Register of Tilia Cultivars

Authors:
Matthew S. Lobdell The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532, USA

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Eike J. Jablonski Dept of Horticulture et Arboretum, Ministère de l’Education nationale, Luxembourg

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Lindsey B. Worcester The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532, USA

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Tilia (basswoods, lindens, limes) have long been popular ornamental shade trees, especially valuable as street trees due their tolerance of a wide range of urban soils (Dirr and Warren 2019). Numerous cultivars have been selected for superior habit, insect resistance, regional adaptability, or foliage and form variations (e.g., variegated and weeping selections) of interest to collectors. Tilia are known to hybridize, with hybrids present both where parent species spontaneously overlap (e.g., Tilia ×europaea) and in cultivation (e.g., Tilia ×flavescens). Little intentional breeding has apparently occurred with Tilia. Most purported hybrids have been selected as open-pollinated seedlings, with parentage diagnosed and disputed primarily on the basis of foliar morphology.

Tilia cultivars were historically propagated by layering, though grafting is currently preferred. Grafted Tilia often sucker extensively from their rootstock. Many older specimens examined during this project were not true to name since the vigorous understock (usually seedling T. cordata) had subverted the scion. Recent research has demonstrated vegetative propagation is possible on many species through long cuttings (Winkelmann et al. 2020). When possible, these methods may be preferable for maintaining rarely grown Tilia in specialty collections. Micropropagation of Tilia has also been accomplished for some species including T. cordata (Cvrčková et al. 2018) and T. platyphyllos (Chalupa 2003) which could allow propagation of desirable cultivars at large quantities.

Extensive registers of Tilia cultivars have been previously published by Grootendorst (1970), Santamour and McArdle (1985), de Jong (1992, 1993, 1994), and Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013, 2014). This register consolidates and standardizes information from these and other references, adds several descriptions of recently introduced cultivars, and clarifies the descriptions of several seldom grown cultivars based on observations of living or preserved material in botanical garden collections. However, the primary purpose of this register is to provide clarification on the accepted name for each cultivar in accordance with the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP or the “Cultivated Code”). In order for a cultivar epithet to be accepted, it must generally be published in printed media or similarly duplicated material and include a description as to its distinct characteristics. Other reasons for rejection include application of an epithet to multiple cultivars, use of entirely Latin words after 1959, or use of a trademarked or otherwise controlled trade designation not available for unrestricted public use. Please reference the ICNCP for additional information. In many cases, we have included reference to the relevant articles of the ICNCP (ninth Ed., June 2016) leading to our rejection of a particular cultivar epithet. Long an unassigned denomination class, Eike Jablonski was named Registrar for Tilia in 2018. Persons wishing to register or introduce a Tilia cultivar are encouraged to contact him in advance to ensure an available and appropriate epithet is selected and validly published.

Cultivars are organized alphabetically by specific epithet, with selections from unnamed hybrids or of uncertain parentage treated separately in the last section. Taxonomy is generally according to Pigott (2012), with alternative interpretations or references discussed under the appropriate species section below. Accepted cultivar epithets are indicated in bold type. A citation, ideally the earliest such citation, has been provided for each cultivar epithet. In cases where the citation would not be sufficient to establish a cultivar (e.g., a website reference only), presentation of the epithet in bold type indicates the epithet is established by way of this publication.

Tilia americana L.

Due to an extensive distribution throughout North America and variation in the presence and persistence of abaxial trichomes, recent interpretations of the Tilia americana complex have ranged from one species with three varieties (Hardin 1990), two species with six lower taxa (Pigott 2012), or one species with no recognized lower taxa (Strother 2015). Most cultivars represent glabrous or glabrate-leaved forms (T. americana var. americana), though two cultivars, ‘Continental Appeal’ and ‘Falling Waters’, are of the persistently pubescent form (Tilia americana var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon or Tilia caroliniana subsp. heterophylla (Vent.) Pigott). For the sake of clarity, they are denoted below as T. americana var. heterophylla.

‘American Sentry’

Jacobson, AL, North American Landscape Trees, p. 633, 1996

Not established. Trade designation not freely available for use. See T. americana ‘McKSentry’.

‘Ampelophylla’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung Tilia, Breslau, p. 140, 1909

Large leaves, serrate margin, apex weakly three-lobed and resembling Vitis vinifera L. (common grapevine). Engler (1909) notes as a cultivated form. Santamour & McArdle (1985) considered well within the normal range of variation for T. americana, with no evidence of propagation or distribution. Compare T. americana ‘Dentata’, but with prominent apical teeth resembling lobes. = T. americana ‘Grapeleaf’; = T. americana ‘Incisodentata’ (in part).

‘Aureovariegata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 338, 1903

Nomen nudum. Origin uncertain. Presumably a cultivar with golden-variegated leaves. Compare T. americana ‘Rosenthalii’. Santamour & McArdle (1985) suggest this cultivar epithet is invalid as it was previously in use for a selection of T. cordata Mill. However, per the ninth edition of the Cultivated Code, duplication of cultivar epithets in Latin form within a denomination class is permissible so long as the cultivar epithets are assigned to different taxa and linked to the appropriate epithet (Article 21.7).

‘Bailyard’

Bailey Nurseries, Inc., St. Paul, MN, Wholesale Catalog, 1994–1995

Bailey Nurseries, St. Paul, MN, ca 1994–1995. Fastigiate habit with symmetrical branching. Compare T. americana ‘Fastigiata’ (a distinct upright to fastigiate selection originating from Rochester, NY). Marketed as FRONTYARD ™.

‘Bigleaf’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. americana ‘Macrophylla’.

‘Boulevard’

Bailey Nurseries Wholesale List, p. 94, 1993

Bailey Nurseries, St. Paul, MN, 1993. Narrow pyramidal habit, half as wide as tall. Compare ‘Fastigiata’ [2], but with darker green foliage and narrower in habit.

‘Capitol’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 633, 1996

Nomen nudum. Introduced before 1991–92. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1). Potentially referencing propagules from one of the large and renowned Tilia americana on the US Capitol Grounds.

‘Continental Appeal’

Wandell’s Nurs., Urbana, IL, Advert. Amer. Nurseryman 144(6): 57, 1976

Tilia americana var. heterophylla. Willet Wandell, Urbana, IL, ca 1975. Compact, upright, and narrow habit with little to no pruning required. About twice as tall as wide. Foliage large, persisting through the season, and with a silvery-white lower surface characteristic of var. heterophylla. = T. americana ‘Prestige’.

‘Convexifolia’

G. Krüssmann, Handbuch der Laubgeholze, Berlin, Ed. 2, Vol. 3, p. 417, 1978

Slow growing form with small, spoon-shaped leaves. Not established. The Cultivated Code prohibits cultivar epithets composed entirely of Latin later than 1 January 1959 (Article 21.11). The epithet was likely in use in the German nursery trade before 1959 and could be established were an appropriate reference located.

‘Cyclophylla’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, 1909, p. 138–139

Leaves rounder than typical. Späth (1930) describes dark green foliage. Probably hardly distinct from type but accepted here as it was apparently cultivated and distributed by Späth Nursery under this epithet.

‘Dakota’

L.C. Snyder, Trees and Shrubs for Northern Gardens, Univ. Minn. Press, 1980, p. 374

Ben Gilbertson, Kindred, ND, before 1980. Round-headed tree intended for street plantings (Santamour and McArdle 1985), but not in commerce by the midlate 1990s (Jacobson 1996). At time of writing, no botanical gardens or Arboreta reporting their collections to Botanic Gardens Conservation International (via the PlantSearch tool) held ‘Dakota’. Potentially lost to cultivation.

‘Densiflora’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, 1864, p. 159

Uncertain origin, propagated and distributed by Henze in the mid1800s. Compact cymes. Overall similar to Tilia americana var. americana though perhaps with somewhat darker leaves. Santamour and McArdle (1985) considered within the expected range of variability for species.

‘Dentata’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, 1864, p. 160

Leaves sharply serrate, with unequal teeth. Santamour & McArdle (1985) and Dirr (2009) describe as fairly similar to the species. Specimens at The Morton Arboretum (Lisle, IL) originating from the Arnold Arboretum (Jamaica Plain, MA) exhibit sharp teeth, but not remarkably so (Fig. 1). = T. americana ‘Incisodentata’ (in part); = T. americana ‘Longidentata’; = T. americana ‘Megalodonta’.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Foliage of Tilia americana ‘Dentata’ (MOR 579-54*2), with teeth somewhat more dentate than typical but still within range of variability for species.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Douglas’

HortScience 24(3): 432, 1989

R.G. Klehm, South Barrington, IL. Selected 1970, introduced 1985, registered 1989. Pyramidal habit, upright branching. Deep green foliage.

‘DTR 123’

W.N. Wandell, Handbook of Landscape Tree Cultivars, Gladstone, IL, p. 193, 1994

Willet Wandell, Urbana, IL, 1988. Pyramidal habit with strong central leader. Leaves resistant to late season rust/discoloration (Dirr 2009). About 1.5 times taller than wide. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (8441) is ca 15 × 6 m with an upright habit, though the central leader split to four near the upper canopy. = T. americana ‘Legend’; = T. americana ‘Wandell’. Marketed as LEGEND®.

‘Duros’

M.A. Dirr and K.S. Warren, The Tree Book, p. 849, 2019

Rick Durand, Jeffries Nurseries, Manitoba, Canada. Habit a relatively narrow pyramid with strong central leader. Very cold hardy. Marketed as TRUE NORTH™.

‘Erecta’

B. Davis, The Gardener’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees & Shrubs, p. 69, 1987

Narrow, upright. Not established. The Cultivated Code prohibits cultivar epithets composed entirely of Latin later than 1 January 1959 (Article 21.11). Maybe = T. americana ‘Fastigiata’.

‘Fastigiata’ [1]

A.D. Slavin, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 12: 224–226, 1931

B.H. Slavin, Rochester, NY. Selected from a tree in Genesee Valley Park, Rochester, NY ca 1927 (Wandell 1994), and in commerce by 1940 (Jacobson 1996). Narrow, upright pyramid roughly twice as tall as wide, becoming broader and perhaps more pyramidal than fastigiate with age. = T. americana ‘Pyramidal’.

‘Fastigiata’ [2]

Bailey Nurs. Wholesale List No. 1, p. 18, 1974–75

With distinct origin from the T. americana ‘Fastigiata’ of Slavin described above [1]. Per Santamour & McArdle (1985), this price list dating to the mid1970s described a “Pyramidal American Linden” selected at Bailey Nurseries, St. Paul, MN under the botanical name “Tilia americana fastigiata”. Offered from 1983–1995 by Bailey Nurseries under the name T. americana ‘Fastigiata’ (D. Lonnee, pers. comm.) and eventually supplanted by the more fastigiate ‘Boulevard’. The cultivar epithet is not established as it was previously used for another selection of T. americana (Article 30.1) and is in Latin form before 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Grapeleaf’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the Cultivated Code, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. americana ‘Ampelophylla’ from which the epithet was translated, or T. americana ‘Dentata’ for a similar form with evidence of clonal propagation and cultivation.

‘Incisodentata’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, p. 139–140, 1909

Per Santamour & McArdle (1985), in synonymy with both f. ampelophylla and f. megalodonta. See T. americana ‘Ampelophylla’ for a vaguely apically three-lobed selection with prominent teeth, or T. americana ‘Dentata’ for a selection with such teeth but lacking apical lobes.

‘Kromm’

United States Patent, PP30737, 2017

Darrell Kromm, Reeseville Ridge Nursery, Reeseville, WI. Chance seedling discovered in 1985, first propagated in 1993, and sold sporadically starting ca 2000. At time of writing, it is available via Plants Nouveau and Johnson’s Nursery, Menomonee Falls, WI. Dense, compact, pyramidal habit with dark green foliage present late into growing season. Compare ‘McKSentry’ or ‘Redmond’, but with a narrower habit. Marketed as SWEET STREET™.

‘Laxiflora’

J.C. Loudon, Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, Ed. 2, Vol. 1, p. 374, 1844

Cymes looser than typical. Per Santamour & McArdle (1985), was cultivated in the garden of London Horticultural Society, but likely seed grown and well within normal variability of species.

‘Laxiflora Gigantea’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 388, 1903

Nomen nudum. Engler (1909) listed as synonym of T. americana ‘Laxiflora’. See T. americana ‘Laxiflora’.

‘Legend’

Royal Horticultural Society, RHS Plant Finder Website, https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/118832/Tilia-americana-Legend/Details, Accessed 7 Jun 2022

Not established. Trade designation not freely available for use. See T. americana ‘DTR 123’.

‘Lincoln’

HortScience 24(3): 432, 1989

R.G. Klehm, South Barrington, IL. Selected 1970, introduced 1985, registered 1989. Upright-compact form with foliage a lighter shade of green than typical (Fig. 2). A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (97016) is ca 15 × 6 m with a loose lower canopy and not exactly compact but is otherwise true to this description.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Upright habit of Tilia americana ‘Lincoln’ (UW 97016) with foliage somewhat brighter green than typical.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Longidentata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 338, 1903

Nomen nudum. Horticultural origin but little to no history of cultivation. Probably = T. americana ‘Dentata’. See T. americana ‘Dentata’.

‘Macrophylla’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, p. 139, 1909

Apparently named in Germany in 1862 and offered commercially in North America before 1891 (Jacobson 1996). Leaves very large, to 25 cm long and nearly as wide (Krüssmann 1978). Santamour & McArdle (1985) noted as within general species variability and lost to cultivation by 1985. = T. americana ‘Bigleaf’.

‘McKSentry’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Ed. 6, p. 1146, 2009

McKay Nursery, Waterloo, WI. Upright, narrow pyramid about twice as tall as wide. Fall color a mix of orange, red, and gold (Aubin Nurseries 2021). = T. americana ‘American Sentry’; = T. americana ‘Sentry’. Marketed as AMERICAN SENTRY®.

