultisol Catena 138 30 37 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2015.11.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petri, A.N. & Petrovic, A.M. 2001 Cation exchange capacity impacts on shoot growth and nutrient recovery in sand based creeping bentgrass greens Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 9 422 427

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierzynski, G.M., McDowell, R.W. & Thomas Sims, J. 2005 Chemistry, cycling, and potential movement of inorganic phosphorus in soils, p. 51–86. In: Phosphorus: Agriculture and the environment. Madison, WI. doi: 10.2134/agronmonogr46.c3

  • Prendergast-Miller, M.T., Duvall, M. & Sohi, S.P. 2014 Biochar-root interactions are mediated by biochar nutrient content and impacts on soil nutrient availability Eur. J. Soil Sci. 65 173 185 doi: 10.1111/ejss.12079

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quilliam, R.S., Marsden, K.A., Gertler, C., Rousk, J., DeLuca, T.H. & Jones, D.L. 2012 Nutrient dynamics, microbial growth and weed emergence in biochar amended soil are influenced by time since application and reapplication rate Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 158 192 199 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2012.06.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rees, F., Simonnot, M.O. & Morel, J.L. 2014 Short-term effects of biochar on soil heavy metal mobility are controlled by intra-particle diffusion and soil pH increase Eur. J. Soil Sci. 65 149 161 doi: 10.1111/ejss.12107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reichert, J.M., Amado, T.J.C., Reinert, D.J., Rodrigues, M.F. & Suzuki, L.E.A.S. 2016 Land use effects on subtropical, sandy soil under sandyzation/desertification processes Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 233 370 380 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.09.039

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rondon, M.A., Lehmann, J., Ramirez, J. & Hurtado, M. 2007 Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions Biol. Fertil. Soils 43 699 708 doi: 10.1007/s00374-006-0152-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, M.W., Hoeksema, J.D., Gehring, C.A., Johnson, N.C., Klironomos, J.N., Abbott, L.K. & Pringle, A. 2006 The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum Ecol. Lett. 9 501 515 doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00910.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, L.G., de Andrade, C.A. & Bettiol, W. 2020 Biochar amendment increases soil microbial biomass and plant growth and suppresses Fusarium wilt in tomato Trop. Plant Pathol. 45 73 83 doi: 10.1007/s40858-020-00332-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sorrenti, G., Ventura, M. & Toselli, M. 2016 Effect of biochar on nutrient retention and nectarine tree performance: A three-year field trial J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 179 336 346 doi: 10.1002/jpln.201500497

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, S.C., Frye, S., Gale, N., Garmon, M., Launchbury, R., Machado, N., Melamed, S., Murray, J., Petroff, A. & Winsborough, C. 2013 Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species J. Environ. Manage. 129 62 68 doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05.057

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaccari, F.P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F. & Miglietta, F. 2011 Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat Eur. J. Agron. 34 231 238 doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2011.01.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vance, C.P., Uhde-Stone, C. & Allan, D.L. 2003 Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource New Phytol. 157 423 447 doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00695.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ventura, M., Sorrenti, G., Panzacchi, P., George, E. & Tonon, G. 2013 Biochar reduces short-term nitrate leaching from a horizon in an apple orchard J. Environ. Qual. 42 76 82 doi: 10.2134/jeq2012.0250

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, T., Camps-Arbestain, M., Hedley, M. & Bishop, P. 2012 Predicting phosphorus bioavailability from high-ash biochars Plant Soil 357 173 187 doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1131-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., Pan, F., Wang, G., Zhang, G., Wang, Y., Chen, X. & Mao, Z. 2014 Effects of biochar on photosynthesis and antioxidative system of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under replant conditions Scientia Hort. 175 9 15 doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2014.05.029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z., Tang, C., Wang, H., Zhao, C., Yin, D., Yuan, Y., Yang, K. & Li, Z. 2019 Effect of different amounts of biochar on meadow soil characteristics and maize yields over three years BioResources 14 4194 4209

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weber, K. & Quicker, P. 2018 Properties of biochar Fuel 217 240 261 doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.054

