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ASHS 2024 Annual Conference

 

Neoagaro-oligosaccharides Improve the Postharvest Flower Quality and Vase Life of Cut Rose ‘Gaoyuanhong’

Authors:
Yanling Wan Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China; and College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China

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Chao Wen Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China

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Linfeng Gong Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China

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Hanting Zeng School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China

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Chengpeng Wang Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China

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Abstract

Rose is among the most important cut flower crops worldwide. The vase life is an important indicator of cut rose quality. The composition of the vase solution directly affects vase life. Neoagaro-oligosaccharides (NAOS) are degraded seaweed-derived polysaccharides that constitute a group of compounds with small molecular weight and good water solubility. Oligosaccharide treatment can extend the postharvest longevity of certain types of cut flowers; however, little information is available on the utility of NAOS for preservation of cut rose flowers. To explore the effects of NAOS on the longevity and quality of cut flowers of rose ‘Gaoyuanhong’, 100 mg·L−1 NAOS alone and in combination with 10 g·L−1 sucrose were incorporated in the vase solution. Distilled water was used as the control. Physiological indicators, comprising maximum flower diameter, fresh weight, water balance, vase life, bacteria number in the vase solution, and hormone contents of the outer petals, were determined in fresh cut flowers and analyzed. Compared with the control, 100 mg·L−1 NAOS treatment increased the maximum flower diameter (mean 8.21 cm), induced the maximum rates of change in flower diameter and cut flower fresh weight, maintained the best water balance, significantly extended the vase life to 16 days, and reduced the number of bacteria in the vase solution. The abscisic acid content of the outer petals in the control and 100 mg·L−1 NAOS treatments were significantly lower than that of the other treatments on day 9. The results showed that NAOS is useful to improve the postharvest quality and extend the vase life of cut rose flowers, and might contribute to the development of novel alternative preservatives for the cut rose industry.

Rose (Rosa hybrida) belongs to the family Rosaceae and is a valuable horticultural crop worldwide. Cut rose is one of the most economically important fresh cut flowers crops. In general, cut rose flowers are especially susceptible to water stress under unfavorable postharvest environments and often lose their salability in retail shops or their aesthetic value after being purchased by consumers (In et al. 2016). Postharvest technology can be used to extend flower longevity to supply long-lasting cut flowers (Scariot et al. 2014). The vase life of cut rose flowers is determined by many factors, such as water relations (Doi et al. 2000; Hassan et al. 2020; In et al. 2017), sugar concentration (Norikoshi et al. 2016; van Doorn 2004), oxidative stress (Saeed et al. 2014), ethylene (Wu et al. 1991), and microbial growth (He et al. 2006; Loubaud and van Doorn 2004; Vaslier and van Doorn 2003). A variety of chemical additives improves postharvest water relations to extend the vase life of cut rose flowers; however, additional novel alternative preservatives to improve flower quality and delay senescence of cut rose flowers for international markets are needed.

Oligosaccharides are an important aspect of sugar research. Oligosaccharides comprise a class of carbohydrates of 2 to 10 identical or different monosaccharides connected by glycosidic bonds to form straight or branched chains, and the constituent units are mainly five- or six-carbon sugars (Jiang et al. 2021). Most commercial oligosaccharides are generated through chemical cleavage or enzymatic degradation (Nakakuki 2005; Rastall 2010). Oligosaccharides have various pharmacological and physiological properties that are widely used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries (Chi et al. 2020; Zhao et al. 2017). For example, chitosan oligosaccharides are used as a plant elicitor to promote plant growth and yield (Ou et al. 2022; Yin et al. 2012), induce resistance to plant disease (Jia et al. 2016), and inhibit fungi or bacteria (Bautista-Baños et al. 2006; Chen et al. 2009; Rabea et al. 2003). Xyloglucan oligosaccharides promote the flowering of carnations ‘Pure Red’ (Satoh et al. 2013). Alginate oligosaccharides enhance resistance to pathogens, drought, salt, heavy metals, and other stressors by triggering plant immunity, and perform well in postharvest storage (Zhang et al. 2020). Pectin-derived oligosaccharins extend the vase life and increase the postharvest quality of lisianthus flowers (López-Guerrero et al. 2019, 2021). Combined treatments of nigerosylmaltooligosaccharide with glucose and sucrose increase the number of open flowers and significantly extend the vase life of cut snapdragon flowers (Ichimura et al. 2022).