‘Megalodonta’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, p. 139, 1909

Engler (1909) described a forma under this name represented by a few spontaneous and cultivated specimens characterized by large leaves with large teeth irregularly arranged across the margin. Description is hardly different from T. americana ‘Dentata’. Krüssmann (1978) presents as a synonym. See T. americana ‘Dentata’.

‘Microptera’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, p. 140–141, 1909

Leaves longer than wide. Apparently, a cultivated form originating at Späth Nursery, Berlin. Späth (1930) lists but provides no description.

‘Moltkei’

L. Späth Nurs., Berlin, Cat. 1892, p. 113

German selection of uncertain origin, introduced to culture by L. Späth Nursery, Berlin, ca 1886 (Späth 1930). Large and vigorous tree with slightly pendant branches. Leaves ovate to rounded, with dense greyish pubescence to the lower surface. Originally considered a form of T. americana (Dippel 1893), though Engler (1909) and Schneider (1912) conjectured as a hybrid of T. americana and T. tomentosa. Pigott (2012) suggested parentage of T. americana var. americana × T. americana var. heterophylla was more likely based on foliar and fruit morphology, so it is considered as a T. americana selection here. Named for Fieldmarshall Count Moltke, who apparently planted one in the Späth Nursery Arboretum in 1888 (Späth 1930). The basionym T. ×moltkei L.Späth ex Dippel has also been used as a nothospecific epithet for hybrids of T. americana × T. tomentosa, but this is inappropriate as the name was not validly published as a nothospecies (Xifreda 1998). Additionally, the type may not represent this nothospecies if both parents are T. americana. ‘Blechiana’ and ‘Spectabilis’ are comparable, but apparently distinct selections.

‘Nova’

H.A. Hesse Nurs., Weener, Ostfriesland, West Germany, Cat. 1955/56, p. 146

Pyramidal habit, becoming more ovate with age. Leaves large, asymmetric, and with sharply serrated margins. Jablonski & Plietzsch (2014) suggested an origin in Germany or the Netherlands. Later Hesse Nursery catalogs listed T. americana ‘Dentata’ and T. americana ‘Megalodonta’ as synonyms. Uncertain as to differences from ‘Dentata’, but the selection is definitively marketed under this name in the European trade (Johnson and Sutton 2020). Currently cultivated in the US National Arboretum (NA 16265, purchased from H. A. Hesse in 1960).

‘Pendula’

Hillier’s Manual of Trees and Shrubs, Ed. 4, p. 396, 1974

Weeping form distributed in Europe during the 1800s. Santamour & McArdle (1985) considered an error resulting from incorrectly assigning T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’ to T. americana, a frequent mistake since 1938. However, Johnson & Sutton (2020) note that despite some historical confusion in the trade, over ten mature weeping T. americana have been located in Europe apparently dating back to 1890s and could reasonably represent individuals belonging to this clone. Not established, as the Hillier’s Manual was published too late to allow for establishment of a cultivar epithet exclusively in Latin form per the ICNCP, and we have been unable to locate a historic nursery catalog reasonably describing this selection (as opposed to ‘Petiolaris’).

‘Prestige’

P.L.M. Van de Bom, Dendroflora 19: 5–82, 1982

Listed as a new name for ‘Continental Appeal’. Uncertain as to reason for supposed name change. The selection has been definitively marketed as ‘Continental Appeal’, which additionally has priority. See T. americana var. heterophylla ‘Continental Appeal’.

‘Pyramidal’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. americana ‘Fastigiata’.

‘Pyramidalis’

Santamour & McArdle. Journal of Arboriculture 11(5): 160, 1985

Santamour & McArdle (1985) found reference to this cultivar epithet in the Plant Sciences Data Center of the American Horticultural Society but considered it invalid due to being comprised entirely of Latin after 1959. The University of Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, Chaska, MN was cultivating a plant originating from Bailey Nursery under this name during this time period. Potentially this emerged from confusion over the common name “Pyramidal American Linden” which appeared in some Bailey catalogs referencing either ‘Redmond’ or T. americana ‘Fastigiata’ [2] and is potentially synonymous with one of those two selections.

‘Rosehill’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 634, 1996

Vigorous selection likely originating at Rosehill Gardens of Kansas City, MO. Introduced before 1987–88 (Dirr 1998, 2009; Jacobson 1996). Sparsely cultivated. One tree under this name, of uncertain origin, is currently cultivated at Spring Grove Cemetery (Cincinnati, OH) and shows no remarkable difference from the species in bud, twig, or habit (David Gressley, pers. comm.)

‘Rosenthalii’

L. Dippel, Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 3, Berlin, p. 66, 1893

Yellow-variegated leaves, apparently originating from a nursery in Muskau. Compare ‘Aureovariegata’, but likely of different origin.

‘Sentry’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 634, 1996

See T. americana ‘McKSentry’.

‘Sparkling Waters’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 99: 87, 2014

T. americana var. heterophylla. David N. Griffith, Dadeville, AL, ca 1982. Selected from a spontaneous tree on the border of the Duncanville, AL post office parking lot. More floriferous than type with upwards of 50 flowers per cyme (Ethan Johnson, pers. comm). Loose pyramidal habit (Fig. 3). Limited release, not in commerce, only one tree known (94-87), accessioned at the Holden Arboretum (Kirtland, OH).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Loose pyramidal habit of Tilia americana var. heterophylla ‘Sparkling Waters’ (HFG 94-87-B). Image courtesy of Thomas Arbour, Holden Forests and Gardens.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Wandell’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 633, 1996

Often used as a cultivar epithet, though without priority. See T. americana ‘DTR 123’.

Tilia amurensis Rupr.

‘Pendamur’

M.C. Tebbitt, HortScience 41(7): 1525, 2006

Kimmo L. Kolkka, Finland. Registered 2006. An open-pollinated seedling from the garden of Seija Lehtinen, Joutsa, Finland. The seed parent is a T. amurensis of known wild origin to the Changbai Mountains of China. Weeping habit, generally propagated by top grafting.

Tilia cordata Mill.

‘Akira Gold’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 93, 2013

Golden-leafed form originating at Shibamichi Honten Nursery, Japan. Compare ‘Shibamichi Gold’, but with the golden leaf color persisting later into the summer. Dirr and Warren (2019) suspected as a synonym of ‘Shibamichi Gold’, though Akira Shibamichi (pers. comm.) considers them two different selections.

‘Alley’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, Ten Speed Press, p. 634, 1996

Beaver Creek Nursery, Poplar Grove, IL. Named before 1990s, but origin and attributes unknown.

‘Argenteovariegata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 340, 1903

Presumably a selection with silver-variegated leaves, though origin and specific characteristics uncertain.

‘Ascidiata’

D. Wyman, Arnoldia 22(10): 74, 1962

Wyman (1962) provides no description, only indicating as an inferior form. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1) and because the cultivar epithet is in Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11)

‘Aureo-variegata’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, p. 156, 1864

Uncertain origin. Leaves with yellow-white margin, susceptible to damage from summer heat. As described by Santamour and McArdle (1985), Petzold and Kircher listed as “Folis variegatus”, but the orthography was changed to “Aureo-variegata” by Schneider (1912). Upheld here to preserve existing usage (Art. 29.2).

‘Bad Driburg’

E. Jablonski, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 94:133–138, 2009

R. Schomberg-Klee, Göttingen, Germany, 1998. Variegated foliage with irregular whitish-yellow stripes. Less vigorous than species.

‘Bailey’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora (Boskoop), Nr 29: 39, 1992

Bailey Nurseries, Inc., St. Paul, MN, 1987. Compare ‘Greenspire’, but more vigorous, with a wider branching habit, and a somewhat more open crown. Marketed as SHAMROCK®. = T. cordata ‘Baileyi’

‘Baileyi’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 634, 1996

Not established as the cultivar epithet is in Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Betulifolia’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, 1909

Very small leaves. This characteristic is present in some wild populations (Pigott 1991), though at least some cultivated plants carry this name. Johnson & Sutton (2020) prefer to treat as a variety of T. cordata, but this variety is unrecognized by Pigott (2012). ‘Betulifolia’ is presented here as a cultivar as though it is not necessarily clonal, it describes recognizable characteristics and has been ascribed to cultivated trees. Others may prefer to recognize as a forma or simply consider within the typical diversity of Tilia cordata.

‘Bicentennial’

Handy Nurs., Portland, OR, Wholesale Price List, Fall 1976-Spring 1977, p. 28

Edward Scanlon, Olmsted Falls, OH, 1963. Small leaves, tight pyramidal habit. = T. cordata ‘XP 110’.

‘Bieruń’

S. Skórka, Sophora Ornamental Plant Nursery, Zbroslawice, Poland, Catalog 2012

Selected from a tree in Bieruń, Poland. Foliage yellow with good resistance to sunscorch.

‘Billbäcks Select’

Kobenhavns Universitet website, https://ign.ku.dk, Accessed 8 May 2022

Billbäck Plantskola, Svärtinge, Sweden. Vigorous growth, regular crown shape with slightly tapering branch angles.

‘Boston’

United States Patent, PP2086, 1961

Listed as unpatented male parent of ‘PNI 6025’, but no further information available. Presumably referencing the parent growing in the Boston Parks System (Jacobson 1996). Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Böhlje’

Joh. Bruns Nurs., Bad Zwischenahn, Germany, Cat. 1961–1962, p. 177

German selection of uncertain origin, introduced before 1960. Upright, broad pyramidal habit, twigs distinctly brown. Santamour & McArdle (1985) theorized this cultivar originated at G.D. Bohlje Nursery, Oldenburg, Germany, though Grootendorst (1970) listed as instead originating from Lorberg, Germany. = T. cordata ‘Erect’; = T. cordata ‘Erecta’; = T. cordata ‘Select’; = T. cordata ‘Typ Bohlje’.

‘BySkinner’

Bylands Nurseries Ltd. Website, https://www.bylands.com/plant/lone-star-linden-tilia-cordata-byskinner, Accessed 22 Mar 2021

Rounded habit, somewhat compact compared with typical for species. Marketed as LONE STAR ™. = T. cordata ‘Skinner’s Select’.

‘Chancellor’

Cole Nurs. Co., Painesville, OH, Fall Trade List 1965, p. 48

Though with priority over ‘Chancole’, “Chancellor” was granted a registered trademark in the United States and is not freely available for use. Therefore, it cannot be the accepted cultivar epithet. See T. cordata ‘Chancole’.

‘Chancole’

W.N. Wandell, Handbook of Landscape Tree Cultivars, p. 195, 1994

Cole Nursery, Painesville, OH, ca 1965. Narrow, upright habit. Foliage dense, somewhat larger and glossier than typical. = T. cordata ‘Chancellor’. Marketed as CHANCELLOR®.

‘Chimera’

Tomszak Ornamental Shrubs School, Czechowice-Dziedzice, Poland, 2008

Tomszak Nurseries, Poland, 2008. Variegated. Compare ‘Bad Driburg’, but with wider whitish-yellow stripes over half the leaf blade (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2013).

‘Compacta’

K. Michielsen, Belgium Catalog 2010

Dwarf form, densely branched. Origin unknown, though apparently cultivated before 1959 per Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013). A reference dating earlier than 1959 would be required to establish this cultivar epithet in Latin form (Article 21.11).

‘Compacta Pendula’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 93, 2013

Cultivar epithet cannot be established due to use of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11). Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013) speculated as identical to ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’.

‘Comsta’

Školky Montano s.r.o., Nymburk, Czech Republic http://www.zelene.info/skolky-montano/, Accessed 26 Feb 2020

Probably = ‘Komsta’. See T. cordata ‘Komsta’.

‘Cordaley’

W. Ley’s Grüner Taschenkalender 2001/2002: 414

Wilhelm Ley Tree Nursery, Meckenheim, Germany 1977. Found within a shipment of ‘PNI 6025’ and generally similar, but with larger foliage lighter green in color and a mature habit more typical of the species.

‘Corinthian’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, fifth ed., p. 1021, 1998

CORINTHIAN® was granted a registered trademark in the United States in 1986. Therefore, it is not freely available as a cultivar epithet for this selection. See T. cordata ‘Corzam’.

‘Corzam’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 634, 1996

Lake County Nursery, Perry, OH, 1987. Compact narrow pyramidal habit. Leaves smaller, thicker, and glossier than species. = T. cordata ‘Corinthian’. Marketed as CORINTHIAN®.

‘Cully’

Origin and extent of distribution uncertain. Offered by Klehm Nursery, IL in the 1990s, perhaps only sparsely. Presumably a selection by Earl Cully. One plant at Chicago Botanic Garden (Glencoe, IL) is ca 10 × 7 m, with a pyramidal to rounded habit and slightly pendant lower branches (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Tilia cordata ‘Cully’ (CBG 526-92), exhibiting a pyramidal to rounded habit and slightly pendant lower branches.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Dainty Leaf’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 94, 2013

See T. japonica ‘Westonbirt Dainty’.

‘Darmstädter Gold’

Franz Mohl, Rauhenebrach, Germany, ca 2012. Foliage bright yellow when emerging, turning to yellow-golden-green. Slowly growing. New twigs orange. Found in a seedbed of Darmstädter Forstbaumschulen, Germany. Propagated at LTA Ettelbruck (Eike Jablonski), Luxembourg.

‘De Groot’

Sheridan Nurs. Ltd., Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, Cat. 1973, p. 46

Sheridan Nursery, Ontario, Canada, 1973. Upright, glossy foliage. Slow growing but still reaching a mature height of at least 40’ (Dirr 2009). Named for Constant de Groot, longtime gardener at Sheridan Nurseries.

‘Debra’s Delight’

L.C. Hatch, International Register of Ornamental Plant Cultivars: Woody Plants, OROC Book VIII: 8.0. Woody Plants, p. 86, 2017

Handy Nursery, Boring, OR, before 2017. Leaves with yellow, cream, and white-speckled variegation.