  • Xu, C.-Y., Hosseini-Bai, S., Hao, Y., Rachaputi, R.C., Wang, H., Xu, Z. & Wallace, H. 2015 Effect of biochar amendment on yield and photosynthesis of peanut on two types of soils Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Intl. 22 6112 6125 doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3820-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, L., Liao, F., Huang, M., Yang, L. & Li, Y. 2015 Biochar improves sugarcane seedling root and soil properties under a pot experiment Sugar Tech 17 36 40 doi: 10.1007/s12355-014-0335-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, O.-Y., Raichle, B. & Sink, S. 2013 Impact of biochar on the water holding capacity of loamy sand soil Intl. J. Energy Environ. Eng. 4 44 doi: 10.1186/2251-6832-4-44

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhai, L., CaiJi, Z., Liu, J., Wang, H., Ren, T., Gai, X., Xi, B. & Liu, H. 2015 Short-term effects of maize residue biochar on phosphorus availability in two soils with different phosphorus sorption capacities Biol. Fertil. Soils 51 113 122 doi: 10.1007/s00374-014-0954-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, A.F., Liu, Y.M., Pan, G.X., Hussain, Q., Li, L.Q., Zheng, J.W. & Zhang, X.H. 2012a Effect of biochar amendment on maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a soil organic carbon poor calcareous loamy soil from Central China Plain Plant Soil 351 263 275 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-0957-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, A.F., Bian, R.J., Pan, G.X., Cui, L.Q., Hussain, Q., Li, L.Q., Zheng, J.W., Zheng, J.F., Zhang, X.H., Han, X.J. & Yu, X.Y. 2012b Effects of biochar amendment on soil quality, crop yield and greenhouse gas emission in a Chinese rice paddy: A field study of 2 consecutive rice growing cycles Field Crops Res. 127 153 160 doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2011.11.020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Wang, X., Du, Z., Liu, X. & Song, J. 2013 Effects of biochar amendment on soil thermal conductivity, reflectance, and temperature Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 77 1478 1487 doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, X., Chen, B., Zhu, L. & Xing, B. 2017 Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review Environ. Pollut. 227 98 115 doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.032

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Contributor Notes

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services are acknowledged for financial support of this study. We thank Dustin Huff and stone fruit laboratories in the Horticultural Sciences Department at the University of Florida for their assistance during laboratory and greenhouse experiments.

A.S. is the corresponding author. E-mail: sarkhosha@ufl.edu.

  • View in gallery

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images (bar, 50 μm; ×1000 magnification) of the pinewood biochar particles at magnifications of ×100 (A, D, J), ×500 (B, E, H), and ×1000 (C, F, I).

  • View in gallery

    Soil temperatures measured in May, June, and July, respectively. (A) Measured on transplanting day. (B) Measured 33 d after transplanting. (C) Measured 52 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

  • View in gallery

    Soil moisture in gravimetric water content (GWC%) in the bag and pot in June and July. (A) Measurements of the plants in a pot 33 d after transplanting. (B) Measurements of the plants in a pot 54 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

  • View in gallery

    Leaf chlorophyll [soil plant analysis development (SPAD) reading] values of the newest six mature leaves of muscadine grape at (A) 35 d and (B) 54 d after transplanting. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

  • View in gallery

    Leaf photosynthesis net of muscadine grape plants measured 16 weeks after transplanting with the three newest mature leaves. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

  • View in gallery

    (A) Shoot and (B) root dry weight of muscadine grapes determined after 72 h at 45 °C in a drying oven. Bars with the same letters indicate that the means are not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different according to the Tukey-Kramer test. Error bars show the se (n = 12).

  • Aamer, M., Shaaban, M., Hassan, M.U., Guoqin, H., Ying, L., Ying, T.H., Rasul, F., Qiaoying, M., Zhuanling, L. & Rasheed, A. 2020 Biochar mitigates the N2O emissions from acidic soil by increasing the nosZ and nirK gene abundance and soil pH J. Environ. Manage. 255 109891 doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109891

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abrishamkesh, S., Gorji, M., Asadi, H., Bagheri-Marandi, G. & Pourbabaee, A. 2015 Effects of rice husk biochar application on the properties of alkaline soil and lentil growth Plant Soil Environ. 61 475 482 doi: 10.17221/117/2015-PSE

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adnan, A., Mavinic, D.S. & Koch, F.A. 2003 Pilot-scale study of phosphorus recovery through struvite crystallization examining the process feasibility J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2 315 324 doi: 10.1139/s03-040

