‘Donglin Shuying’: A New Iris sanguinea Cultivar

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Lei Wang College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Huijun Liu College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Yu Gao Forest Protection Research Institute, Heilongjiang Academy of Forestry, Harbin 150081, China

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Gongfa Shi College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Guiling Liu College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Ling Wang College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Iris sanguinea is a perennial herb with high ornamental value, and its flowers are brightly colored and unique, with strong resistance to disease, water and humidity, and cold. As an excellent material for landscaping in cold areas, it can be widely used as a landscape planting for flowerbeds, garden borders, and potted plants, among others. It is also an emerging material for cut flowers with broad development and application prospects.

The breeding of new I. sanguinea cultivars are mainly through crossing, I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora are the most used breeding parents. The flower color of I. sanguinea f. albiflora is white (Yang et al. 2019), and that of I. sanguinea is blue (Li et al. 2018). By crossing I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora, some new cultivars have been developed, such as ‘Ban Die’ (Wang and Wang 2017), ‘NEFU-1’ (Qi et al. 2020), ‘Flower Angel’ (Fan et al. 2021), ‘Dong Lin Zi’ (Yang et al. 2022), and ‘Qihuan Zi’ (Fan et al. 2022). Although these new cultivars have been greatly improved in flower color, the flower type is still the same as that of their parents. Here, we report the release of the new I. sanguinea cultivar ‘Donglin Shuying’ with a distinctive flower type and color. Compared with its parents, its flower type is flat, and the outer perianth and inner perianth are light purple with purple venation and spots.

Origin

The seeds of I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora were obtained from the Shenyang Botanical Garden of China and sown in Mao-er Mountain Experimental Forest Nursery, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China, in Spring 2003. In Autumn 2011, seeds produced through crossing were collected from native I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora and planted in the same nursery in Spring 2012. Open-pollinated seeds were collected in Autumn 2014 and sown in the same nursery in Spring 2015. In 2017, a unique plant was observed among the progenies that differed in flower color and flower type from its parents. Its flower type was flat, and the outer perianth and inner perianth were light purple with purple venation and spots. In the following 3 years, the clones were established by ramet propagation in the same nursery, and the plants exhibited healthy growth. After 3 years of continuous field observations from 2019 to 2022, all plants showed stable and consistent morphological traits. In 2022, this new cultivar was named Donglin Shuying, which was officially authorized by the American Iris Society (accession no. 22-0584).

Description

From 2019 to 2022, ‘Donglin Shuying’, I. sanguinea, and I. sanguinea f. albiflora were planted in the experimental field in the nursery of Northeast Forestry University in Harbin, China. Ninety plants of ‘Donglin Shuying’, I. sanguinea, and I. sanguinea f. albiflora were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications of 30 plants each. Thirty plants were randomly selected from each genotype for data collection during the flowering period. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way analysis of variance using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.0. All colors were recorded according to the Royal Horticultural Society (2007; RHS) Color Chart.

The morphological traits of ‘Donglin Shuying’, I. sanguinea, and I. sanguinea f. albiflora are presented in Table 1. The plant height of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (101.03 ± 1.84 cm) is significantly higher than those of its parents I. sanguinea (56.69 ± 0.95 cm) and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (57.28 ± 1.09 cm). ‘Donglin Shuying’ has longer and wider leaves than its two parents, however, the bract length and bract width of ‘Donglin Shuying’ are insignificantly different from that of both parents.

Table 1.

Morphological traits of ‘Donglin Shuying’, I. sanguine, and I. sanguinea f. albiflora.

Table 1.

The flower diameter of ‘Donglin Shuying’ is 10.16 ± 0.49 cm, which is significantly larger than those of its parents. ‘Donglin Shuying’ has three inner perianths, outer perianths, stamens, and pistils, which are identical to those of the parents (Fig. 1A–C). The outer perianths (5.96 ± 0.11 cm in length; 4.32 ± 0.08 cm in width) and inner perianths (5.41 ± 0.08 cm in length; 2.56 ± 0.08 cm in width) of ‘Donglin Shuying’ are significantly longer and wider than those of both parents, but the inner and outer perianth length/width ratios (1.38 ± 0.03 and 2.12 ± 0.06) are less than those of both origins. The inner perianths of ‘Donglin Shuying’ are nearly horizontal when blooming, but its two parents have nearly upright inner perianths (Fig. 1D–F). The flower color of ‘Donglin Shuying’ is different from that of its parents. Its outer perianths and inner perianths are light purple (RHS 76D) with purple (RHS 75A) venation and spots (Fig. 1G). However, the inner and outer perianths of I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora are blue-violet (RHS N88A) and white (RHS N155C) (Fig. 1H and I). ‘Donglin Shuying’, I. sanguinea, and I. sanguinea f. albiflora all exhibit light yellow (RHS 8B) at the base of the inner perianths and outer perianths (Fig. 1A–C). The style arms of ‘Donglin Shuying’ are light purple (RHS 76D), whereas I. sanguinea and I. sanguinea f. albiflora are blue-violet (RHS N88A) and white (RHS N155C), respectively (Fig. 1A–C). The anther of ‘Donglin Shuying’ is violet (RHS N78B), compared with the violet-blue (RHS N92C) anthers of I. sanguinea and yellow (RHS 15A) color of I. sanguinea f. albiflora (Fig. 1A–C). There is no fragrance when ‘Donglin Shuying’ and its parents bloomed. The flower and fruit periods of ‘Donglin Shuying’ are similar to those of both parents, with flowering times from 5 Jun to 25 Jun and fruiting times from 10 Aug to 20 Sep.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Flower anatomy of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (A), I. sanguine (B), and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (C), showing their outer perianths, inner perianths, style arms, and stamens. Representative flowers of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (D and G), I. sanguine (E and H) and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (F and I).