Agarose is an important marine linear polysaccharide in the cell walls of certain red algae (Li et al. 2007). As hydrolysates of agar/agarose, agaro-oligosaccharides are produced by breaking α-(1→4) bonds using α-agarase, and NAOS are prepared by breaking β-(1→4) bonds using β-agarase (Jiang et al. 2021; Kang et al. 2014; Li et al. 2007). Although recent studies have shown the activity of oligosaccharides in regulating plant growth and improving plant stress resistance, few studies have investigated the application of NAOS in the postharvest management of cut flowers, particularly for the preservation of cut rose flowers. The specificity of rose cultivars also necessitates differences in preservative treatment methods. In this study, to evaluate the effect of NAOS on the vase life of fresh cut flowers of rose ‘Gaoyuanhong’, we determined the flower diameter, fresh weight, water balance, vase life, microbial indicators, and hormone content of petals. The present study provides a basis for development of novel eco-friendly alternative preservatives for cut flowers.

Materials and Methods

Plant materials

Cut flowers of rose ‘Gaoyuanhong’ were obtained from Kunming Van den Berg Roses Co., Ltd., grown in Yunnan Province, China. The flowers were harvested at flower opening stage 3 (Ma et al. 2005) and transported to the laboratory within 2 d of harvest in October. The requirements for the test flowers were as follows: uniformity in extent of flower color, flower branch morphology, and degree of stem uprightness, and absence of plant diseases and mechanical damage. Neoagaro-oligosaccharides, with neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose as the main ingredients, were prepared by the Third Institute of Oceanography of the Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, China. Experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of Flower Breeding and Cultivation, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

Methods and treatments

On arrival at the laboratory, the cut flowers were placed in distilled water for ∼4 to 6 h, and placed in an environment without direct sunlight to replenish water consumed during transportation. The stems were obliquely trimmed under water to 50 cm in length to remove the basal portion of the stem. All leaves except the uppermost two compound leaves were removed. The trimmed cut flowers were placed in a vase containing 500 mL solution. Five flowers were placed in each vase and the mouth of the vase was sealed with plastic wrap to prevent evaporation. Four treatments were applied (Table 1) with three replicates per treatment. The vase was placed in an environmentally controlled room maintained at ∼16 to 20 °C. Selected quality and physiological indicators of the cut flowers were measured regularly.

Table 1.

Preservative treatments applied to cut flowers of rose ‘Gaoyuanhong’.

Table 1.

Measurements

Flower diameter.

The flower diameter in each treatment was measured every 48 h. Flower diameter was determined as the maximum diameter of each flower, measured with a vernier caliper (Ren et al. 2017), which was not measured at the end of the vase life.

Rate of change in flower diameter.

The rate of change in flower diameter (%) was calculated as follows: (cut flower diameter on a specific day – initial cut flower diameter at day 1)/initial cut flower diameter at day 1 × 100.

Cut flower fresh weight.

The total weight of the vase (vase, treatment solution, and cut flowers) was measured with an analytical balance. To measure the weight of the cut flowers, the cut flowers were taken out from the vase and placed individually on the top of the vase, the vase was weighed quickly, and after measurement the flowers were returned to the treatment solution. The fresh weight of the cut flowers was calculated as the total vase weight − weight of removed cut flowers.

Relative fresh weight.

The relative fresh weight of the cut flowers (%) was calculated as (fresh weight measured on a specific day/fresh weight on day 1) × 100.

Water balance.

The total weight of the vase (vase, treatment solution, and cut flowers) and weight of the cut flowers were measured with an analytical balance as described in the section Cut flower fresh weight. The difference between two total weight measurements indicated the amount of water evaporated from the cut flowers, and thus water loss. The difference between two measurements of the weight of the cut flowers indicated water absorption by the cut flowers. The water balance was calculated as water absorption − water loss.

Vase life.

The vase life was determined as the time from the placement of the cut flower vases in the environmentally controlled room to the end of the vase life. The morphological changes of the cut flowers were observed daily. Assessments of the vase life were performed daily in accordance with the evaluation card for rose (VBN 2005) with modifications. Briefly, the cut flowers were considered to have reached the end of their vase life when one or more of the following senescence symptoms was detected in at least three of the five florets: bending of the pedicel (bent-neck; neck angle ≥45°), wilting (≥50% petal turgor loss), bluing (≥50% blue petals), petal abscission (drop of three or more petals), and leaf abscission and yellowing (≥50% leaf drop and yellowing).

Bacterial number.

The bacterial content in the treatment solution was measured on day 15 after insertion of the stems in the vase. A sample (10 µL) of the treatment solution was taken from the vase, and diluted three times and 100 times. Liquid was spread on Plate Count Agar plates (Balestra et al. 2005). After 2 d of incubation at 37 °C in a constant temperature incubator, the number of bacterial colonies were counted.