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N. & Bird, M.I. 2016 Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar-compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil Sci. Total Environ. 543 295 306 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agegnehu, G., Bass, A.M., Nelson, P.N., Muirhead, B., Wright, G. & Bird, M.I. 2015 Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments: Effects on peanut yield, soil properties and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical North Queensland, Australia Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 213 72 85 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2015.07.027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aggangan, N.S., Cortes, A.D., Opulencia, R.B., Jomao-as, J.G. & Yecyec, R.P. 2019 Effects of mycorrhizal fungi and bamboo biochar on the rhizosphere bacterial population and nutrient uptake of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) Seedlings. Philipp. J. Crop Sci. (PJCS) 44 1 9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Akhtar, S.S., Li, G., Andersen, M.N. & Liu, F. 2014 Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation Agr. Water Manage. 138 37 44 doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2014.02.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alburquerque, J.A., Salazar, P., Barron, V., Torrent, J., del Campillo, M.D., Gallardo, A. & Villar, R. 2013 Enhanced wheat yield by biochar addition under different mineral fertilization levels Agron. Sustain. Dev. 33 475 484 doi: 10.1007/s13593-012-0128-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ali, S., Rizwan, M., Qayyum, M.F., Ok, Y.S., Ibrahim, M., Riaz, M., Arif, M.S., Hafeez, F., Al-Wabel, M.I. & Shahzad, A.N. 2017 Biochar soil amendment on alleviation of drought and salt stress in plants: A critical review Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24 12700 12712 doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8904-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asai, H., Samson, B.K., Stephan, H.M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono, Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa, T. & Horie, T. 2009 Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield Field Crops Res. 111 81 84 doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2008.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson, C.J., Fitzgerald, J.D. & Hipps, N.A. 2010 Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: A review Plant Soil 337 1 18 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0464-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bailey, V.L., Fansler, S.J., Smith, J.L. & Bolton, H. 2011 Reconciling apparent variability in effects of biochar amendment on soil enzyme activities by assay optimization Soil Biol. Biochem. 43 296 301 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.10.014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Batista, E.M., Shultz, J., Matos, T.T., Fornari, M.R., Ferreira, T.M., Szpoganicz, B., de Freitas, R.A. & Mangrich, A.S. 2018 Effect of surface and porosity of biochar on water holding capacity aiming indirectly at preservation of the amazon biome Sci. Rep. 8 10677 doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28794-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berek, A.K., Hue, N.V., Radovich, T.J. & Ahmad, A.A. 2018 Biochars improve nutrient phyto-availability of Hawai’i’s highly weathered soils Agronomy 8 203 doi: 10.3390/agronomy8100203

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bieleski, R. & Ferguson, I. 1983 Physiology and metabolism of phosphate and its compounds, p. 422–449. In: Inorganic plant nutrition. Springer, Berlin, Germany. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-68885-0_15

  • Bigelow, C.A., Bowman, D.C. & Cassel, D.K. 2001 Nitrogen leaching in sand-based rootzones amended with inorganic soil amendments and sphagnum peat J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 126 151 156 doi: 10.21273/JASHS.126.1.151

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bravo, S., Amorós, J., Pérez-De-Los-Reyes, C., García, F., Moreno, M., Sánchez-Ormeño, M. & Higueras, P. 2017 Influence of the soil pH in the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn) and other elements (Ca, K, Al, Sr and Ba) in vine leaves, Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) J. Geochem. Explor. 174 79 83 doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.12.012

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, S. P., Treadwell, D., Stephens, J. & Webb, S. 2018 Florida vegetable gardening guide. UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program Publication SP 103

  • Bruun, E.W., Petersen, C.T., Hansen, E., Holm, J.K. & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. 2014 Biochar amendment to coarse sandy subsoil improves root growth and increases water retention Soil Use Manage. 30 109 118 doi: 10.1111/sum.12102

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buss, W., Kammann, C. & Koyro, H.W. 2012 Biochar reduces copper toxicity in chenopodium quinoa willd. in a sandy soil J. Environ. Qual. 41 1157 1165 doi: 10.2134/jeq2011.0022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buss, W., Shepherd, J.G., Heal, K.V. & Mašek, O. 2018 Spatial and temporal microscale pH change at the soil-biochar interface Geoderma 331 50 52 doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.06.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Case, S.D.C., McNamara, N.P., Reay, D.S. & Whitaker, J. 2012 The effect of biochar addition on N2O and CO2 emissions from a sandy loam soil - The role of soil aeration Soil Biol. Biochem. 51 125 134 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2012.03.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, B., Chen, Z. & Lv, S. 2011 A novel magnetic biochar efficiently sorbs organic pollutants and phosphate Bioresour. Technol. 102 716 723 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.08.067