Citation: HortScience 59, 5; 10.21273/HORTSCI17736-24

In conclusion, the major differences between ‘Donglin Shuying’ and its parents are plant height, leaf length, flower diameter, flower type, and flower color. ‘Donglin Shuying’ has a higher plant height and leaf length, and its flower is larger and more special in flower type and color.

Cultivation Techniques

‘Donglin Shuying’ has strong cold resistance and can spend the winter outdoors in Harbin, China. It is suitable for growing in northern China or areas with similar climates. ‘Donglin Shuying’ does not have strict requirements on soil, but it is better to use sandy loam or light clay with good permeability and rich humus. It can be propagated asexually via division in spring, summer, or early autumn. Water was thoroughly applied before planting, and the soil was kept moist after planting. Generally, fertilization is not needed, and pests and diseases rarely occur.

Landscape Applications

‘Donglin Shuying’ has large flowers and long stems, which can be used as cut flowers. With strong resistance and extensive management, it can be planted in wet grassland, waterside wetland, and sunny land for urban landscaping and ecological restoration.

Availability

Inquiries about research or request for ‘Donglin Shuying’ plant materials can be made to Dr. Ling Wang (E-mail: wanglinghlj@126.com) at the College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

References Cited

  • Fan LJ, Gao Y, Hasenstein KH, Wang L. 2022. ‘Flower Angel’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 56:617618. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI15703-21.

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  • Li L, Tang HW, Han H, Chen F, Xiong Y, Zhang TS, Qu YT. 2018. Study on breedling, cultivation technique and application in cold regions of Iris sanguinea. Territory & Natural Resources Study. 6:9596. https://doi.org/10.16202/j.cnki.tnrs.2018.06.025.

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  • Qi XY, Fan LJ, Gao Y, Shang YH, Liu HY, Wang L. 2020. ‘NEFU-1’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 55:109111. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14578-19.

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  • Royal Horticultural Society. 2007. Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart. Royal Horticultural Society, London, UK.

  • Wang K, Wang L. 2017. A new Iris sanguinea cultivar ‘Bandie’. Yuan Yi Xue Bao. 44:27152716. https://doi.org/10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0143.

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  • Yang J, Du Y, Zhao JJ, Wang L. 2019. A new Iris sanguinea cultivar ‘Mi lian’. Yuan Yi Xue Bao. 46:28432844. https://doi.org/10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0674.

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    • Export Citation
  • Yang J, Li FY, Zhou S, Fan LJ, Wang L. 2022. ‘Dong Lin Zi’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 57:197199. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16263-21.

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  • Fig. 1.

    Flower anatomy of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (A), I. sanguine (B), and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (C), showing their outer perianths, inner perianths, style arms, and stamens. Representative flowers of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (D and G), I. sanguine (E and H) and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (F and I).

  • Fan LJ, Gao Y, Hasenstein KH, Wang L. 2022. ‘Flower Angel’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 56:617618. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI15703-21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li L, Tang HW, Han H, Chen F, Xiong Y, Zhang TS, Qu YT. 2018. Study on breedling, cultivation technique and application in cold regions of Iris sanguinea. Territory & Natural Resources Study. 6:9596. https://doi.org/10.16202/j.cnki.tnrs.2018.06.025.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qi XY, Fan LJ, Gao Y, Shang YH, Liu HY, Wang L. 2020. ‘NEFU-1’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 55:109111. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14578-19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Royal Horticultural Society. 2007. Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart. Royal Horticultural Society, London, UK.

  • Wang K, Wang L. 2017. A new Iris sanguinea cultivar ‘Bandie’. Yuan Yi Xue Bao. 44:27152716. https://doi.org/10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2017-0143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang J, Du Y, Zhao JJ, Wang L. 2019. A new Iris sanguinea cultivar ‘Mi lian’. Yuan Yi Xue Bao. 46:28432844. https://doi.org/10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2018-0674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang J, Li FY, Zhou S, Fan LJ, Wang L. 2022. ‘Dong Lin Zi’: A new Iris sanguinea cultivar. HortScience. 57:197199. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16263-21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Lei Wang College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Huijun Liu College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Yu Gao Forest Protection Research Institute, Heilongjiang Academy of Forestry, Harbin 150081, China

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Gongfa Shi College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Guiling Liu College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Ling Wang College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China

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Contributor Notes

This work was supported by the Special Project for Scientific and Technological Basic Resources Investigation (2019FY100500) and the National Science Foundation (31670344).

L.W. is the corresponding author. E-mail: wanglinghlj@126.com.

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  • Fig. 1.

    Flower anatomy of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (A), I. sanguine (B), and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (C), showing their outer perianths, inner perianths, style arms, and stamens. Representative flowers of ‘Donglin Shuying’ (D and G), I. sanguine (E and H) and I. sanguinea f. albiflora (F and I).

 

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