Hormone quantification.

The outer whorl of petals (0.5 g) per replicate were removed on day 9, frozen rapidly in liquid nitrogen, and then stored at −80 °C. The samples were transported to Wuhan MetWare Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Wuhan, China; http://www.metware.cn/). The contents of auxins (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA), cytokinins (cis-zeatin riboside, cZR), abscisic acid (ABA), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and gibberellins (GA1 and GA3) were determined using an AB Sciex (Framingham, MA) QTRAP 6500 liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) platform according to the methods described as follows. Plant materials (50 mg fresh weight) were frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground into powder, and extracted with methanol/water/formic acid (15:4:1, v/v/v). The combined extracts were evaporated until they were dry under a stream of nitrogen gas, reconstituted in 80% methanol (v/v) and filtered (polytetrafluoroethylene, 0.22 μm; Anpel) before LC-MS/MS analysis. The sample extracts were then analyzed using an LC-ESI-MS/MS system [high-performance liquid chromatography, Shim-pack UFLC SHIMADZU CBM30A system (Kyoto, Japan); MS, Applied Biosystems 6500 Triple Quadrupole (Foster City, CA)]. Three replicates of each assay were performed.

Statistical analysis

Microsoft Excel 2010 (Redmond, WA), IBM SPSS Statistics 26 (Armonk, NY), and GraphPad Prism 8 (La Jolla, CA) were used to statistically analyze and graphically visualize the experimental data. The data are presented as means ± standard errors. The significance of difference between means (P < 0.05) was analyzed using analysis of variance, followed by a Duncan’s test. Least significant differences (LSD0.05) were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics 26.

Results

Flower diameter and rate of change in flower diameter.

The flower diameter in the different treatments showed a similar trend, namely, to increase initially and decrease thereafter during the treatment period, but the time to attain the maximum value differed between treatments (Fig. 1). With the increase in treatment duration, the diameter of cut flowers in the T2 treatment was significantly larger than that of the other treatments, and attained the maximum value of 8.21 cm on day 9, which represented an increase by 19.40% compared with the control (CK) (Fig. 1A). The rate of change in flower diameter attained the maximum value of 75.02% (Fig. 1B) on day 9. Compared with the CK, the timing of maximum flower diameter and the maximum rate of change in flower diameter in the T2 treatment was delayed. Thus, the T2 treatment significantly increased the cut flower diameter and delayed the timing that the maximum flower diameter was attained.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Effect of preservative solution on flower diameter (A) and rate of change in flower diameter (B) of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicates (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 0.71 for A, and 0.63 for B.

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Fresh weight and relative fresh weight.

As shown in Fig. 2, the fresh weight and relative fresh weight of cut flowers for each treatment showed a similar trend of briefly increasing and thereafter continuously decreasing, except for the T1 treatment. In the T3 treatment, the maximum fresh weight (0.125 g) was attained on day 3, whereas in the T2 treatment and CK the maximum fresh weight was observed on day 5 (Fig. 2A). On day 3, the relative fresh weight in the T2 treatment increased the most rapidly to the respiratory peak. The relative fresh weight of the CK and T2 treatment exceeded 100% on day 7, which was more frequent than observed in the T3 and T1 treatments (Fig. 2B). These results indicated that the T2 treatment promoted water absorption by the cut flowers and reduced water loss.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effect of preservative solution on the fresh weight (A) and relative fresh weight (B) of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicates (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 2.32 for A, and 2.23 for B.

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Water balance.

When water absorption exceeds water loss, the water balance value is greater than zero; when water absorption is less than the water loss, the water balance value is less than zero. All treatments showed a downward trend in the water balance value (Fig. 3). On day 5, the water balance of the T3 treatment was the first to assume a negative value. On day 7, the water balance values of all treatments were negative. These results suggested that the T2 treatment was superior in maintaining water absorption by the cut flowers.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effects of preservative solutions on the water balance of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 1.19.

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Vase life.

The vase life is an indicator of the effects of floral preservatives. The vase life was longest in the T2 treatment (16 d), which represented an increase by 19.40% compared with the CK, but no significant difference was observed for the other treatments (Fig. 4). Combined with the appearance of each flower in all treatments (Fig. 5), the results indicated that the T2 treatment was beneficial to prolong the vase life and maintained the straightness of cut flowers.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Effects of preservative solutions on the vase life of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Different lowercase letters within the same column indicate a significant differences among treatments (P < 0.05).

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Effects of preservative solutions on morphological characteristics of cut rose flowers on day 16. Bar = 6 cm.