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chang, H.Y., Ahmed, O.H. & Majid, N.M.A. 2014 Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes ScientificWorldJournal doi: 10.1155/2014/506356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clough, T., Condron, L., Kammann, C. & Müller, C. 2013 A review of biochar and soil nitrogen dynamics Agronomy 3 275 293 doi: 10.3390/agronomy3020275

  • Collins, M.E. 2017 Soils of Florida and the Caribbean: LRRs U and Z, p. 281–303. In: The soils of the USA. Springer, Berlin, Germany

  • Compant, S., Clement, C. & Sessitsch, A. 2010 Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo- and endosphere of plants: Their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and prospects for utilization Soil Biol. Biochem. 42 669 678 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.11.024

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dempster, D.N., Gleeson, D.B., Solaiman, Z.M., Jones, D.L. & Murphy, D.V. 2012 Decreased soil microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralisation with Eucalyptus biochar addition to a coarse textured soil Plant Soil 354 311 324 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-1067-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duan, Y., Awasthi, S.K., Liu, T., Chen, H., Zhang, Z., Wang, Q., Ren, X., Tu, Z., Awasthi, M.K. & Taherzadeh, M.J. 2019 Dynamics of fungal diversity and interactions with environmental elements in response to wheat straw biochar amended poultry manure composting Bioresour. Technol. 274 410 417 doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.12.020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duarte Alonso, A. & O’Neill, M.A. 2012 Consumption of muscadine grape by-products: An exploration among Southern US consumers Brit. Food J. 114 400 415 doi: 10.1108/00070701211213492

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • El-Dine, T.G. & Hosny, M.M. 2000 Field evaluation of surge and continuous flows in furrow irrigation systems Water Resources Manag. 14 77 87 doi: 10.1023/A:1008189004992

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferreira, C., Verheijen, F., Puga, J., Keizer, J. & Ferreira, A. 2017 Biochar in vineyards: Impact on soil quality and crop yield four years after the application, p. 1600. EGU General Assembly Conf. (abstr.)

  • Gao, S., Hoffman-Krull, K., Bidwell, A. & DeLuca, T. 2016 Locally produced wood biochar increases nutrient retention and availability in agricultural soils of the San Juan Islands, USA Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 233 43 54 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.08.028

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaspar, A.P. & Laboski, C.A. 2016 Base saturation: What is it? Should I be concerned? Does it affect my fertility program, p. 55–61. In: Proc. 2016 Wis. Crop Manage. Conf

  • Genesio, L., Miglietta, F., Baronti, S. & Vaccari, F.P. 2015 Biochar increases vineyard productivity without affecting grape quality: Results from a four years field experiment in Tuscany Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 201 20 25 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2014.11.021

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gillette, D.A. & Walker, T.R. 1977 Characteristics of airborne particles produced by wind erosion of sandy soil, high plains of west Texas Soil Sci. 123 97 110

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Githinji, L. 2014 Effect of biochar application rate on soil physical and hydraulic properties of a sandy loam Arch. Agron. Soil Sci. 60 457 470 doi: 10.1080/03650340.2013.821698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glaser, B., Lehmann, J. & Zech, W. 2002 Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal - a review Biol. Fertil. Soils 35 219 230 doi: 10.1007/s00374-002-0466-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gondek, K., Mierzwa-Hersztek, M., Kopeć, M., Sikora, J., Głąb, T. & Szczurowska, K. 2019 Influence of biochar application on reduced acidification of sandy soil, increased cation exchange capacity, and the content of available forms of K, Mg, and P Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 28 103 111 doi: 10.15244/pjoes/81688

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, J., Huang, Z., Zhou, X., Xia, C., Imran, M., Wang, S., Xu, C., Zha, M., Liu, Y. & Zhang, C. 2019 Tissue-specific transcriptomic profiling of Plantago major provides insights for the involvement of vasculature in phosphate deficiency responses Mol. Genet. Genomics 294 159 175 doi: 10.1007/s00438-018-1496-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ippolito, J.A., Laird, D.A. & Busscher, W.J. 2012 Environmental Benefits of Biochar J. Environ. Qual. 41 967 972 doi: 10.2134/jeq2012.0151