‘Debrecen’

Moga Company for Landscaping, L.L.C., Maribor, Slovenia, https://www.moga.eu/, Accessed 30 Mar 2020

Origin unknown. Broader habit than most named T. cordata selections, branches initially spreading, becoming more pendant as tree matures. Drought tolerant.

‘Dila’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 94, 2013

Nursery Lappen, Nettetal-Kaldenkirchen, Germany, 2007. Vigorous selection with straight trunk and pyramidal habit.

‘Dombrie’

Drappier Nursery, Lecells, France, catalog 2010

Vigorous grower with pyramidal habit.

‘Dwarf Weeper’

Mr. Maple nursery website, https://mrmaple.com, Accessed 19 Mar 2021

Website description notes it is also known as “Pendula nana”. See T. cordata ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’.

‘Eder’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98:94, 2013

See T. ‘Henryk Eder’ (other hybrids).

‘Elin’

EPlanta Website, https://eplanta.com/, Accessed 3 Jan 2022

Rune Bengtsson, Swedish Agricultural University, Alnarp, Sweden. Selected from a street tree in Vellinge, Sweden, 1998. Habit comparable to ‘Rancho’, but more narrow and pyramidal habit, especially in youth. Distinguished from ‘Rancho’ based on the presence of trichomes along the main veins. This characteristic may indicate hybridization with Tilia platyphyllos (and therefore assignment to either that taxon or Tilia ×europaea L), though we have been unable to obtain material from this cultivar to verify the determination. Marketed as LINN®.

‘Ep Tilse’

E-planta Nursery website, https://eplanta.com/show_vaxt.php?ID=298, Accessed 14 Jan 2022

Project Plant Development, Uppsala, Sweden. Upright selection with broad crown. Marked as SEANS®.

‘Erect’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. Nr. 98, 2013, p. 94

See T. cordata ‘Böhlje’.

‘Erecta van Eldik’

Tuinadvies BVBA, Evergem, Belgium, Tuinadvies.be, https://www.tuinadvies.be/plantengids/16580/tilia-cordata-erecta-van- eldik Accessed 10 Apr 2020

Upright, compact, and slow growing. Origin uncertain. Epithet appeared in Jablonski & Plietzsch (2014) but was not accepted due to lack of description.

‘Erecta’

H.J. Grootendorst, Dendroflora 7: 69–91, 1970

See T. cordata ‘Böhlje’

‘Euclid’

United States Patent, PP2086, 1961

A selection with a particularly straight trunk and one of the parents of ‘PNI 6025’. Though it dates back before 1960, it was offered commercially by Wade and Gatton Nursery more recently in 2011. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) and Johnson and Sutton (2020) both describe ‘Euclid’ as a selection from the Boston Parks Department. ‘PNI 6025’ apparently originated as a cross between two unregistered selections “Boston” and “Euclid”, one from the Boston Parks Department and the other as a German selection. The names would imply that ‘Boston’ was the selection originating from Boston and ‘Euclid’ was instead the German selection. The origin is likely listed incorrectly, and these two selections have potentially become confused. Both are apparently very rare in cultivation today and we have been unable to examine any material for purposes of clarification.

‘Evangelik’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. Nr. 98: 94, 2013

Szmit Nurseries, Pęchcin/Ciechanow, Poland, before 2006. Originated from a witches’ broom from a tree at the Evangelical Cemetery. Small leaves, rounded habit. Compare ‘Lico’ and ‘Monto’, but slightly faster growing.

‘Fairview’

A. McGill & Son Nurs., Fairview, OR, Wholesale Price List, Fall 1973-Spring 1974, p. 4

John McIntyre, McGill & Son Nurseries, Fairview, OR, 1972. Fast-growing selection with broad pyramidal habit. Leaves larger and darker than typical (Santamour and McArdle 1985).

‘Firecracker’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 635, 1996

Willoway Nursery, Avon, OH, before 1991. Pyramidal habit. Leafs out two weeks later than typical and flowers abundantly in late June.

‘Girard’s Dwarf’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 94. 2013

See T. cordata ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’.

‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’

Girard’s Nursery, Geneva, OH, before 1971. Slow growing, semipendant dwarf globe-shaped selection presumably propagated from a witches’ broom. Compare ‘Lico’, though somewhat more commonly sold and cultivated in North America. The nomenclature of this selection has varied over the past several decades. It was initially distributed under the epithet ‘Jimbo’, though this appears to have been a tentative name and was not published during this time period. Upon introduction. Girard Nurseries listed in its catalogs as ‘Pendula Nana’, which appears to have been their preferred selling name, but cannot be established due to being comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11). Nonetheless, ‘Pendula Nana’ has been the epithet most commonly associated with this selection (Dirr 1998, 2009). Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013) instead proposed the epithet ‘Girard’s Dwarf’, completely eliminating the use of Latin and addressing the only semipendant habit of the selection. This was upheld by Johnson and Sutton (2020). However, Article 21.11 does not require cultivar epithets to completely abstain from use of Latin words, it requires them not to be completely comprised of Latin words. Therefore, ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’ is permissible as the word “Girard’s” is not in Latin form. This cultivar has been sold as ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’ by Song Sparrow Nursery (Avalon, WI) ca 2014–2019, Broken Arrow Nursery (Hamden, CT) and Handy Nursery (Boring, OR) before 2021. Therefore, we believe the epithet ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’ best preserves existing usage.

= T. cordata ‘Dwarf Weeper’; = T. cordata ‘Girard’s Dwarf’; = T. cordata ‘Jimbo’; = T. cordata ‘Pendula Nana’.

‘Glenleven’

See T. × flavescens ‘Glenleven’

‘Gold Heart’

Buchholz & Buchholz Nurseries, Gaston, OR, catalog 2012

Buchholz & Buchholz Nurseries, before 2010. Midsized tree with round crown. Leaves variegated with a golden patch at the center.

‘Gold Spire’

B. Davis, The Gardener’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees & Shrubs, p. 69, 1987

Narrow upright habit with potential for use as a street tree. Uncertain origin. Rarely listed. Potentially lost to cultivation.

‘Golden Cascade’

HortScience 31(3): 326, 1996

Wilbert G. Ronald, Jeffries Nurseries, Portlage la Prairie, Canada. Registered 1996. Compare ‘Norlin’, but with cascading branches, a rounder crown, and a more golden fall color.

‘Green Globe’

Sheridan Nurs. Ltd., Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, Cat. 1983, p. 35

Sheridan Nursery, Ontario, Canada, 1983. Chance seedling identified in 1960. Dwarf with round, compact habit. Propagated by top grafting (Santamour and McArdle 1985). Formally registered.

‘Greenspire’

Princeton Nurs., Princeton, NJ, Fall 1961–Spring 1962, p. 78

Though initially presented as a cultivar epithet and registered as such, it was later registered as a trademark in the United States and therefore not freely available for use as a cultivar epithet. See T. cordata ‘PNI 6025’.

‘Grüne Kugel’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 95, 2013

Globe-shaped dwarf selection of uncertain origin. Compare ‘Evangelik’ in terms of leaf size and ‘Niko’ in terms of growth rate.

‘Haaren’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, Nr. 29, 1992, p. 40

Walter van den Oever, The Netherlands, ca 1955. Narrower habit than the typical species. Notably acute to acuminate leaf apices.

‘Halka’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Ed. 6, p. 1152, 2009

Chester J. Halka Jr., Halka Nursery, Englishtown, NJ, 1997. Compact and conical dwarf, growing ca half the rate of the species. Parentage uncertain, likely an open-pollinated T. cordata seedling. Marketed as SUMMER SPRITE®.

‘Handsworth’

D. Wyman, Arnoldia 22: 72, 1962

Wyman lists as a clone of T. cordata, apparently erroneously. A voucher at The Morton Arboretum tracing its origin to the Arnold Arboretum is also T. cordata based on leaf bases and reddish tomentum. Wyman noted plants at the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA (653–52) were grafted, suggesting that the Arnold and Morton plants represented understock. A voucher of ‘Handsworth’ from University of Washington Botanic Gardens (MOR 180132) is definitively T. platyphyllos based on simple hairs present along the veins. See T. platyphyllos ‘Handsworth’.

‘Harvest Gold’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Fifth Ed., p. 1025, 1998

Listed in most recent literature as a T. cordata × T. mongolica hybrid. See T. ‘Harvest Gold’ (other hybrids).

‘Henry’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, http://www.sophora.pl, Accessed 1 Apr 2020

Pendant dwarf form propagated from a witches’ broom. Potentially = T. platyphyllos ‘Henryk’, though the Sophora description omits the cutleaf characteristic associated with that selection.

‘Hoogeind Select’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 95, 2013

Hoogeind Laanbomen bv., Berkel-Enschot, The Netherlands, 1997. Presented in 1997 at the “Groot Groen” trade fair in Zundert, The Netherlands. Vigorous, and per Hoogeind, reaching saleable caliper size faster than ‘PNI 6025’, ‘Rancho’ and ‘Roelvo’.

‘Jimbo’

Santamour and McArdle, Journal of Arboriculture 11(5): 157–164, 1985

Per Santamour & McArdle (1985), a synonym for the selection later named ‘[Girard’s] Pendula Nana’. In use ca 1971 based a plant at Royal Botanic Garden, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, obtained from Girard Nursery, Geneva, OH in 1971. Does not appear to have been published at this time, and therefore does not need to be given priority over ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’. See T. cordata ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’.

‘Jonas’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 96, 2013

A tree of unknown origin cultivated in the construction school Školky Litomysl, Czechia. Not accepted due to lack of description of characteristics.

‘June Bride’

Manbeck Nurs., New Knoxville, OH, Cat. Fall 1975, p. 30

Manbeck Nurseries, New Knoxville, OH, 1971. Floriferous, 3–4 × more flowers than typical for species. Habit pyramidal and comparable to ‘PNI 6025’ (de Jong 1992). A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (7833) exhibits relatively small leaves, usually no more than 5–6 cm in diameter.

‘Kamon’

Moga Company for Landscaping, L.L.C., Maribor, Slovenia, https://www.moga.eu/tilia-cordata-kamon Accessed 30 Mar 2020

Uncertain origin. Broad habit with moderate growth rate, recommended for urban plantings. Based on limited description, seems very similar to typical species.

‘Komsta’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98:96, 2013

Nursery Kazimierz Komsta, Klementowica, Poland, before 2002. Very small, to 40 cm in 8 years. Likely the smallest-growing Tilia cultivar, apparently originating from a witches’ broom, though the specific origin is uncertain (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2013). = ‘Comsta’; = ‘Komsta Mini’; = ‘Komsta Minima’

‘Komsta Mini’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia-cordata/komsta-mini-p75 Accessed 1 Apr 2020

See T. cordata ‘Komsta’.

‘Komsta Minima’https://www.orientalgarden supply.com/tilia-cordata-komsta-minima-56193.html Accessed 1 Apr 2020

See T. cordata ‘Komsta’.

‘Len Parvin’

CVB K. Michielsen, Belgium, Catalog 2010

Selected by Len Parvin from a tree in Wye Valley, England, before 2010. Smaller stature than typical, leaves also smaller, reaching only 2–4 cm length.

‘Lico’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, Nr. 29, 1992, p. 41

S. van Nijnatten BV, Zundert, The Netherlands, ca 1977. Slow growing dwarf with small leaves and greenish twigs. Generally propagated by top grafting. Rarely flowers. Compare ‘Green Globe’. = T. cordata ‘Lico Dwarf’.

‘Lico Dwarf’

Song Sparrow Farm and Nursery Website, http://www.songsparrow.com/catalog/plantdetails.cfm?ID=2804&type=WOODY,&pagetype=plantdetails, Accessed 26 Feb 2020

Though the website description indicates this originated from Girard Nursery, this likely represents confusion with the similar ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’. ‘Lico’ appears to be a similar but distinct selection originating in the Netherlands. See T. cordata ‘Lico’.

‘Lima’

Esveld Nursery Catalog 2012, www.arbor.be, www.treecentreopheusden.info

Origin uncertain. Commercially available in Belgium and The Netherlands as early as 2012. Dwarf selection with rounded habit usually propagated by top-grafting. Height 3 m, sometimes appearing taller depending on graft height.

‘Lorberg’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 96. 2013

Lorberg Nursery, Berlin, before 2005. Compact and pyramidal habit, reaching 12–15 m. Similar to species, but particularly adaptable to urban conditions. = T. cordata ‘Typ Lorberg’

‘Low Window’

Jablonski and Plietzsch Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 96, 2013

Origin uncertain. Commercially available in Austria and the Netherlands as early as 2012. Comparable to ‘PNI 6025’. Provisionally accepted by Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013).

‘Marler’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29:41, 1992

Günther Eschrich, Recklinghausen, Germany, 1985. Selected from a witches’ broom on ‘PNI 6025’ growing at a cemetery in Alt-Marl, Germany. Slow-growing, flowering at a young age. = T. cordata ‘Marler Globe’

‘Marler Globe’

M. Zybon-Biermann, Neue Bäume für die Stadt: Hexenbesen und andere Mutationen, p. 129–130, 2017

See T. cordata ‘Marler’.

‘Marta’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 96, 2013

Dariusz Wyrwicki, Warsaw, Poland, 2008. From a witches’ broom in the Warsaw Botanical Garden. Slow-growing dwarf with dense form and prostrate habit.

‘Merkur’

Bundessortenamt, Blatt für Sortenwesen 44: 78, 2011

H.-J. Albrecht, Berlin, Germany, 1977. Introduced ca 1997. Vigorous form with broad pyramidal habit, easily propagated by cuttings. = T. cordata ‘Späth’s Merkur’

‘Mieke’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 97, 2013

A cultivated specimen at Lindenarboretum Winterswijk, The Netherlands, 2012 of uncertain origin, named and introduced to commerce in 2013 (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2014). Not accepted due to lack of description.

‘Mixed Emotions’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

C. van der Wurff, Heeze, The Netherlands, 2003. Chance seedling selected in 1988, introduced 2003. Overall comparable to species, but leaves with irregular, relatively stable white-yellow variegation.