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Number of bacteria in the vase solution.

The number of bacteria in each vase solution differed among the treatments (Fig. 6). The number of bacteria in the vase solution was the lowest in the T2 treatment, which was significantly decreased by 72.88% compared with the CK. The number of bacteria in the vase solution was the highest in the T1 treatment, which was increased by 1201.73% compared with the T2 treatment. The number of bacteria in the vase solution of the T3 treatment was moderate, which was lower than that of the T1 treatment but higher than the CK. Overall, the T2 treatment had the strongest antibacterial effect.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Effect of preservative solutions on the number of bacteria in the vase solution of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Different lowercase letters indicate a significant difference among treatments (P < 0.05).

Citation: HortScience 58, 4; 10.21273/HORTSCI16988-22

Hormone contents in the outermost petals.

The hormone contents in the outer whorl of petals of the cut rose flowers in each treatment were determined on day 9. As shown in Table 2, the contents of IAA, ACC, GA1, and GA3 in the outer petals of the CK and other treatments showed no significant change. However, the ABA content in the CK and T2 treatments were significantly lower than that of the T1 and T3 treatments, while cZR content in the T1 treatment was significantly lower than that of the T3 treatment. The ABA content of the T2 treatment was 5.22 ± 0.76 ng⋅g−1 fresh weight, which was 41.54% and 48.26% lower than that of the T1 and T3 treatments, respectively. The ABA content of the T3 treatment was increased by 69.5% compared with that of the CK. The cZR content of the T3 treatment (0.31 ± 0.06 ng⋅g−1 fresh weight) was increased by 55% compared with that of the T1 treatment (0.20 ± 0.01 ng⋅g−1 fresh weight).

Table 2.

Hormone contents in the outer whorl of petals of cut rose flowers under different treatments.

Table 2.

Discussion

Cut rose is a favored cut flower and ornamental crop that is cultivated worldwide. The vase solution plays an important role in preservation of the postharvest quality of cut rose flowers. Previous studies have indicated that vase life and keeping the quality of cut rose flowers can be improved by using exogenous chemical substances such as salicylic acid (Alaey et al. 2011), ethylene (Liao et al. 2013), nano-silver (Rafi and Ramezanian 2013), 1-methylcyclopropene (Nergi and Ahmadi 2014), sucrose (Norikoshi et al. 2016), aspirin (Liu et al. 2021), nitric oxide (Li et al. 2021), and hydrogen gas (Fang et al. 2021). In the present study, treatment with 100 mg·L−1 NAOS effectively preserved the quality of cut flowers of the rose cultivar Gaoyuanhong.

Some previous research has shown that commercial oligosaccharides have physiological activities to regulate plant growth and improve plant stress resistance. Chitosan and its oligosaccharins improve the absorption of nutrients, and activate defense mechanisms (Ahmed et al. 2020). Pectin-derived oligosaccharins decrease bending of the stem and reduce the growth of microorganisms in the vase solutions to extend the vase life of lisianthus ‘Mariachi Blue’ (López-Guerrero et al. 2019). Nigerosylmaltooligosaccharide, in combination with glucose and sucrose, increases the number of open flowers and significantly extends the vase life of cut snapdragon flowers (Ichimura et al. 2022). In the present study, compared with the control (CK) and sucrose (T1) treatment groups, the NAOS treatment (T2) increased the flower diameter (Fig. 1A), extended the time to maximum flower diameter (Fig. 1B) and the maximum rate of change in fresh weight of cut rose flowers (Fig. 2B), and significantly reduced the growth of bacteria in the vase solutions compared with the other treatments (Fig. 6). The vase life of the rose cut flowers was extended to 16 d (Fig. 4). Taken together, these results were consistent with the effects of oligosaccharides on the vase life of cut flowers reported in previous studies, which improved the quality of fresh cut flowers.