  • Irfan, M., Hussain, Q., Khan, K.S., Akmal, M., Ijaz, S.S., Hayat, R., Khalid, A., Azeem, M. & Rashid, M. 2019 Response of soil microbial biomass and enzymatic activity to biochar amendment in the organic carbon deficient arid soil: A 2-year field study Arab. J. Geosci. 12 95 doi: 10.1007/s12517-019-4239-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isaac, R.A. & Johnson, W.C. 1985 Elemental analysis of plant tissue by plasma emission spectroscopy: Collaborative study J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 68 499 505 doi: 10.1093/jaoac/68.3.499

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeffery, S., Abalos, D., Prodana, M., Bastos, A.C., Van Groenigen, J.W., Hungate, B.A. & Verheijen, F. 2017 Biochar boosts tropical but not temperate crop yields Environ. Res. Lett. 12 053001 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/aa67bd

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kammann, C., Ratering, S., Eckhard, C. & Muller, C. 2012 Biochar and hydrochar effects on greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) fluxes from soils J. Environ. Qual. 41 1052 1066 doi: 10.2134/jeq2011.0132

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kammann, C.I., Linsel, S., Gößling, J.W. & Koyro, H.-W. 2011 Influence of biochar on drought tolerance of Chenopodium quinoa Willd and on soil–plant relations Plant Soil 345 195 210 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-0771-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kan, T., Strezov, V. & Evans, T.J. 2016 Lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis: A review of product properties and effects of pyrolysis parameters Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 57 1126 1140 doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.185

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaurin, A., Cernilogar, Z. & Lestan, D. 2018 Revitalisation of metal-contaminated, EDTA-washed soil by addition of unpolluted soil, compost and biochar: Effects on soil enzyme activity, microbial community composition and abundance Chemosphere 193 726 736 doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laghari, M., Mirjat, M.S., Hu, Z., Fazal, S., Xiao, B., Hu, M., Chen, Z. & Guo, D. 2015 Effects of biochar application rate on sandy desert soil properties and sorghum growth Catena 135 313 320 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2015.08.013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laird, D.A. 2008 The charcoal vision: A win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon, while improving soil and water quality Agron. J. 100 178 181 doi: 10.2134/agronj2007.0161

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehmann, J. & Joseph, S. 2015 Biochar for environmental management: Science, technology and implementation. Routledge, London, UK

  • Lehmann, J., Rillig, M.C., Thies, J., Masiello, C.A., Hockaday, W.C. & Crowley, D. 2011 Biochar effects on soil biota - A review Soil Biol. Biochem. 43 1812 1836 doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.022

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, Z., Dugan, B., Masiello, C.A., Barnes, R.T., Gallagher, M.E. & Gonnermann, H. 2016 Impacts of biochar concentration and particle size on hydraulic conductivity and DOC leaching of biochar–sand mixtures J. Hydrol. 533 461 472 doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Major, J., Rondon, M., Molina, D., Riha, S.J. & Lehmann, J. 2010 Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol Plant Soil 333 117 128 doi: 10.1007/s11104-010-0327-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marchi, E.C., Zotarelli, L., Delgado, J.A., Rowland, D.L. & Marchi, G. 2016 Use of the Nitrogen Index to assess nitrate leaching and water drainage from plastic-mulched horticultural cropping systems of Florida Intl. Soil Water Conserv. Res. 4 237 244 doi: 10.1016/j.iswcr.2016.12.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, J., Muhlack, R., Morton, B.J., Dunnigan, L., Chittleborough, D. & Kwong, C.W. 2019 Pyrolysis temperature effects on biochar–Water interactions and application for improved water holding capacity in vineyard soils Soil Syst. 3 27 doi: 10.3390/soilsystems3020027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marx, E., Hart, J. M. & Stevens, R. G. 1996 Soil test interpretation guide. Oregon State University Extension Service, Corvallis, OR

  • Mohamed, B.A., Ellis, N., Kim, C.S., Bi, X. & Emam, A.E.-r. 2016 Engineered biochar from microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of switchgrass for increasing water-holding capacity and fertility of sandy soil Sci. Total Environ. 566 387 397 doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mukherjee, S., Mavi, M. & Singh, J. 2019 Differential response of biochar derived from rice-residue waste on phosphorus availability in soils with dissimilar pH Intl. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 17 3065 3074 doi: 10.1007/s13762-019-02575-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nikravesh, I., Boroomandnasab, S. & Abd Ali Naseri, A.S.M. 2019 Wheat straw biochar application to loam-sand soil: impact on yield components of summer maize and some soil properties WORLD 8 54 60