‘Monto’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 41, 1992

S. van Nijnatten BV, Zundert, The Netherlands, 1977. Dwarf form. Rarely flowering. Compare ‘Lico’, but with smaller leaves and dark brown twigs.

‘Morden’

D. Wyman, Arnoldia 29: 7–8, 1969

Agriculture Research Station Morden, Manitoba, Canada, 1968. Registered 1969. A cold-hardy selection and sole survivor from a seed lot received from Sheridan Nursery, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada in 1954. Pyramidal habit, slower growing than most other T. cordata selections.

‘Müllerklein’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 97, 2013

Presumably originated at Müllerklein Tree Nursery, Karlsstadt am Neckar. Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013) considered not established due to lack of description.

‘Nebužely’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 97, 2013

Cultivated in the tree nursery Školky Montano, Pierov, Czechia, and named for the Czech city of Nebužely. Characteristics uncertain. Tentatively accepted by Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013).

‘Nico’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia-cordata/nico-p77, Accessed 1 Apr 2020

See T. cordata ‘Niko’.

‘Niko’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

CVB K. Michielsen, Belgium, 2010. Dwarf form of unknown origin. Cultivated in the Linden Arboretum, Winterwijk, Netherlands, and at CVB Michielsen, Belgium. Foliage consistent with the species. = T. cordata ‘Nico’

‘Norbert’

W.N. Wandell, Handbook of Landscape Tree Cultivars, p. 197, 1994

Willet Wandell, Oquawka, IL, 1987. Fast growing selection with dense pyramidal habit, lacking a two-tiered branching habit. Somewhat broader than ‘PNI 6025’ per Dirr (2009). = T. cordata ‘Prestige’; = T. cordata ‘Wandell’. Marketed as PRESTIGE®.

‘Norlin’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, fifth ed., p. 1021, 1998

A trademark is claimed on this epithet in the United States, and therefore it is not available for use as a cultivar epithet. See T. cordata ‘Ronald’.

‘Norrland 2’

SKUD Svensk kulturväxtdatabas, https://skud.slu.se/nav/taxa/6248950, Accessed 5 August 2022.

A Swedish selection, marketed as TREND®. Listed without description and therefore not established (Article 27.1).

‘Nový Jičin’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia-cordata/novy-jicin-p91 Accessed 1 Apr 2020.

See T. cordata ‘Nový Jičin WB’

‘Nový Jičin WB’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

L. Soukup, 1994, selected from a witches’ broom in Nový Jičin and commercially introduced through J. Holata Nursery, Kout, Czechia in 2004. Slow growing form with columnar habit. = T. cordata ‘Nový Jičin’

‘Oldenbelt’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

Selected from the van Bischof-Tulleken nursery, Heerde, The Netherlands, before 2012. Ovate-pyramidal habit. Foliage emerging yellow, turning light green later in the season.

‘Olympic’

J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co., Troutdale, OR, Wholesale Price List, Fall 1972-Spring 1973, p. 11

J. Frank Schmidt & Son Co., Troutdale, OR, 1970. Vigorous, symmetrical habit with glossy leaves.

‘Opava WB’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

Sophora Nurseries S. Skorka, Zbroslawice, Poland, 2012. Selected from a witches’ broom in Opava, Czechia. Foliage yellow to pale green. Dwarf form, habit comparable to ‘Marta’ but with a tendency to grow more prostrate.

‘Ovalifolium’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 97, 2013

Origin unknown. Cultivated in Lindenarboretum, Winterwijk, The Netherlands, 2012. Cannot be established due to use of a Latin cultivar epithet after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘PNI 6025’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 635, 1996

Princeton Nursery, NJ, 1961. From a 1953 cross between superior T. cordata growing in Germany and the Parks System of Boston (listed as ‘Boston’ and ‘Euclid’ on the patent application, but neither cultivar epithet appears to have been registered or published with a description sufficient for establishment). Fast-growing selection with tight pyramidal habit. = T. cordata ‘Greenspire’. Marketed as GREENSPIRE®.

‘Pendula’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, p. 157, 1864

Petzold & Kirchner (1864) describe as a selection received from Koenigl. Baumschule under the name “Tilia europaea pendula hort.”, which apparently was more referable to Tilia cordata, though lacked pendant branches as a young tree. Santamour & McArdle (1985) were uncertain of species designation. Probably =Tilia ×europaea ‘Pendula’, though some pendant forms of T. cordata are known. A herbarium voucher at The Morton Arboretum (MOR 90842) is true to T. cordata and described as pendulous on the label. It was collected from 11755-A at the Arnold Arboretum, listed in their catalog as a variant.

‘Pendula Nana’

Girard Nurs., Geneva, OH, Cat. 1976, p. 30

Not established as the cultivar epithet was entirely in Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11). See T. cordata ‘Girard’s Pendula Nana’.

‘Pevé Kronenberg’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 98, 2013

Piet Vergeldt Nurseries, The Netherlands, ca 1995 from a witches’ broom in Kronenberg, near Venlo, The Netherlands. Dwarf form, compact dense habit, slightly pendulous.

‘Plymtree Gold’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 98, 2013

A yellow-leaved form of uncertain origin.

‘Prestige’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, fifth ed., p. 1021, 1998

A trademark is claimed on this name in the United States, so it is unavailable for use as a cultivar epithet. See T. cordata ‘Norbert’.

‘Purpurea’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 98, 2013

Burgundy-leaved form of uncertain origin. Cultivated in the Linden Arboretum Winterwijk, The Netherlands, and at CVB Michielsen, Belgium ca 2010. Provisionally accepted by Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013), as it was likely named before 1959, albeit a citation for such has yet to be identified.

‘Pyramidal’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. cordata ‘Pyramidalis’.

‘Pyramidalis’

W. Wittmack, Gartenfl. 45: 180, 1896

German origin. Narrow pyramidal to conical form first recorded on Pfaueninsel, Berlin, Germany. Distributed in the United States by Kohankie Nursery, Painesville, OH ca 1950. Santamour & McArdle (1985) rejected this epithet on the basis of a previously published Tilia platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’. However, per the ninth edition of the Cultivated Code, duplication of cultivar epithets in Latin form within a denomination class is permissible so long as the cultivar epithets are assigned to different taxa and linked to the appropriate epithet (Article 21.7).

‘Raciborski’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 98, 2013

K. & S. Abram Nursery, Poland, 2009. Stable, yellow-white mottled variegation, though often with little vigor. Named for the Polish botanist Marian Raciborski.

‘Radziul’

Wonderflora website, http://www.wonderflora.hekko.pl/, Accessed 8 July 2022

Found and named by Eugeniusz Radziul, Poland. Leaves light green with unregular yellow or cream variegation (Fig. 5). Slow growing.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tilia cordata ‘Radziul’, exhibiting creamy-yellow variegation to foliage.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Rancho’

E.H. Scanlon & Assoc., Olmsted Falls, OH, Advert., Trees Mag. 23(4): 3, 1963

E.H. Scanlon & Assoc., Olmsted Falls, OH, 1961. Tight, conical habit. Comparable to T. ‘Böhlje’ though smaller. Though the cultivar is generally referred to by this epithet, a registered trademark has been claimed on it in the United States, therefore it is not freely available. We have been unable to find an alternate, suitable epithet.

‘Red Leaf’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 98, 2013

Origin unknown, but per Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013), offered in the Netherlands by Darthuizer Nurseries and Heidelust Nursery in 2012 and used to some extent as a street tree in that country. Possibly identical to T. cordata ‘Purpurea’. Ebben Nurseries, Cujik, The Netherlands was selling a form under this name in 2020, but the description references a green leaved and red-budded selection, possibly either a different form or in error. Additionally, the epithet ‘Red Leaf’ is contrary to ICNCP Rec. 21G, consisting solely of descriptive words.

‘Roelvo’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 40, 1992

Dendrologie Online: http://databaze.dendrologie.cz/index.php?menu=6&id=2669 Accessed 13 Mar 2020

M. Roelofesen, Opheusden, The Netherlands, 1988. Fast-growing, selected from a group of seedlings in 1979. Leaves and fruits are somewhat larger than typical for the species. ‘Roevo’ is a common but incorrect spelling variation per de Jong (1992).

‘Ronald’

Bailey Nurseries, Inc., St. Paul MN, Wholesale Catalog 1990–91

Selected by Wilbert G. Ronald, Manitoba, Canada before 1990, and subsequently introduced by Bailey Nurseries, St. Paul, MN. Fast growing and hardy selection with a broad pyramidal habit. Good resistance to leaf spot, leaf gall, and sunscald. Low fruit set. = T. cordata ‘Norlin’. Marketed as NORLIN ™.

‘Salem’

Handy Nurs. Co., Portland, OR, Wholesale Price List, Fall 1973-Spring 1974, p. 12

Handy Nursery Co., Portland, OR, 1973. Fast-growing selection with a rounded crown and dark green foliage. Marketed as SALEM®. Though the cultivar is generally referred to by this epithet, a registered trademark has been claimed on it in the United States, therefore it is not freely available. An alternate epithet has not been identified.

‘Savaria’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 98–99, 2013

Origin unknown, apparently emerging in Hungary before 2005. Offered by Sophora Nurseries, S. Skorka, Zborslawice, Poland in 2012 per Jablonski & Plietzsch (2013). Upright pyramidal habit, young twigs remarkably red in color.

‘Schönbrunn’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 99, 2013

Origin and characteristics uncertain. Not accepted due to lack of description.

‘Select’ [1]

Cole Nurs. Co., Painesville, OH, Trade List Fall 1964, p. 45

Apparently, a selection of similar origin to but distinct from ‘Chancole’ offered by Cole Nurseries during the 1960s but not propagated after the initial stock was sold off. No description other than “improved”. Not established due to lack of sufficient description (Article 27.1).

‘Select’ [2]

F.J. Grootendorst & Sons Nurs. Boskoop, Holland, Wholesale Price List, Fall-Spring, 1968–1969, p. 28

See T. cordata ‘Böhlje’

‘Semele’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 99, 2013

Sophora Nurseries S. Skorka, Zbroslawice, Poland, before 2012. Propagated from a witches’ broom on ‘Peve Kronenberg’ (and sometimes referred to under the tentative name “Peve Kronenberg WB”). It is even more compact than ‘Peve Kronenberg’ and with smaller leaves.

‘Shibamichi Gold’

United States Patent, PP16433, 2006

Akira Shibamichi, Kawaguchi, Japan, before 2002. New foliage bright golden yellow, fading to chartreuse green by summer. Distinct from ‘Akira Gold’ (A. Shibamichi, pers. comm).

‘Sheridan’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, Ten Speed Press, 1996, p. 636

In reference to multiple hybrid seedlings between Tilia americana and Tilia cordata. See T. ×flavescens ‘Sheridan Hybrids’.

‘Simone’

R. Houtman, Dendroflora 37: 105, 2000

A. van Nijnatten, Zundert, The Netherlands, 1994. Globe-shaped dwarf with remarkably small leaves. Often propagated by top-grafting.

‘Skinner’s Select’

Aubin Nurseries Ltd., Carman, Manitoba, Canada, aubinnurseries.ca/shade-trees, Accessed 22 Mar 2021

See T. cordata ‘BySkinner’.

‘Skjold’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

Slow growing selection from southern Denmark. Marketed as Norðîc®.

‘Spring Glow’

Leafland 2015 Wholesale Tree Catalogue. p. 162, 2015

Slow-growing selection. New leaves golden yellow, fading as the growing season progresses.

‘Späth’s Merkur’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 99, 2013

See T. cordata ‘Merkur’.

‘Stewart’

S.H. Davis and J.L. Peterson, J. Arboric. 6: 258–260, 1980

A selection under propagation at Princeton Nurseries, NJ, but never described or offered for sale (Santamour & McArdle 1985). Not established.

‘Streetwise’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 99, 2013

Hillier Nurseries, Romsey, England. Selected ca 1980 from a Hillier Nurseries breeding program. First offered commercially in 1998. Compare ‘PNI 6025’, but more vigorous. Several cultivars were introduced under this epithet, including a Tilia platyphyllos selection. Armitage et al. (2014) accepted ‘Streetwise’ for the T. cordata selection and renamed the T. platyphyllos selection as ‘Street Parade’. This is upheld here.

‘Swedish Upright’

D. Wyman, Arnoldia 23: 111–118, 1963

Alfred Rehder, Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA. Selected ca 1906 from a tree in Sweden. Upright and pyramidal habit, though per Dirr (1998, 2009), less upright and more pyramidal with age. Registered 1963.

‘Theo Westerveld’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 99, 2013

Selected by Theo Westerveld, The Netherlands before 2005, introduced commercially through

CVB K. Michielsen, Belgium, 2010. Smaller than type, with pendulous habit and smaller leaves.

‘Turesi’

Matt Tures Sons Nurs., Roselle, IL, Wholesale Price List, Fall 1968-Spring 1969, p. 11

A fast-growing pyramidal form introduced by Matt Tures Sons, Huntley, IL in the late 1960s. Becoming broader with age (Fig. 6), ca 12 × 10 m, based on a tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (76031). Sometimes also listed as ‘Turesii’, though neither epithet is established due to use of Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11). ‘Tures’ could potentially be an appropriate replacement epithet.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Broad habit of a mature specimen of Tilia cordata ‘Turesi’ (UW 76031).

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Typ Bohlje’

H.J. Grootendorst, Dendroflora 7: 72, 1970

See T. cordata ‘Böhlje’

‘Typ Lorberg’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 99, 2013

See T. cordata ‘Lorberg’

‘Umbrella’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 99–100, 2013

Origin unknown. Small tree with horizontal shoots; possibly only a synonym for T. cordata ‘Zory’, in culture at CBV Kris Michielsen, Belgium. Not established due to lack of precise description.

‘Unizam’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Ed. 6, p. 1149, 2009

Lake County Nursery, Madison, OH before 2009. Smaller than type with more compact habit. Marketed as UNIQUE ™.