During the postharvest period, the hormone content of the cut flower will change continuously over time. A change in the endogenous hormonal balance during the senescence of cut flowers has been reported previously (Arrom and Munné-Bosch 2012; Halevy and Mayak 1975; van Doorn and Woltering 2008). Exogenous sugar effects on cut flower longevity may differ between ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive species (Costa and Finger 2016; Hoeberichts et al. 2007; Pun and Ichimura 2003; Pun et al. 2005; van Doorn 2004; Verlinden and Garcia 2004; Wang et al. 2014). Alginate oligosaccharides regulate ABA biosynthesis and metabolism to preserve strawberry fruit quality and enhance shelf life (Bose et al. 2019). In the present experiment, the contents of IAA, ACC, GA1, and GA3 in the outer whorl of cut flowers in the CK and the other treatments showed no significant change on day 9, whereas the ABA content of the T2 treatment was lower than that of the T1 and T3 treatments, whereas cZR content in the T1 treatment was significantly lower than that of the T3 treatment (Table 2). Considering the analysis of indicators on day 9, the flower diameter and rate of change in flower diameter of cut rose flowers attained the maximum values, and a downward trend in cut flower fresh weight, relative fresh weight, and water balance values was observed. These data suggested that NAOS treatment affects aging and may be related to low content of ABA in the petals. In addition, there are no significant changes of the ABA content in the CK and T2 treatments (Table 2). In future studies, identifying the ABA levels during the whole vase period would help to characterize the relationship between NAOS and vase life of cut rose flowers.

Sugar is an important material used in the preservation of cut flowers. As the basic component of cut flower preservative solutions, sucrose can be used alone (Mehran et al. 2008) or in conjunction with other ingredients, such as hormone (Geng et al. 2013), 8-HQ (Singh et al. 2005), AgNO3 (Elgimabi 2011), and nano-silver (Rabiza-Świder et al. 2020), to effectively extend the vase life, delay petal senescence, and improve the postharvest quality of fresh cut flowers. In this study, the preservative effect of combined application of NAOS and sucrose (T3 treatment) was inferior to that of NAOS (T2 treatment) and sucrose (T1 treatment). However, a superposition effect on the number of bacteria in the vase solution was observed, which was 27.26% lower than that in the sucrose-treated vase solution (Fig. 6). In addition, reduction in water loss by the cut flowers in the T3 treatment was no better than that of the NAOS (T2) treatment, and the change in water balance value was large (Fig. 3). We speculate that the proportions of NAOS and sugar were suboptimal. Improved application of NAOS and sugar or other exogenous chemical substances will be a focus of future research on preservation of cut rose flowers.

In summary, NAOS played a role in extending the vase life of cut rose flowers. The present results provide a theoretical basis for its potential application as a commercial floral preservative.

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  • Liu, J, Cheng, L, Shu, Z, Wang, S & Shi, R. 2021 Different fresh-keeping effects of sugar, aspirin and Vc on cut rose flowers Agric Biotechnol. 10 19 22 https://doi.org/10.19759/j.cnki.2164-4993.2021.01.006

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  • López-Guerrero, AG, Rodríguez-Hernández, AM, Mounzer, O, Zenteno-Savín, T, Rivera-Cabrera, F, Izquierdo-Oviedo, H & Soriano-Melgar, LDAA. 2019 Effect of oligosaccharins on the vase life of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum Raf.) cv. ‘Mariachi blue’ J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 95 316 324 https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2019.1674698

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  • López-Guerrero, AG, Zenteno-Savín, T, Rivera-Cabrera, F, Izquierdo-Oviedo, H & Melgar, LDAAS. 2021 Pectin-derived oligosaccharins effects on flower buds opening, pigmentation and antioxidant content of cut lisianthus flowers Scientia Hortic. 279 109909 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2021.109909

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  • Loubaud, M & van Doorn, WG. 2004 Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe, and Viburnum Postharvest Biol Technol. 32 281 288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.12.004

    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Ma, N, Cai, L, Lu, W, Tan, H & Gao, J. 2005 Exogenous ethylene influences flower opening of cut roses (Rosa hybrida) by regulating the genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes Sci China Ser C. 48 434 444 https://doi.org/10.1360/062004-37

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mehran, A, Hossein, DG, Tehranifar, A & Hossein, A. 2008 Spraying of sucrose on the greenhouse-grown rose and its effects on the vase life of the cut flowers cv. Alexander Acta Hortic. 804 209 214 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.804.27

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakakuki, T. 2005 Present status and future prospects of functional oligosaccharide development in Japan J Appl Glycosci. 52 267 271 https://doi.org/10.5458/jag.52.267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nergi, MAD & Ahmadi, N. 2014 Effects of 1-MCP and ethylene on postharvest quality and expression of senescence-associated genes in cut rose cv. Sparkle Scientia Hortic. 166 78 83 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.12.015

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  • Norikoshi, R, Shibata, T, Niki, T & Ichimura, K. 2016 Sucrose treatment enlarges petal cell size and increases vacuolar sugar concentrations in cut rose flowers Postharvest Biol Technol. 116 59 65 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.01.003

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  • Ou, L, Zhang, QQ, Ji, DZ, Li, YY, Zhou, X & Jin, LH. 2022 Physiological, transcriptomic investigation on the tea plant growth and yield motivation by chitosan oligosaccharides Horticulturae. 8 68 https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010068