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Novak, J., Sigua, G., Watts, D., Cantrell, K., Shumaker, P., Szogi, A., Johnson, M.G. & Spokas, K. 2016 Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer Chemosphere 142 160 167 doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.038

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obia, A., Mulder, J., Hale, S.E., Nurida, N.L. & Cornelissen, G. 2018 The potential of biochar in improving drainage, aeration and maize yields in heavy clay soils PLoS One 13 e0196794 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196794

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Obour, P.B., Danso, E.O., Yakubu, A., Abenney-Mickson, S., Sabi, E.B., Darrah, Y.K. & Arthur, E. 2019 Water retention, air exchange and pore structure characteristics after three years of rice straw biochar application to an Acrisol Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 83 1664 1671 doi: 10.2136/sssaj2019.07.0230

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ohsowski, B.M., Dunfield, K., Klironomos, J.N. & Hart, M.M. 2018 Plant response to biochar, compost, and mycorrhizal fungal amendments in post-mine sandpits Restor. Ecol. 26 63 72 doi: 10.1111/rec.12528

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olmo, M., Villar, R., Salazar, P. & Alburquerque, J.A. 2016 Changes in soil nutrient availability explain biochar’s impact on wheat root development Plant Soil 399 333 343 doi: 10.1007/ s11104-015-2700-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Palansooriya, K.N., Wong, J.T.F., Hashimoto, Y., Huang, L., Rinklebe, J., Chang, S.X., Bolan, N., Wang, H. & Ok, Y.S. 2019 Response of microbial communities to biochar-amended soils: A critical review Biochar 1 3 22 doi: 10.1007/s42773-019-00009-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paneque, M., José, M., Franco-Navarro, J.D., Colmenero-Flores, J.M. & Knicker, H. 2016 Effect of biochar amendment on morphology, productivity and water relations of sunflower plants under non-irrigation conditions Catena 147 280 287 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2016.07.037

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peng, X., Zhu, Q., Xie, Z., Darboux, F. & Holden, N.M. 2016 The impact of manure, straw and biochar amendments on aggregation and erosion in a hillslope Ultisol Catena 138 30 37 doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2015.11.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petri, A.N. & Petrovic, A.M. 2001 Cation exchange capacity impacts on shoot growth and nutrient recovery in sand based creeping bentgrass greens Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 9 422 427

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pierzynski, G.M., McDowell, R.W. & Thomas Sims, J. 2005 Chemistry, cycling, and potential movement of inorganic phosphorus in soils, p. 51–86. In: Phosphorus: Agriculture and the environment. Madison, WI. doi: 10.2134/agronmonogr46.c3

  • Prendergast-Miller, M.T., Duvall, M. & Sohi, S.P. 2014 Biochar-root interactions are mediated by biochar nutrient content and impacts on soil nutrient availability Eur. J. Soil Sci. 65 173 185 doi: 10.1111/ejss.12079

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Quilliam, R.S., Marsden, K.A., Gertler, C., Rousk, J., DeLuca, T.H. & Jones, D.L. 2012 Nutrient dynamics, microbial growth and weed emergence in biochar amended soil are influenced by time since application and reapplication rate Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 158 192 199 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2012.06.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rees, F., Simonnot, M.O. & Morel, J.L. 2014 Short-term effects of biochar on soil heavy metal mobility are controlled by intra-particle diffusion and soil pH increase Eur. J. Soil Sci. 65 149 161 doi: 10.1111/ejss.12107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reichert, J.M., Amado, T.J.C., Reinert, D.J., Rodrigues, M.F. & Suzuki, L.E.A.S. 2016 Land use effects on subtropical, sandy soil under sandyzation/desertification processes Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 233 370 380 doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.09.039

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rondon, M.A., Lehmann, J., Ramirez, J. & Hurtado, M. 2007 Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions Biol. Fertil. Soils 43 699 708 doi: 10.1007/s00374-006-0152-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwartz, M.W., Hoeksema, J.D., Gehring, C.A., Johnson, N.C., Klironomos, J.N., Abbott, L.K. & Pringle, A. 2006 The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum Ecol. Lett. 9 501 515 doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2006.00910.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, L.G., de Andrade, C.A. & Bettiol, W. 2020 Biochar amendment increases soil microbial biomass and plant growth and suppresses Fusarium wilt in tomato Trop. Plant Pathol. 45 73 83 doi: 10.1007/s40858-020-00332-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sorrenti, G., Ventura, M. & Toselli, M. 2016 Effect of biochar on nutrient retention and nectarine tree performance: A three-year field trial J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 179 336 346 doi: 10.1002/jpln.201500497