‘Van Pelt’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29: 42, 1992

Van Pelt tree nurseries, Putte, Belgium, before 1962. Broad, pyramidal habit. Leaves larger in size and paler green in color compared with the species.

‘Villae Aurea’

Sophora Nurseries S. Skorka, Zbroslawice, Poland, catalog 2012

Uncertain origin. Foliage yellow, more stable than other types. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) did not accept as the cultivar epithet is comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Walt’s Pride’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 42, 1992

Walter van den Oever, M. van den Oever & Zonen BV Nurseries, Haaren, Netherlands, ca 1955. Compare ‘Haaren’, but narrower in habit and with larger leaves, larger buds, and thicker twigs.

‘Wandell’

United States Patent, PP6745, 1989

Though the patent for ‘Norbert’ lists the cultivar as a selection of “Tilia cordata var. ‘Wandel’”, the title for the application references ‘Norbert’, and the cultivar is referred to as ‘Norbert’ throughout the application. See T. cordata ‘Norbert’.

‘Wega’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 42, 1992

H.-J. Albrecht, Berlin, Germany, 1989. Selected from seedlings of T. cordata primarily due to ease of propagation from cuttings. Dense habit with straight trunk.

‘Westonbirt Dainty’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 98, 2013, p. 100

See T. japonica ‘Westonbirt Dainty’

‘Westonbirt Dainty Leaf’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 98, 2013, p. 100

See T. japonica ‘Westonbirt Dainty’

‘Winter Orange’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29: 42, 1992

J. Mouws, Zundert, the Netherlands, 1988. Selected from a spontaneous tree in 1977. Young twigs orange, with coloration becoming particularly evident during the winter. Leaves relatively large, up to 9 cm wide in shade based on a tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (97111).

‘XP 110’

E.H. Scanlon and Assoc., Olmsted Falls, OH, Wholesale List No. 15, Fall 1963-Spring 1964, p. 82

Likely a temporary name for ‘Bicentennial’. See T. cordata ‘Bicentennial’.

‘Zory’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 98, 2013, p. 100

Sophora Nursery S. Skorka, Zbroslawice, Poland, before 2012. Selected from a park tree in Zory, Poland. Young shoots grow horizontally, drooping downward when older and creating an overall umbrella-like habit. Possibly = T. cordata ‘Umbrella’.

Tilia ×euchlora K.Koch

The nothospecific epithet euchlora was established by Karl Koch (1866) to describe an apparent hybrid of Tilia cordata and Tilia dasystyla cultivated in Germany ca 1845 (See ‘Euchlora’ below for characteristics). It is still widely cultivated today. Most modern authors have preferred to treat as a nothospecies (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2011; Johnson and Sutton 2020; Pigott 2012), though historic taxonomic opinions on the status of Tilia dasystyla (namely, synonymy with T. platyphyllos) have sometimes resulted in treatment as a cultivar assigned to Tilia ×europaea (Dolatowski 1992).

However, descriptions of the Tilia ×euchlora of horticulture indicate a narrower concept than a general nothospecies of Tilia cordata and Tilia dasystyla. First, Pigott (2012) mentions little variability between individuals, lack of fertile seed production, and a history of propagation via grafting indicate the Tilia ×euchlora of horticulture is at least mostly clonal. Second, since T. cordata is a diploid (2n=2x=82) and T. dasystyla is tetraploid (2n=4x=164), one would expect most offspring from this cross would be triploid (2n=3x=123). However, it is tetraploid, possibly due to fusion of an unreduced gamete (Pigott 2012). Finally, another assumed hybrid of T. dasystyla × cordata at Cambridge University Botanic Garden (1992.0547A) is described by Johnson and Sutton (2020) as not closely resembling typical Tilia ×euchlora, possibly resulting from hybridity with subsp. caucasica as opposed to the Crimean subsp. dasystyla.

Therefore, “euchlora” appears to be applicable in the broad sense for hybrids of T. cordata and T. dasystyla, and in the narrow sense for one largely clonal, anomalous tetraploid cross of these species with a specific point of horticultural origin and identifiable characteristics. For the purposes of this register, we will consider Tilia ×euchlora as the nothospecies for hybrids of T. cordata and T. dasystyla, and Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’ as the largely clonal form of horticulture originally described by Koch. Three other cultivars have been named, but due to their apparent similarity, we suspect at least two as synonyms of ‘Euchlora’.

‘Euchlora’

Koch, K. Wochenschrift für Gärtnerei und Pflanzenkunde 9: 284, 1866

Booth’s Nursery, Hamburg, Germany ca 1845, apparently originating in the Crimean Peninsula (Pigott 2012). Slender, somewhat pendulous habit with dark glossy green leaves, and remarkably pale-colored teeth. Widely cultivated, with most Tilia ×euchlora of horticulture representing this clone (Pigott 2012). It has gained renewed popularity in Europe due to its resistance to aphids. At The Morton Arboretum (Lisle, IL) this is generally the first linden selection to be completely defoliated by Japanese Beetle. = Tilia ×europaea ‘Euchlora’; = Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’; = Tilia ×euchlora ‘Saint Stephen’; = Tilia ×euchlora ‘Szent Istvan’.

‘Frigg’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 101, 2013

Selected and introduced through the DAFO (Danske JordbrugForskning) program of Denmark after 1990 for its suitability for cultivation in that country. Neat, ovate crown and good disease resistance. We have not examined this clone.

‘Laurelhurst’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 637, 1996

Moller’s Nursery, Gresham, OR, before 1988. Dirr (1998) described as a broadly pyramidal tree with glossy dark green leaves. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (91142, from Moller’s Nursery) exhibits such leaves with notably pale-colored teeth comparable to ‘Euchlora’ (Fig. 7A) and reddish tufts of trichomes in some vein axils on the lower surface. However, its habit is somewhat more rounded, ca 7 × 6 m, with somewhat pendant lower branches (Fig. 7B). It is overall very similar to a neighboring ‘Euchlora’ (92169), with subtle differences in height and habit likely resulting from planting location.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(A) Glossy foliage of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142), exhibiting distinct pale colored teeth comparable to Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’. (B) Rounded habit of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142) with somewhat pendant lower branches.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Laurelhurst’ was originally listed as a selection of Tilia ×europaea but changed to one of Tilia ×euchlora in 1994. Jacobson (1996) listed under T. ×europaea and conjectured a T. ×europaea growing in Laurelhurst Park, Portland, OR may have been the source. However, he further noted this would be in contradiction with the Moller’s catalog, which instead suggested origin in Europe in 1920. Based on close morphological similarity to ‘Euchlora’ and that Tilia ×euchlora of horticulture is largely clonal (Pigott 2012), we suspect this cultivar resulted from an inadvertent renaming of ‘Euchlora’. See Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’.

‘Saint Stephen’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 99: 187, 2014

E.J. Benczur, Z. Ifju & G. Schmidt, Budapest, Hungary, ca 1990. Compact, conical tree becoming wider at maturity. Leaves with some reddish hairs in vein axils. Selected from a polluted, urban environment and introduced based on tolerance. Assignment to T. ×euchlora based on morphology, phenology, and RAPD-PCR studies. The name recognizes Szent István University (later integrated with Corvinus University from 2003–2004). The description hardly seems distinct compared with ‘Euchlora’, and selection from an urban environment raises suspicion this resulted from an inadvertent renaming of ‘Euchlora’. See Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’.

‘Szent István’

Moga Company for landscaping, Maribor, Slovenia, https://www.moga.eu/tilia-szent-istvan, Accessed 30 Mar 2020

See Tilia ×euchlora ‘Saint Stephen’, itself a probable synonym of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’.

Tilia ×europaea L.

A nothospecies referencing hybrids of Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos, occurring naturally where their ranges overlap in Europe. Pigott (1992) completed an extensive morphological analysis, demonstrating many common cultivated trees in Europe represent two clonal groups: a group based on the old ‘Pallida’ clone (Syn: ‘Kaiserlinde’), and a second group consisting of the similar but distinct cultivars ‘Zwarte Linde’ and ‘Hatfield’. Based on such, we have established two cultivar Groups for those clonal groups containing multiple selections: Kaiserlinde Group and De Hollandia Group. Bengtsson (2005) lists six clonal groups, maintaining one group for the ‘Pallida’ types, but splitting ‘Hatfield’ and ‘Zwarte Linde’ from each other and into separate groups. Bengtsson’s other three groups represent two with no named cultivars, and one comparable to our concept of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’. Molecular research by Wolff et al. (2019) reflects ‘Pallida’ as distinct from ‘Zwarte Linde’ but demonstrated ‘Hatfield’ shows little genetic similarity with ‘Zwarte Linde’, supporting placement in a third group. However, since placement in cultivar groups should be based on morphological characteristics, we have maintained ‘Hatfield’ within the De Hollandia Group.

‘Bicuspidata’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, p. 157, 1864

Lamina apparently forked, with two distinct tips. Likely originating from the German nursery trade, but only propagated in small quantities. Apparently lost to cultivation.

‘Grandiflora’

L. Späth, Späth-Buch, p. 309, 1930

Not a cultivar in our opinion, but an orthographic error referencing a subspecies of Tilia platyphyllos emerging and replicated in the literature before 1930. “Grandiflora” was likely intended as “Grandifolia” in reference to Tilia grandifolia Ehrh., considered a synonym of Tilia platyphyllos subsp. cordifolia per Pigott (2012). The Morton Arboretum holds living and herbarium specimens accessioned under Tilia ×europaea ‘Grandiflora’ (574–32 from Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). They exhibit a lower number of flowers per cyme than typical for T. ×europaea (3–4 instead of 7), somewhat pubescent twigs, and simple hairs to the upper leaf surface, all consistent Pigott’s description of T. platyphyllos subsp. cordifolia. Späth (1930) and Jacobson (1996) also present as a synonym of Tilia platyphyllos.

‘Pendula’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 340, 1903

Origin uncertain. Branches slightly pendulous. Santamour and McArdle (1985) did not accept due to concerns over issues of priority with a Tilia tomentosa selection, though this is acceptable under Article 21.7 as it was published before 1959 and associated with a different taxon. Additionally, the T. tomentosa selection is treated here under ‘Petiolaris’. = T. ×europaea ‘Weeping’

‘Siivonen’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 95, 2014

Apparently selected in Finland ca 1954 from stock exported from Germany as ‘Pallida’ but not true to name. Characteristics uncertain, perhaps referencing several clones. Not accepted by Jablonski and Plietzsch (2014) due to lack of description.

‘Superba’

Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs Grown in Arboretum, Kew, Part 1, p. 301, 1894

Nomen nudum as “Tilia hybrida superba Hort.” Per Späth (1930), a synonym of T. americana ‘Cyclophylla’. See T. americana ‘Cyclophylla’.

‘Weeping’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. ×europaea ‘Pendula’.

Tilia ×europeaea De Hollandia Group

D. Pigott, New Phytologist 121: 489, 1992

Apparently originating from the Dutch nursery trade before 1750, cultivars within this Group share characteristics including dull green leaves with mostly cordate bases, inflorescences of 3–5 flowers, a hemispherical crown, and a dull crimson coloration to buds and terminal ends of shoots over the winter months (Pigott 1992). Pigott (1992) described as “clonal group B”. Here, “De Hollandia Group” is established as the Group name, including ‘Zwarte Linde’ and two very similar, potentially synonymous selections. = Tilia ×vulgaris (clonal group B) in part.

‘De Hollandia’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 43, 1992

Historically offered by Lappen Nurseries, Kaldenkirchen, Germany, before 1950. Little description save for mention it had long been in culture. De Jong (1992) and Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) suggested this could be the ‘Zwarte Linde’ often propagated in The Netherlands. See T. ×europaea (De Hollandia Group) ‘Zwarte Linde’.

‘Hatfield’

D. Pigott, Lime-trees and basswoods, p. 108, 2012

Uncertain origin, planted in England before 1750. Described by Pigott (1992) based on an avenue of trees at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, England. Overall similar to ‘Zwarte Linde’ but considerably taller (to 32–46m for 200 year old trees) and with twigs less dense and less dark in color. = T. ×europaea ‘Hatfield Tall’.

‘Hatfield Tall’

D. Pigott, New Phytologist 121: 487–493, 1992

Pigott (1992) proposed as the epithet for a clonal group present in English parks before 1750, but later clarified preference for the shorter epithet ‘Hatfield (Pigott 2012). See T. ×europaea (De Hollandia Group) ‘Hatfield’.

‘Longevirens’

J. Timm & Co., Nurs., Elmshorn, West Germany, Cat. Fall 1949-Spring 1950, p. 42

J. Timm & Co., Elmshorn, Germany, ca 1930. Leaves large, somewhat yellow to light green when emerging, maturing to dark green and persisting longer in the growing season compared with typical T. ×europaea. Genetically identical to ‘Zwarte Linde’ per Wolff et al. (2019), and potentially synonymous.

‘Övedskloster’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 102, 2013

Alnarp Research Station, Alnarp, Skane, Sweden, 2005. Selected at Övedskloster in Skane, Sweden due to winterhardiness and regional adaptation. Dark twigs, very similar to ‘Zwarte Linde’. Also, apparently of Dutch origin.

‘Zwarte Linde’

H.J. Grootendorst, Dendroflora Nr. 7, 1970, p. 69–81

Of uncertain origin. Old selection long in culture in The Netherlands, characterized by dark colored branches. Apparently exported to Germany and Sweden, though rarely planted in England (Pigott 1992) Compare ‘Hatfield’, but smaller in stature, and ‘Koningslinde’, but wider. = T. ×europaea ‘De Hollandia’

Tilia ×europeaea Kaiserlinde Group

D. Pigott, New Phytologist 121: 489, 1992

This Group, first referred to as Tilia ×vulgaris Hayne (clonal group A) and later as Tilia ×europaea var. europaea (Pigott 1992, 2012) represents a narrow lineage emerging in the Dutch nursery trade before 1750. Cultivars subsumed within are characterized by bright green leaves with a pale lower surface and oblique base, inflorescences of ca 7 flowers, a conical crown, and a scarlet red coloration to buds and terminal ends of shoots over the winter months (Pigott, 1992). Jablonski and Plietzsch (2014) established as a cultivar group under this name, including: ‘Erkelenz’, ‘Jubilee’, ‘Koningslinde’, ‘Lappen’, ‘Pallida’, ‘Sivonen’, and ‘Wratislaviensis’. This is retained for this register, with the addition of ‘Gocrozam’ based on its phenotypic similarity with ‘Wratislaviensis’.