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pun, UK & Ichimura, K. 2003 Role of sugars in senescence and biosynthesis of ethylene in cut flowers JARQ-Jpn Agric Res Q. 37 219 224 https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.37.219

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    • Export Citation
  • Pun, UK, Shimizu, H, Tanase, K & Ichimura, K. 2005 Effect of sucrose on ethylene biosynthesis in cut spray carnation flowers Acta Hortic. 669 171 174 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.669.21

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabea, EI, Badawy, ME, Stevens, CV, Smagghe, G & Steurbaut, W. 2003 Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: Applications and mode of action Biomacromolecules. 4 1457 1465 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm034130m

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabiza-Świder, J, Skutnik, E, Jędrzejuk, A & Rochala-Wojciechowska, J. 2020 Nanosilver and sucrose delay the senescence of cut snapdragon flowers Postharvest Biol Technol. 165 111165 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2020.111165

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    • Export Citation
  • Rafi, ZN & Ramezanian, A. 2013 Vase life of cut rose cultivars ‘Avalanche’ and ‘Fiesta’ as affected by Nano-Silver and S-carvone treatments S Afr J Bot. 86 68 72 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2013.02.167

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  • Rastall, RA. 2010 Functional oligosaccharides: Application and manufacture Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 1 305 339 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100746

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    • Export Citation
  • Ren, PJ, Jin, X, Liao, WB, Wang, M, Niu, LJ, Li, XP, Xu, XT & Zhu, YC. 2017 Effect of hydrogen-rich water on vase life and quality in cut lily and rose flowers Hortic Environ Biotechnol. 58 576 584 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-017-0043-2

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  • Saeed, T, Hassan, I, Abbasi, NA & Jilani, G. 2014 Effect of gibberellic acid on the vase life and oxidative activities in senescing cut gladiolus flowers Plant Growth Regulat. 72 89 95 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9839-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satoh, S, Tateishi, A & Sugiyama, S. 2013 Preparation of a xyloglucan oligosaccharide mixture from tamarind seed gum and its promotive action on flower opening in carnation cultivars J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci. 82 270 276 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.82.270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scariot, V, Paradiso, R, Rogers, H & De Pascale, S. 2014 Ethylene control in cut flowers: Classical and innovative approaches Postharvest Biol Technol. 97 83 92 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.06.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, A, Kumar, J, Kumar, P & Singh, VP. 2005 Influence of 8-Hydroxy Quinoline (8-HQ) and sucrose pulsing on membrane stability and postharvest quality of gladiolus cut spikes J Ornam Hortic. 8 243 248

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    • Export Citation
  • van Doorn, WG. 2004 Is petal senescence due to sugar starvation? Plant Physiol. 134 35 42 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.033084

  • van Doorn, WG & Woltering, EJ. 2008 Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence J Expt Bot. 59 3 453 480 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erm356

  • Vaslier, N & van Doorn, WG. 2003 Xylem occlusion in bouvardia flowers: Evidence for a role of peroxidase and catechol oxidase Postharvest Biol Technol. 28 231 237 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00197-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VBN Evaluation cards for Rosa FloraHolland Aalsmeer, The Netherlands 2005

  • Verlinden, S & Garcia, JJV. 2004 Sucrose loading decreases ethylene responsiveness in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. White Sim) petals Postharvest Biol Technol. 31 305 312 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.09.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, YJ, Zhang, C, Wang, XQ, Wang, WR & Dong, L. 2014 Involvement of glucose in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and sensitivity in cut Paeonia suffruticosa flowers Scientia Hortic. 169 44 50 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.02.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, MJ, Zacarias, L & Reid, MS. 1991 Variation in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars. II. Comparison of sensitivity to exogenous ethylene and of ethylene binding Hortic Sci. 48 109 116 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(91)90157-T

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, H, Fretté, XC, Christensen, LP & Grevsen, K. 2012 Chitosan oligosaccharides promote the content of polyphenols in Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) J Agr Food Chem. 60 136 143 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204376j

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, C, Wang, W, Zhao, X, Wang, H & Yin, H. 2020 Preparation of alginate oligosaccharides and their biological activities in plants: A review Carbohydr Res. 494 108056 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2020.108056

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    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, C, Wu, YJ, Liu, XY, Liu, B, Cao, H, Yu, H, Sarker, SD, Nahar, L & Xiao, JB. 2017 Functional properties, structural studies and chemo-enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides Trends Food Sci Technol. 66 135 145 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.06.008

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  • Fig. 1.