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, S.C., Frye, S., Gale, N., Garmon, M., Launchbury, R., Machado, N., Melamed, S., Murray, J., Petroff, A. & Winsborough, C. 2013 Biochar mitigates negative effects of salt additions on two herbaceous plant species J. Environ. Manage. 129 62 68 doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.05.057

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaccari, F.P., Baronti, S., Lugato, E., Genesio, L., Castaldi, S., Fornasier, F. & Miglietta, F. 2011 Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat Eur. J. Agron. 34 231 238 doi: 10.1016/j.eja.2011.01.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vance, C.P., Uhde-Stone, C. & Allan, D.L. 2003 Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource New Phytol. 157 423 447 doi: 10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00695.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ventura, M., Sorrenti, G., Panzacchi, P., George, E. & Tonon, G. 2013 Biochar reduces short-term nitrate leaching from a horizon in an apple orchard J. Environ. Qual. 42 76 82 doi: 10.2134/jeq2012.0250

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, T., Camps-Arbestain, M., Hedley, M. & Bishop, P. 2012 Predicting phosphorus bioavailability from high-ash biochars Plant Soil 357 173 187 doi: 10.1007/s11104-012-1131-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., Pan, F., Wang, G., Zhang, G., Wang, Y., Chen, X. & Mao, Z. 2014 Effects of biochar on photosynthesis and antioxidative system of Malus hupehensis Rehd. seedlings under replant conditions Scientia Hort. 175 9 15 doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2014.05.029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Z., Tang, C., Wang, H., Zhao, C., Yin, D., Yuan, Y., Yang, K. & Li, Z. 2019 Effect of different amounts of biochar on meadow soil characteristics and maize yields over three years BioResources 14 4194 4209

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weber, K. & Quicker, P. 2018 Properties of biochar Fuel 217 240 261 doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.12.054

  • Xu, C.-Y., Hosseini-Bai, S., Hao, Y., Rachaputi, R.C., Wang, H., Xu, Z. & Wallace, H. 2015 Effect of biochar amendment on yield and photosynthesis of peanut on two types of soils Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Intl. 22 6112 6125 doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3820-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, L., Liao, F., Huang, M., Yang, L. & Li, Y. 2015 Biochar improves sugarcane seedling root and soil properties under a pot experiment Sugar Tech 17 36 40 doi: 10.1007/s12355-014-0335-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, O.-Y., Raichle, B. & Sink, S. 2013 Impact of biochar on the water holding capacity of loamy sand soil Intl. J. Energy Environ. Eng. 4 44 doi: 10.1186/2251-6832-4-44

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhai, L., CaiJi, Z., Liu, J., Wang, H., Ren, T., Gai, X., Xi, B. & Liu, H. 2015 Short-term effects of maize residue biochar on phosphorus availability in two soils with different phosphorus sorption capacities Biol. Fertil. Soils 51 113 122 doi: 10.1007/s00374-014-0954-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, A.F., Liu, Y.M., Pan, G.X., Hussain, Q., Li, L.Q., Zheng, J.W. & Zhang, X.H. 2012a Effect of biochar amendment on maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a soil organic carbon poor calcareous loamy soil from Central China Plain Plant Soil 351 263 275 doi: 10.1007/s11104-011-0957-x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, A.F., Bian, R.J., Pan, G.X., Cui, L.Q., Hussain, Q., Li, L.Q., Zheng, J.W., Zheng, J.F., Zhang, X.H., Han, X.J. & Yu, X.Y. 2012b Effects of biochar amendment on soil quality, crop yield and greenhouse gas emission in a Chinese rice paddy: A field study of 2 consecutive rice growing cycles Field Crops Res. 127 153 160 doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2011.11.020

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, Q., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Wang, X., Du, Z., Liu, X. & Song, J. 2013 Effects of biochar amendment on soil thermal conductivity, reflectance, and temperature Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 77 1478 1487 doi: 10.2136/sssaj2012.0180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, X., Chen, B., Zhu, L. & Xing, B. 2017 Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review Environ. Pollut. 227 98 115 doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.04.032

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 95 95 93
PDF Downloads 34 34 34