Wolff et al. (2019) demonstrated ‘Jubilee’, ‘Koningslinde’, and ‘Wratislaviensis’ were genetically identical to ‘Pallida’, suggesting that observed morphological variations between these cultivars resulted from either plasticity, or mutations maintained through clonal propagation. For the time being these have been retained as distinct selections, though could arguably all be considered synonymous with the original ‘Pallida’ clone if demonstrated they do not retain their defining characteristics following propagation.

‘Aurea Vik’

Konieczko Nurseries, Gogolin, Poland https://www.drzewa.com.pl/lipa-holenderska- aurea-vik-tilia-x-europaea-aurea-vik.html Accessed 6 Apr 2020

A seedling of T. ×europaea ‘Wratislaviensis’ selected by Josef Vik from the collections at Pruhonice Park, Czechia, before 2012. New foliage yellow green. In commerce by 2020. Cultivar epithet listed by Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013), but not accepted there due to lack of description.

‘Eleonora’

E-planta Nursery website, https://www.eplanta.com/show_vaxt.php?ID=2342020, Accessed 26 Mar 2020

Propagules from a mature tree at Svartsjö Castle in Mälardalen, planted around 1630 under direction of Gustav II Adolf. Somewhat narrower habit than other members of Group. Marketed as Kristina®.

‘Erkelenz’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 95, 2014

B. Müller-Platz Nursery, Erkelenz, Germany, 1954. Selected from a stock block of ‘Pallida’ for a narrower habit. Compare ‘Lappen’, but with more distinct red-brown buds and smaller leaves. Long-lasting yellow fall color. = ×T. europaea ‘Pallida Typ Erkelenz’

‘Gocrozam’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 636–637, 1996

Lake County Nursery, Perry, OH, before 1991. New foliage golden-yellow, fading to green as the season progresses. Marketed as GOLDCROWN®. We have not examined, though based on Dirr’s (2009) suspicion this could be a synonym of ‘Wratislaviensis’, it is presumably sufficiently morphologically similar for placement within this Group.

‘Jubilee’

Jablonski and Plietzsch 2013, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 101, 2013

Pyramidal to ovate habit. Compare ‘Wratislaviensis’, but more vigorous and with larger leaves. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) considered ‘Pallida Jubilee’ unacceptable, presumably due to use of the Latin “Pallida” and designated ‘Jubilee’ as a replacement epithet. Our understanding of the ICNCP is that the epithet is permissible as it is not comprised completely of Latin, however for the sake of this register we have chosen to uphold ‘Jubilee’. This avoids use of the epithet ‘Pallida’ and will help to reduce confusion (Art. 21.23). = T. ×europaea ‘Pallida Jubilee’

‘Kaiserlinde’

Santamour & McArdle. Journal of Arboriculture 11(5): 161, 1985

A synonym of ‘Pallida’, often used as a regional common name in Germany (Grootendorst 1970). In reference to the association of ‘Pallida’ with the Siegesallee in Berlin, commissioned by Kaiser Wilhelm II. See Tilia ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Pallida’

‘Koningslinde’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29: 43, 1992

A selection of Dutch origin made available to growers by King Willem III (King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849–1890) following loss of mulberry trees due to dike breaches, given this name by the NAKB ca 1945. Large, broadly pyramidal tree with conical top. Santamour & McArdle (1985) indicate as a synonym of ‘Pallida’. It is similar, though not necessarily synonymous due to morphological differences including stronger dominance of the central leader, a lesser tendency to develop epicormic shoots, and a later leaf out (Pigott, 1992), up to 14 d per de Jong (1992).

‘Lappen’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 101–102, 2013

Lappen Tree Nursery, Nettetal-Kaldenkirchen, Germany, before 1895, with the type tree located on the Siegesallee of Berlin. Large tree with pyramidal habit and strong central leader reaching up to 40 × 18 m. Glossy foliage typically 7–10 cm in length, persisting late into summer and early autumn even during drought years. Foliage eventually turning bright yellow, with twigs and buds turning bright red. It is best distinguished from other cultivars in this Group based on its pyramidal habit. Initially distributed as ‘Pallida Typ Lappen’, though Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) considered invalid. = T. ×europaea ‘Pallida Typ Lappen’

‘Paleleaf’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 623, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. T. ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Pallida’.

‘Pallida’

L. Späth, Moellers Deutsche Gärtner-Zeitung 39: 274, 1924

A 17th century introduction originating in the Dutch nursery trade. Long cultivated in continental Europe, prominently represented on the Siegesallee in Berlin. Leaves larger than typical, with a bright green upper surface and yellow-green or pale glaucous lower surface. Young twigs and buds turning crimson red in the fall. Conical crown. Easily propagated by layering. = T. ×europaea ‘Kaiserlinde’; = T. ×europaea ‘Paleleaf’

‘Pallida Jubilee’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 102, 2013

See T. ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Jubilee’.

‘Pallida Typ Erkelenz’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 95, 2014

See T. ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Erkelenz’

‘Pallida Typ Lappen’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 102, 2013

See T. ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Lappen’

‘Vik’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 102, 2013

Per Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013), undescribed selection cultivated in Pruhonice Park, Prague, Czechia. Probably = ‘Aurea Vik’. See T. ×europeaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Aurea Vik’.

‘Wratislaviensis’

L. Beissner, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 13: 323, 1904

Selected from the Breslau Municipal Nursery ca 1898 (now Wrocław, Poland). Potentially a sport of ‘Pallida’ per Jacobson (1996). New foliage yellow, fading to green during the growing season, turning bright yellow in fall (Fig. 8). Young twigs yellow.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Yellow-green foliage of Tilia ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Wratislaviensis’.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

Tilia ×flaccida Host ex Bayer

A nothospecies referencing hybrids of T. americana × T. platyphyllos. Tilia ×carlsruhensis Simonk. was also in use for this combination but was published two years later and thus lacks priority. Both epithets reference cultivated specimens seeing propagation and further culture, so are listed as cultivars here.

‘Carlsruhensis’

Simonkai, L. Revisio Tiliarum Hungaricum atque orbis terrarum. Mathematikai és természettudományi közlemények 22, 269–352, 1888.

Originated in Karlsruhe, Germany, ca 1830. Compare ‘Flaccida’, but with smaller leaves, and overall more similar to T. platyphyllos than T. americana (de Jong 1994).

‘Diversifolia’

Arb. Kornick., Polon. iii. 91 (1958).

Originally described as a species but considered a cultivar by Krüssmann (1978). Apparently, a hybrid of T. americana and T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’. Leaves dissected similar to T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’, but larger, with distinctly toothed margins, and with an oblique base reminiscent of T. americana.

‘Flaccida’

Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 12: 46 (1862).

The first named hybrid of T. americana × T. platyphyllos, described in 1862 based on a tree at the Botanische Garten, Vienna (Pigott 2012). Presented here as a cultivar to distinguish from other named selections of this nothospecies.

‘Odin’

Grøn Viden, Harebrug 88, (1995)

Selected at Park Holbaek, Denmark in 1995. Per Johnson and Sutton (2020), overall resembling T. platyphyllos, but leaves lighter in color and with 2–7 flowers per inflorescence.

Tilia ×flavescens A.Braun

A nothospecies referencing hybrids of T. americana × T. cordata. Four named selections are currently known, though unnamed seedlings were also distributed as “Sheridan Hybrids.”

‘Dropmore’

Skinner’s Nursery, Ltd., Dropmore, Manitoba, Canada, Dropmore Hardy Plants For 1956, p. 19

Dropmore Nursery, Manitoba, Canada, 1955. T. cordata seedling very strongly resembling T. americana, but with smaller seeds and resistance to eriophyid mites.

‘Glenleven’

Sheridan Nurs. Ltd., Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, Cat. 1963, p. 36

Sheridan Nurseries, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, 1963. One of the “Sheridan hybrids” (open pollinated seedlings of T. cordata × apparent T. americana, further described below), and the only one definitively named. Fast growing selection with rounded crown. Leaves larger in size and coarser in texture than T. cordata.

‘Sheridan Hybrids’

Sheridan Nurs., Ltd., Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, Cat. 1964, p. 33

Referencing not a specific cultivar, but a group of seedlings apparently resulting from open pollination of T. cordata by T. americana at Sheridan Nurseries, Etobicoke, Canada in the 1960s. As only one seedling (‘Glenleven’) was definitively named, a Cultivar Group need not be established. Other “Sheridan Hybrids” should be considered as unnamed seedlings of Tilia ×flavescens.

‘Spaethii’

L. Späth Nurs., Berlin, Cat. 1912–1913, p. 134

Späth Nursery, Berlin, Germany, before 1912. Vigorous selection with dense crown and upright branches.

‘Wascana’

Canad. Hort. Council, Rpt. Comm.Hort. Res., p. 147, 1982

W.G. Ronald, Morden Research Station, Manitoba, Canada, 1978. Open-pollinated seedling of ‘Dropmore’ and overall similar but wider branching and somewhat hardier and more vigorous.

Tilia henryana Szyszyl.

‘Arnold Select’

The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs, eighth ed, p. 407, 2014

Dirk Benoit, Pavia Kwekerij, Deerlijk, Belgium, ca 2003. Hardy selection with strong central leader. Selected by Philippe de Spoelberch and Dirk Benoit from a tree at the Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, MA (857-74*A), sourced from Cary Arboretum and originally tracing to Nanjing Botanical Garden (M. Dosmann, pers. comm.) Named and introduced with permission from Peter Del Tredici (Arnold Arboretum). = T. henryana ‘Boston’

‘Boston’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 88, 2014

See T. henryana ‘Arnold Select’.

‘Bluebell’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

Bluebell Arboretum, Derbyshire, England, before 2020. Upright habit.

‘Caroline’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 88, 2014

Dirk Benoit, Pavia Kwekerij, Deerlijk, Belgium, 2013. Flowering three weeks later than species.

‘Kerdalo’

L.C. Hatch, International Register of Ornamental Plant Cultivars: Woody Plants, OROC Book VIII: 8.0, p. 86, 2017

Pan Global Plants, Frampton-on-Severn, England, 2017. Vigorous, upright habit. Foliage emerging red, turning green with age.

Tilia japonica (Miq.) Simonk.

‘Ernest Wilson’

J. Grimshaw, The New Plantsman 7: 195, 2008

Selected from a 1917 Ernest Wilson collection growing at Kew Gardens (29–76801). Up to 36 flowers per inflorescence. Propagated and distributed throughout Europe. This selection was previously distributed as Tilia insularis Nakai (with no cultivar epithet), resulting from confusion over whether this tree was grown from seed Wilson collected in Japan or Korea (both were visited during the 1917–1919 Expedition). It is currently believed to represent a Japanese collection and morphologically compliant with T. japonica per Pigott (2012).

‘Westonbirt Dainty’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 100, 2013

Westonbirt Arboretum, England, before 2003. Small and compact, with leaves also smaller than typical for species. Flowering abundantly as a young plant. Has been generally listed as T. cordata, but unpublished flow cytometry data from Donald Pigott demonstrates the cultivar is a tetraploid, likely instead a selection of T. japonica (M. Dvorak, pers. comm). =T. cordata ‘Dainty Leaf’, T. cordata ‘Westonbirt Dainty Leaf’.

Tilia ×juranskiana Simonk.

A nothospecies referencing hybrids of T. cordata and T. tomentosa.

‘Hillieri’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

Hillier and Sons, Hampshire, England, ca 1950. Leaves glabrous to tomentose. Some specimens in cultivation, but not currently commercially available (Johnson and Sutton 2020). Though this is an older cultivar, we have been unable to locate an appropriate printed reference describing it published before 1959 and therefore consider not established as the epithet is in Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11). Additionally, the epithet could continue to result in confusion with the distinct ‘Harold Hillier’.

Tilia mongolica Maxim.

‘Buda’

Boomkwekerij Udenhout, Catalog 2013, www.udenhout-trees.nl

Selected from the University of Budapest, Hungary and sold by the tree nursery in Udenhout, the Netherlands, ca 2013. Pyramidal habit. Foliage lasting until end of November. Yellow fall color.

‘DurJake’

International Register of Ornamental Plant Cultivars: Woody Plants, OROC Book VIII: 8.0, 2018

Rich Durand, Prairie Shade Nursery, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada. Pyramidal habit with pendant lower branches. Marketed as WINDANCER™ = T. mongolica ‘DurWeep’

‘DurWeep’

International Register of Ornamental Plant Cultivars: Woody Plants, OROC Book VIII: 8.0, 2018

See T. mongolica ‘DurJake’

‘Harvest Gold’

HortScience 31(3): 326, 1996

Registered 1996 as a T. mongolica selection, but more commonly considered a hybrid in recent references. See T. ‘Harvest Gold’ (other hybrids).

Tilia platyphyllos Scop.

‘Agi’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 103, 2013

Slow-growing selection of uncertain but presumably Hungarian origin. Known to be in cultivation at Nursery Söventuja, Hungary in 2012.

‘Agnes’

Jablonski and Plietzsch 2013, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 103. 2013

Nursery Söventuja, Hungary, before 2012. Tightly pyramidal. Leaves lighter green than typical on lower surface.

‘Albomarginata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum as Tilia grandifolia albo-marginata van Houtte, implying that it was first cultivated in the nursery of L. van Houtte, Gand, Belgium (Santamour and McArdle 1985).

‘Aurantia’

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs, Ed. 1, Pt. 1, p. 47, 1894

Nomen nudum. Probably = T. platyphyllos ‘Aurea’.