    Effect of preservative solution on flower diameter (A) and rate of change in flower diameter (B) of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicates (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 0.71 for A, and 0.63 for B.

  • Fig. 2.

    Effect of preservative solution on the fresh weight (A) and relative fresh weight (B) of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicates (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 2.32 for A, and 2.23 for B.

  • Fig. 3.

    Effects of preservative solutions on the water balance of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Least significant difference (LSD0.05) = 1.19.

  • Fig. 4.

    Effects of preservative solutions on the vase life of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Different lowercase letters within the same column indicate a significant differences among treatments (P < 0.05).

  • Fig. 5.

    Effects of preservative solutions on morphological characteristics of cut rose flowers on day 16. Bar = 6 cm.

  • Fig. 6.

    Effect of preservative solutions on the number of bacteria in the vase solution of cut rose flowers. The data represent the means ± SE of three replicate samples (with five plants per replicate). Different lowercase letters indicate a significant difference among treatments (P < 0.05).

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  • Jia, XC, Meng, QS, Zeng, HH, Wang, WX & Yin, H. 2016 Chitosan oligosaccharide induces resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus in Arabidopsis via the salicylic acid-mediated signalling pathway Sci Rep. 6 1 12 https://doi.org/10.1038/srep26144

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  • Liao, WB, Zhang, ML & Yu, JH. 2013 Role of nitric oxide in delaying senescence of cut rose flowers and its interaction with ethylene Scientia Hortic. 155 30 38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.03.005

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  • Liu, J, Cheng, L, Shu, Z, Wang, S & Shi, R. 2021 Different fresh-keeping effects of sugar, aspirin and Vc on cut rose flowers Agric Biotechnol. 10 19 22 https://doi.org/10.19759/j.cnki.2164-4993.2021.01.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López-Guerrero, AG, Rodríguez-Hernández, AM, Mounzer, O, Zenteno-Savín, T, Rivera-Cabrera, F, Izquierdo-Oviedo, H & Soriano-Melgar, LDAA. 2019 Effect of oligosaccharins on the vase life of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum Raf.) cv. ‘Mariachi blue’ J Hortic Sci Biotechnol. 95 316 324 https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2019.1674698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • López-Guerrero, AG, Zenteno-Savín, T, Rivera-Cabrera, F, Izquierdo-Oviedo, H & Melgar, LDAAS. 2021 Pectin-derived oligosaccharins effects on flower buds opening, pigmentation and antioxidant content of cut lisianthus flowers Scientia Hortic. 279 109909 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2021.109909

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loubaud, M & van Doorn, WG. 2004 Wound-induced and bacteria-induced xylem blockage in roses, Astilbe, and Viburnum Postharvest Biol Technol. 32 281 288 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.12.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ma, N, Cai, L, Lu, W, Tan, H & Gao, J. 2005 Exogenous ethylene influences flower opening of cut roses (Rosa hybrida) by regulating the genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes Sci China Ser C. 48 434 444 https://doi.org/10.1360/062004-37

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mehran, A, Hossein, DG, Tehranifar, A & Hossein, A. 2008 Spraying of sucrose on the greenhouse-grown rose and its effects on the vase life of the cut flowers cv. Alexander Acta Hortic. 804 209 214 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.804.27

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakakuki, T. 2005 Present status and future prospects of functional oligosaccharide development in Japan J Appl Glycosci. 52 267 271 https://doi.org/10.5458/jag.52.267

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nergi, MAD & Ahmadi, N. 2014 Effects of 1-MCP and ethylene on postharvest quality and expression of senescence-associated genes in cut rose cv. Sparkle Scientia Hortic. 166 78 83 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.12.015

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norikoshi, R, Shibata, T, Niki, T & Ichimura, K. 2016 Sucrose treatment enlarges petal cell size and increases vacuolar sugar concentrations in cut rose flowers Postharvest Biol Technol. 116 59 65 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2016.01.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ou, L, Zhang, QQ, Ji, DZ, Li, YY, Zhou, X & Jin, LH. 2022 Physiological, transcriptomic investigation on the tea plant growth and yield motivation by chitosan oligosaccharides Horticulturae. 8 68 https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae8010068

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pun, UK & Ichimura, K. 2003 Role of sugars in senescence and biosynthesis of ethylene in cut flowers JARQ-Jpn Agric Res Q. 37 219 224 https://doi.org/10.6090/jarq.37.219

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pun, UK, Shimizu, H, Tanase, K & Ichimura, K. 2005 Effect of sucrose on ethylene biosynthesis in cut spray carnation flowers Acta Hortic. 669 171 174 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2005.669.21

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabea, EI, Badawy, ME, Stevens, CV, Smagghe, G & Steurbaut, W. 2003 Chitosan as antimicrobial agent: Applications and mode of action Biomacromolecules. 4 1457 1465 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm034130m

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rabiza-Świder, J, Skutnik, E, Jędrzejuk, A & Rochala-Wojciechowska, J. 2020 Nanosilver and sucrose delay the senescence of cut snapdragon flowers Postharvest Biol Technol. 165 111165 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2020.111165

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rafi, ZN & Ramezanian, A. 2013 Vase life of cut rose cultivars ‘Avalanche’ and ‘Fiesta’ as affected by Nano-Silver and S-carvone treatments S Afr J Bot. 86 68 72 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2013.02.167

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rastall, RA. 2010 Functional oligosaccharides: Application and manufacture Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 1 305 339 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.food.080708.100746

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ren, PJ, Jin, X, Liao, WB, Wang, M, Niu, LJ, Li, XP, Xu, XT & Zhu, YC. 2017 Effect of hydrogen-rich water on vase life and quality in cut lily and rose flowers Hortic Environ Biotechnol. 58 576 584 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13580-017-0043-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saeed, T, Hassan, I, Abbasi, NA & Jilani, G. 2014 Effect of gibberellic acid on the vase life and oxidative activities in senescing cut gladiolus flowers Plant Growth Regulat. 72 89 95 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10725-013-9839-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Satoh, S, Tateishi, A & Sugiyama, S. 2013 Preparation of a xyloglucan oligosaccharide mixture from tamarind seed gum and its promotive action on flower opening in carnation cultivars J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci. 82 270 276 https://doi.org/10.2503/jjshs1.82.270

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Scariot, V, Paradiso, R, Rogers, H & De Pascale, S. 2014 Ethylene control in cut flowers: Classical and innovative approaches Postharvest Biol Technol. 97 83 92 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2014.06.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, A, Kumar, J, Kumar, P & Singh, VP. 2005 Influence of 8-Hydroxy Quinoline (8-HQ) and sucrose pulsing on membrane stability and postharvest quality of gladiolus cut spikes J Ornam Hortic. 8 243 248

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Doorn, WG. 2004 Is petal senescence due to sugar starvation? Plant Physiol. 134 35 42 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.033084

  • van Doorn, WG & Woltering, EJ. 2008 Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence J Expt Bot. 59 3 453 480 https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erm356

  • Vaslier, N & van Doorn, WG. 2003 Xylem occlusion in bouvardia flowers: Evidence for a role of peroxidase and catechol oxidase Postharvest Biol Technol. 28 231 237 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(02)00197-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VBN Evaluation cards for Rosa FloraHolland Aalsmeer, The Netherlands 2005

  • Verlinden, S & Garcia, JJV. 2004 Sucrose loading decreases ethylene responsiveness in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. White Sim) petals Postharvest Biol Technol. 31 305 312 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.09.010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, YJ, Zhang, C, Wang, XQ, Wang, WR & Dong, L. 2014 Involvement of glucose in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and sensitivity in cut Paeonia suffruticosa flowers Scientia Hortic. 169 44 50 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2014.02.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, MJ, Zacarias, L & Reid, MS. 1991 Variation in the senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars. II. Comparison of sensitivity to exogenous ethylene and of ethylene binding Hortic Sci. 48 109 116 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(91)90157-T

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yin, H, Fretté, XC, Christensen, LP & Grevsen, K. 2012 Chitosan oligosaccharides promote the content of polyphenols in Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) J Agr Food Chem. 60 136 143 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204376j

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhang, C, Wang, W, Zhao, X, Wang, H & Yin, H. 2020 Preparation of alginate oligosaccharides and their biological activities in plants: A review Carbohydr Res. 494 108056 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2020.108056

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhao, C, Wu, YJ, Liu, XY, Liu, B, Cao, H, Yu, H, Sarker, SD, Nahar, L & Xiao, JB. 2017 Functional properties, structural studies and chemo-enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides Trends Food Sci Technol. 66 135 145 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2017.06.008

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Yanling Wan Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China; and College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China

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Chao Wen Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China

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Linfeng Gong Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China

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Hanting Zeng School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China

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Chengpeng Wang Institute of Leisure Agriculture, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100, China

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Contributor Notes

This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China for Young Scholars (No. 32102427), Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (No.ZR2021QC130), and Innovation Project of Agricultural Science and Technology of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No. CXGC2022A12). The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

C. Wen and C. Wang are the corresponding authors. E-mail: dewc6929@163.com or wang7475662@163.com.

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