‘Aurea’

J.C. Loudon, Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, London, Ed. 2, Vol. 2, p. 336, 1844

Uncertain origin. Cultivated in London ca 1844. New twigs and branches yellow-green, most evident in winter. = T. platyphyllos ‘Aurantia’; = T. platyphyllos ‘Goldtwig’; = T. platyphyllos ‘Sulphurea’.

‘Aurea Nova’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum as Tilia grandifolia aurea nova hort. Masek. Listed separately from ‘Aurea’ by Beissner et al. (1903) indicative of a different selection.

‘Belvedere’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 103, 2013

Propagated from a witches’ broom found in a tree at the Belvedere of Prague Castle, Czechia, before 2012. Slow growing selection, only reaching 80 × 60 cm in ten years. Propagated and distributed by the Bömer company by 2017 (Zybon-Biermann 2017) and introduced into the Polish nursery trade.

‘Blechiana’

Lavallée, Arboretum Segrezianum, p. 19, 1877

Nomen nudum. Known to Dippel (1893), but perhaps only through literature, uncertain if he examined material. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (1894) listed as a selection of T. platyphyllos, but without description. Probably distinct from T. ‘Blechiana’ (other hybrids) as it would be unlikely to conflate that selection with T. platyphyllos. Apparently lost to cultivation.

‘Cochleata’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 104, 2013

Leaves apparently curled or twisted. Not established. Epithet is comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Compacta’

B.K. Boom, Nederl. Dendr. Ver. Jaarb. 20: 37–120, 1954–55

Named by B.K. Boom in 1954 but cultivated in the Netherlands as early as 1925 (de Jong 1992). Compact, globe-shaped slow-growing dwarf selection reaching 2 m in 30 years.

‘Corallina’

SpäthBüch, p. 310, 1930

Krüssmann (1978) and Bean et al. (1984) both indicate as synonymous with ‘Rubra’. See Tilia platyphyllos ‘Rubra’.

‘Corylifolia’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum as Tilia grandifolia corylifolia hort. Though the “hort” designation would imply otherwise, Santamour & McArdle (1985) claim this was not in cultivation based on Schneider (1912). After reviewing this reference, Schneider was describing Tilia corylifolia Host, a botanical species now in synonymy with Tilia platyphyllos subsp. pseudorubra C.K. Schneid. per Pigott (2012).

‘Cucullata’

A. Henry & H. J. Elwes, The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland, p. 1657, 1913

Leaves peltate, pitcher like. One tree growing at Lage Vuursche, near Amsterdam ca 1913. Likely a clone passed between monastic sites (Johnson and Sutton 2020).

‘Dakvorm’

Royal Horticultural Society Website, https://www.rhs.org.uk/Plants/192896/Tilia-platyphyllos-Dakvorm/Details, Accessed 2 Apr 2021

Last listed in the RHS Plant Finder in 2007. As of 13 March 2020, a note on the Trees and Shrubs Online website indicated this epithet probably referred to Tilia (of any kind) trained to a spreading “roof” shape. However, it is not listed in the current Johnson and Sutton treatment as of 16 February 2021. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Delft’

Groen, 1965, p. 4

Royal Nurseries Alphons Van Den Boom, Oudenbosch, The Netherlands, ca 1965. Per de Jong (1992), selected 1956 from a cultivated tree in Delft, The Netherlands. Narrow pyramidal habit, holding leaves later into the season than typical.

‘Dimond’

AABGA Bull. 18(4): 129. October 1984

Selected by P.W.J. Dimond, Moylinny, Northern Ireland, before 1982. Registered 1984. Compact dwarf, only reaching 1 m in 12 years. Compare ‘Moylinny’, but slower growing and leaves more crinkled.

‘Elde’

Monika Zybon-Biermann, Neue Bäume für die Stadtp. 131–132, 2017

Günther Eschrich, ca 2007. Propagated from tree growing in Müritz, Mecklenburg, Germany. Columnar habit, estimated to reach 10–15m height at maturity.

‘Erecta’

B. Davis, The Gardener’s Illustrated Encyclopedia of Trees & Shrubs, p. 69, 1987

Described only as an upright selection. Not established due to use of Latin cultivar epithet after 1959 (Art 21.11). Probably = T. platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’ or ‘Örebro’

‘Fastigiata’

A. Rehder, Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs, Macmillan, Ed. 2, p. 623, 1940

See T. platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’

‘Fenris’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 104, 2013

Introduced through the DAFO (Danske JordbrugForskning) program of Denmark after 1990 due to regional adaptiveness. Vigorous selection with slightly irregular habit. Can be propagated by long cuttings.

‘Flaccida’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, p. 155, 1864

See T. ×flaccida ‘Flaccida’

‘Flamme de Vercors’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

Guillot-Bourne nurseries, Jarcieu, France, before 2012. Slow growing. Upright pyramidal habit. Red-brown fall color.

‘Glauca’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

Origin unknown. Young twigs and lower leaf surface colored blue-green. In cultivation at Edinburgh Botanical Gardens, Scotland and CBV Kris Michielsen, Belgium. Not established. Epithet is comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Goldtwig’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 624, 1942

Before establishment of the Cultivated Code, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. platyphyllos ‘Aurea’.

‘Handsworth’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 639, 1996

Handsworth Nurseries, Sheffield, England, before 1952. First-year twigs colored yellow-green. = T. cordata ‘Handsworth’.

‘Henryk’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

Szmit Nurseries, Ciechanowie, Poland, before 1998. Slow growing dwarf cultivar with a weeping, umbrella like habit. Found around 1990 and propagated from a witches’ broom on an old tree growing in Ciechanów, Poland. Named for Henryk Domański, grandfather of Bronislaw Szmit (B. Szmit, pers. comm).

‘Herziana’

Bruns Nursery Catalog 2007/2008

Konrad Herz, Gelsenkirchen, Germany before 2007. Tight, dense, conical habit. Not established. Epithet is comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Hoffmanniana’

C. Schneider, Illus. Handbuch der Laubholzkunde, Vol. 2, p. 379, 1912

Old small-leaved selection of uncertain origin.

‘Insignis’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

Grown by CBV Kris Michielsen, Kampenhout, Belgium ca 2010. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1) and because the cultivar epithet is in Latin form after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘K3’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 95, 2014

Faculty of Horticulture Science, Corvinius University, Budapest, ca 1990. Propagated from a tree in a heavily polluted location and hypothetically of strong tolerance to urban conditions. Has been propagated in-vitro, but no description as to how it differs from other T. platyphyllos selections. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Kamminga’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

Cultivated at Lindenarboretum Winterwijk, The Netherlands ca 2012. Uncertain origin or characteristics. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Kavaleren’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 98: 105, 2013

Uncertain origin or characteristics. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Latifolia’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum as Tilia grandifolia latifolia hort. Engler (1909) lists a plant under this epithet, possibly synonymous but currently unresolved.

‘Louisa Life’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

T. van den Oever, Haaren, The Netherlands, 2002. Fast growing selection upright in youth, pyramidal at maturity. New twigs red.

‘Louisa Point’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29: 46, 1992

T. van den Oever, Haaren, the Netherlands, 1990. Rounded selection, smaller than typical.

‘Louisa Victory Fist’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 46, 1992

T. van den Oever, Haaren, Netherlands, 1990. Selected from a horticultural planting in the east of the Netherlands. Pyramidal habit.

‘Maráczi’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 105, 2013

Cultivated at Söventuja Nursery, Hungary, 2012. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Mayday’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105–106, 2013

Vitis-Idaea Nursery, Boelenslaan, The Netherlands, 2011. New twigs of distinct yellow coloration, otherwise similar to type.

‘Moylinny’

AABGA Bull. 18(4): 129, 1984

Selected by P.W.J. Dimond, Moylinny, Northern Ireland, before 1982. Registered 1984. Dwarf, reaching only 1.4 m in height at 12 years of age. Compare ‘Dimond’, but faster growing and with leaves less crinkled.

‘Multibracteata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. Apparently, a variant of T. platyphyllos described by Alexander Braun in the mid1800s. Listed as a botanical species by Beissner et al. (1903), interpreted by Santamour and McArdle (1985) as not in cultivation. No plants under this name cultivated today. Likely a synonym of T. platyphyllos. Braun’s types were mostly destroyed and with no material to examine, the situation is unlikely to be further resolved.

‘Naarden’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 46, 1992

NAKB, Naarden, The Netherlands, before 1980. Leaves more elongated than typical and persisting throughout the growing season. Good resistance to aphids and various leaf pests.

‘Obliqua’

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs, Ed. 1, Pt. 1, p. 47, 1894

Origin uncertain, before 1853. Obliquely truncate leaf base, glabrous lower surface (Santamour and McArdle 1985).

‘Örebro’

W.F. Koppeschaar, Jr., Nederl. Dendr.Ver. Jaarb. 14: 72–74, 1939

Gustav Karlsson, 1935. From a park near Örebro, Sweden and introduced into culture via K.A. Lundstrom Nursery in Östansjö, Sweden. Tightly conical in youth, maturing to a more ovate shape. Specimens at The Morton Arboretum (344-66), originating from Grootendorst Nursery, measured ca 6.5 × 4 m in 1990. Now about 50 years of age, they exhibit acute branch angles, but are more rounded, nearly as wide as tall. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (7116, from Scanlon Nursery) is similarly shaped, ca 8 m in height and spread. Habit probably best interpreted as starting conical, becoming broader with age if growing conditions permit (Fig. 9).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Tilia platyphyllos ‘Örebro’ (MOR 344-66*3), exhibiting acute branch angles and a habit turning from fastigiate to broad at maturity as space permits.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Pannonia’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 46, 1992

M. Barabits, Sopron, Hungary, before 1985 and cultivated and distributed in the Netherlands. Vigorous in youth, but eventually slowing and maturing to a rounded dwarf.

‘Paul Kruger’

L.A. Springer, Nederl. Dendrol. Veren. 9: 179–181, 1933

Selected at the municipal nursery in Arnhem, The Netherlands, ca 1933. Leaves broader than typical, with dense pubescence to the lower surface, lasting long into the growing season. = T. platyphyllos ‘Pseudoturbinata’

‘Pendula’

Hillier’s Manual of Trees and Shrubs, Ed. 2, p. 396, 1972

Spreading branches, pendulous twigs. Not established, epithet exclusively comprised of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Plurifolia’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Princes Street’

Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs, eighth ed, p. 408, 2014

Origin uncertain. Upright and vigorous selection with bright red shoots. More and White (2013) suggested it may be named for Princes Street in Edinburgh, and potentially better treated as a selection of Tilia ×europaea. We have been unable to examine material to verify the specific assignment.

‘Pseudoturbinata’

Royal Nurseries Alphons Van Den Boom, Oudenbosch, The Netherlands, Cat. 1959–1960

See T. platyphyllos ‘Paul Kruger’

‘Pubescens’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Puss in Boots’

ZOO a Botanický park Ostrava - catalogue Florius, http://www.florius.cz/ostrava/eng/l.dll?hal∼1000249461 Accessed 31 May 2020.

Cultivated in Czechia. No further information. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1)

‘Pyramidal’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 624, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’.

‘Pyramidalis’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, p. 155, 1864, p. 165

Narrow, pyramidal selection cultivated in Germany before 1864. Still in cultivation today. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (75114, from McKay Nursery) is ca 15 × 12 m, exhibiting a dense, broadly rounded pyramidal habit and tight, acute branch angles (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Tight, acute branching of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’ (UW 75114) resulting in an upright to fastigiate habit.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

Confusion over the appropriate epithet for this selection emerged in the early 20th century, though it is now generally agreed ‘Pyramidalis’ is the most appropriate. The selection was first listed by Petzold and Kirchner (1864) as Tilia platyphyllos pyramidalis Hort., though known to them only as young plants which had yet to develop a distinct habit. Beissner et al. (1903) also listed the selection under this name, as a nomen nudum but indicating a horticultural form (presumably in German commerce). Rehder (1940) referenced Beissner’s listing and moved into synonymy with T. platyphyllos f. fastigiata Rehder. Krüssmann (1978) and Bean et al. (1984) used ‘Fastigiata’ as a cultivar epithet based on Rehder as opposed to the older ‘Pyramidalis’, incorrectly per Santamour and McArdle (1985). Jablonski and Plietzsch (2014) also prefer ‘Pyramidalis’ on the basis of priority. ‘Pyramidalis’ is retained on this register.

‘Pyramidalis Aurea’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Pyramidalis Obliqua’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Rathaus’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

Origin unknown. Offered by Lappen Nursery, Nettetal, Germany in 2009. Midsized narrow, conical selection.

‘Redtwig’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 624, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. platyphyllos ‘Rubra’.

‘Rubra’

R. Weston, Universal Botanist and Nurseryman, Vol. 1, p. 298, 1770

Selected in 1775 from a spontaneous tree in France (Krüssmann 1978). Shoots and buds bright red, particularly evident in winter. Though this characteristic is not unheard of in T. platyphyllos, Bean et al. (1984) indicates this selection has been generally clonally propagated. It is therefore considered here as a cultivar. Wolff et al. (2019) determined an individual at the Westonbirt Forestry Commission Nursery, England to be tetraploid, suggesting this cultivar is better treated as a selection of T. dasystyla subsp. caucasica. This would conflict with Krüssmann’s stated origin, as T. dasystyla is not known to be spontaneous in France. Potentially more than one clone exists. = T. platyphyllos ‘Corallina’; = T. platyphyllos ‘Redtwig’

‘Sárgavesszejű’

van den Gronek Nurseries, Catalog 2012, Zernica, Poland

Nomen nudum. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Select’

A. Bärtels, Enzyklopädie der Gartengehölze, 2001

Dense ovate habit with twigs reddish-brown in winter. Somewhat less vigorous than typical. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) considered an invalid name. We consider “Select” a permissible (but discouraged) epithet for this cultivar as Article 21.17 only specifically prohibits use of the word “Selection.”

‘Serratifolia’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Speciosa’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Street Parade’

J. Armitage, D. Edwards, N. Lancaster, The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs, p. 408, 2014

Hillier Nurseries, Romsey, United Kingdom, ca 1980. Large, upright tree with glossy leaves and red twigs. Initially named and distributed as ‘Streetwise’, though that epithet was in use for a T. cordata selection. It was renamed by Armitage et al. (2014) to avoid conflict. = T. platyphyllos ‘Streetwise’.

‘Streetwise’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

See T. platyphyllos ‘Street Parade’

‘Sulphurea’

J.F. Cowell in L.H. Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort., Vol. 4, p. 1809, 1902

Possibly synonymous with ‘Aurea’. No further information is available. See T. platyphyllos ‘Aurea’.

‘Sundell’

Willet Wandell, Urbana, IL, before 1994. Previously unpublished name. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens (94015, from Discov-Tree Research & Development) is ca 9 × 7 m, exhibiting a dense upright to conical habit (Fig. 11A) and coarsely serrate leaves up to 9 × 7 cm with a distinct acuminate apex and obliquely cordate to truncate base (Fig. 11B). Few fruits observed, when present exhibiting four wings and a thick, well-developed wall. New twigs yellowish green. Marketed as SUNDANCE™.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

(A) Dense upright to conical habit of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015). (B) Coarsely serrate leaves of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015), exhibiting a distinct acuminate apex and obliquely cordate to truncate base.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Tahi’

Catalog of the Tahi Nursery, Hungary, 2013

Nomen nudum. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Tortuosa’

W.J. Bean, Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Ed. 7, Vol. 3, p. 430, 1951

Originating in England before 1888 and propagated at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Krüssmann 1978). Twigs twisted, reminiscent of a corkscrew. Leaves distorted (Fig. 12). Specimens at The Morton Arboretum (1057–36), indirectly tracing their origin to Kew via the Arnold Arboretum, exhibit tufts of reddish tomentum in the basal secondary vein axils comparable to T. cordata, often indicative of hybridization with that species per Pigott (2012). Morton Arboretum taxonomist Floyd Swink (1921–2000) preferred to consider this as a selection of T. ×europaea, possibly for this reason, though his determination notes are unavailable. However, the leaves also exhibit a greater degree of simple hairs along the secondary veins (characteristic of T. platyphyllos subsp. platyphyllos) compared with typical T. ×europaea.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Twisted shoots of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Tortuosa’.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Újkér’

Association of Hungarian Ornamental Nurserers, Magyar Díszfaiskolások Egyesülete, http://shop.fakertesz.hu/plants.html Accessed 8 Apr 2020.

Presumably in reference to Újkér, a village in Hungary ca 10 km east of the Austrian border. Not established due to lack of a description of specific characteristics (Article 27.1)

‘Variegata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 339, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Vera’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

Origin and characteristics uncertain. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Vineleaf’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 624, 1942

Before establishment of the ICNCP, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. platyphyllos ‘Vitifolia’.

‘Vitifolia’

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Hand-List of Trees and Shrubs, Ed. 1, Pt. 1, p. 47, 1894

Leaves scabrous, with three prominent apical teeth or weak lobes. Uncertain origin. Described as a botanical species by 1831, later considered a forma (Engler, 1909). Tough rare in cultivation today, the remaining plants are presumably clonal. = T. platyphyllos ‘Vineleaf’

‘Zelzate’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

De Martelaar, Belgium, before 2005. Chance seedling forming a tight, pyramidal tree. Leaves nearly orbicular. Good resistance to linden rust.

‘Zetten’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 96, 2014

Mauritz B.V., Opheusden, The Netherlands, 1992. Vigorous selection with pyramidal habit. New shoots hairy, becoming glabrous as growing season progresses. Hardy, good resistance to spider mites and aphids.

Tilia platyphyllos Laciniata Group

Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) established this Group to describe various cut-leaf cultivars of T. platyphyllos, including ‘Laciniata’ which is no longer identifiable from other similar selections. = T. platyphyllos ‘Cutleaf’; T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’.

‘Asplenifolia’

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, Gotha, p. 154–155, 1864

Uncertain origin. Cultivated in Western Europe before 1864. Smaller growing cut-leaf form with deep sinuses and curled margins. Santamour & McArdle (1985) theorized it was synonymous with ‘Laciniata’, though Armitage et al. (2014) consider distinct and hypothesize this originated as a sport from that selection. Wolff et al. (2019) found accessions of both at the Westonbirt Forestry Commission Nursery, England, to be genetically identical.

‘Asplenifolia Nova’

Baumann Bros. Nurs., Bollwyller, France, Cat. 1838

Baumann Tree Nurseries, Bollwyller, France, before 1844. Cut-leaf selection. Uncertain as to differences between ‘Asplenifolia’ and ‘Laciniata’.

‘Barocco’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 98: 103, 2013

A. Charlier, Esneux, Belgium, before 2005. Slow-growing selection. Leaves with ca 3–6 uneven lobes and deep sinuses. Minute yellow spotted variegation.

‘Capricio’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 103, 2013

A. Charlier, Esneux, Belgium, before 2005. Midsized tree. Leaves dissected, to 12 cm length and thus somewhat larger than other cut-leaf forms.

‘Cutleaf’

H.P. Kelsey and W.A. Dayton, Standardized Plant Names, p. 624, 1942

Before establishment of the Cultivated Code, Kelsey & Dayton (1942) were of the opinion that only species and natural varieties were entitled to Latin names and translated the names of all horticultural varieties to English. This is inconsistent with the ICNCP, allowing for cultivar epithets in Latin form when established before 1 January 1959. See T. platyphyllos Laciniata Group.

‘Donovan’s Filigree’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

See T. platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Tiltstone Filigree’

‘Erkegem’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 98: 104. 2013

CBV Kris Michielsen, Kampenhout, Belgium, 1999. Selected from a sport of T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’ growing in the park of the Château d’Erkegem in Oostkamp, Belgium. Overall comparable to ‘Laciniata’ but leaves less dissected and with a cream-white colored variegation.

‘Eniapseth’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 104, 2013

André Charlier, Esneux, Belgium, before 2010. Slightly variegated, dissected foliage.

‘Fastigiata Laciniata’

Girard Brothers Nursery Catalog, Geneva, OH, p. 22, 1958

Narrow, upright habit with glossy green foliage. Not listed as belonging to any particular species in the catalog but presumed here as a member of the Tilia platyphyllos Laciniata Group. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (95064, from Handy Nursery, Boring, OR labeled as ‘Laciniata Fastigiata’) exhibits variably dissected leaves, usually cut into 3–5 lobes (Fig. 13A). It is not remarkably fastigiate in habit, instead with a broadly rounded crown (Fig. 13B) but is more arborescent than trees labeled Tilia platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’ at The Morton Arboretum (798–56, lineage to Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Canada).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(A) Foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064), with leaves variably dissected and cut into 3–5 lobes. (B) Slightly arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064).

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Filicifolia Nova’

W.J. Bean, Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles, Ed. 7, Vol. 3, 1951

Origin uncertain. Leaves narrowly deltoid, often irregularly lobed, but not as deeply as ‘Laciniata’ or ‘Asplenifolia’.

‘Filigree’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

See T. platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Tiltstone Filigree’

‘Henryk Eder’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 105, 2013

See T. ‘Henryk Eder’ (other hybrids)

‘Kavkaiana’

Müller’s Deut. Gartn.-Zeit. 48: 313–314, 1933.

A sport from ‘Laciniata’ observed in Pruhonice Park near Prague, Czechia, before 1933. Described by P. Weltz and named for Bohumilu Kavkovi. Picková (2008) describes leaves as ca 10–15 × 8–10 cm with sharp acuminate apex.

‘Laciniata’

J.C. Loudon, Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, London, Ed. 2, Vol. 1, p. 366, 1844

An old slow-growing cut-leaf form of uncertain origin. Compare ‘Asplenifolia’ and ‘Asplenifolia Nova’, but apparently somewhat larger and with less incised leaves. Variation is present from branch to branch, with both reversions and more deeply cut or variegated sports common. Many of these have been propagated, leading to numerous similar named cultivars with only vague descriptions. Adding to the confusion, the cut-leaf trait appears frequently on seedlings collected from the tree, and it has therefore been propagated by seed to the point the original cultivar is no longer identifiable. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) chose to instead treat this as the Laciniata Group. See T. platyphyllos Laciniata Group.

‘Laciniata Herynek’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia-platyphyllos/laciniata-herynek-p83, Accessed 1 Apr 2020

See T. platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Laciniata Krča’.

‘Laciniata Krca’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia-platyphyllos/laciniata-herynek-p83, Accessed 1 Apr 2020

J. Krc, Czechia, before 2020. Selected from a seedling of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’. Cutleaf, dwarf selection growing 5–10 cm per year. = T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata Herynek’.

‘Mercedes’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 106, 2013

André Charlier, Esneux, Belgium, before 2010. Cut-leaf selection with unstable variegation.

‘Parade’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 106, 2013

Listed in the Hillier Arboretum Inventory, Romsey, England, 2012. Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) did not accept due to lack of description. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI exhibits dissected leaves (Fig. 14A), and is a weakly growing dwarf, reaching ca 3 m in height and half the spread (Fig. 14B), overall very similar to ‘Laciniata Fastigiata’.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(A) Dissected foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014). (B) Dwarf, arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014).

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Pepi’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 106, 2013

De Martelaer, Netherlands, before 2010. From a witches’ broom on T. platyphyllos ‘Laciniata’, resulting in a slow growing, pendant cut-leaf selection.

‘Stephanie’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 98: 107, 2013

A. Charlier, Esneux, Belgium, before 2013. Cut-leaf selection with irregular yellow variegation in the center.

‘Tiltstone Filigree’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

Donovan Caldwell Leaman, Caldwell and Sons Nurseries, before 1992 (Johnson and Sutton 2020). Most likely a seedling of T. platyphyllos ‘Rubra’ (D. Leaman, pers. comm). Neat, upright habit without being fastigiate. Leaves heavily dissected. In cultivation at Thorp Perrow Arboretum, Bedale, United Kingdom (Johnson and Sutton 2020) and Sir Harold Hillier Gardens & Arboretum, Romsey, United Kingdom (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2013). = T. platyphyllos ‘Donovan’s Filigree’; =T. platyphyllos ‘Filigree’.

‘Vitifolia III’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 98: 107, 2013

Originating in Czechia before 1970. Cutleaf form, though apical teeth or lobes are present similar to T. platyphyllos ‘Vitifolia’. An invalid name per Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013).

Tilia tomentosa Moench.

‘Argentea’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 47, 1992

Appeared in the catalog of Lappen Tree Nursery, Kaldenkirchen, Germany, ca 1992. The cultivar epithet is probably derived from Tilia argentea Desf. ex DC, a synonym of T. tomentosa, but the description appears to match ‘Brabant’. See T. tomentosa ‘Brabant’.

‘Aureovariegata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. Presumably with yellow-variegated leaves. Santamour & McArdle (1985) considered illegitimate as a Tilia cordata selection used this same cultivar epithet. Engler (1909) listed as a synonym of T. tomentosa var. petiolaris f. heterochroma. See T. tomentosa (Pendula Group) ‘Heterochroma’.

‘Balaton’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 89, 2014

Selected ca 1985 from a spontaneous tree in Balatonfüred, Hungary. Leaves smaller than typical (to 6–7 cm in length), with a long petiole. Good resistance to summer heat, drought, and various insect pests.

‘Bori’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 47, 1992

Hungarian selection, before 1985. Globe-shaped habit. Per de Jong (1992), potentially synonymous with either ‘Hungary Globe’ or ‘Silver Globe’, both originating from Hungary and named by A.F. van Nijnatten during this time period, but the description of ‘Bori’ is too vague to allow for a clear determination.

‘Brabant’

H.J. Grootendorst, Dendroflora 7: 79–80, 1970

Selected from Hoeven near Oudenbosch, the Netherlands, before 1930. Broad, conical habit, about 1.5 times taller than wide. Top distinctly pointed due to strength of central leader. Good resistance to pollution and various common insect pests. = T. tomentosa ‘Argentea’

‘Calvescens’

J. Timm Nurs., Elmshorn, Germany, Cat. Fall 1937-Spring 1938, p. 57

Foliage lighter green and terminal ends of twigs more whitish-pubescent compared with typical. Basionym likely T. tomentosa f. calvescens (Schur) V. Engl.

‘Canescens’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Doornik’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora, 29: 47, 1992

Couvreur, Lesdain, Belgium, before 1930. Compare ‘Brabant’, but with a more ovate habit. Per de Jong (1992), absent from commerce after 1945. = T. tomentosa ‘Kortrijk’; = T. tomentosa ‘Tournai’

‘Erecta’

H.A. Hesse Nurs., Weener, West Germany, Cat. 1958/59, p. 208

German selection of unknown origin. Upright habit, though per Dirr (1998, 2009), resembling the species as it ages. A specimen at The Morton Arboretum (1040–65), received from Hesse Nursery, is now roughly 55 years of age, and exhibits a multistemmed habit with two strong upright trunks surrounded by five other leaders, though this could have resulted from lack of pruning and/or failure to subvert understock (Fig. 15). = T. tomentosa ‘Fastigiata’

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Tilia tomentosa ‘Erecta’ (MOR 1040-65*2), not exhibiting an erect habit at maturity, likely due to failure to subvert competing branches or understock.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Fastigiata’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, Ed. 3, 1983, p. 705

Dirr (1983) and Santamour and McArdle (1985) both consider a synonym of T. tomentosa ‘Erecta’. See T. tomentosa ‘Erecta’.

‘Fructa Oblonga’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Grey Pillar’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 47, 1992

Hungarian selection of uncertain origin. Columnar habit.

‘Hergest Silver’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

Lawrence and Elizabeth Banks, Herefordshire, England, before 2019. Uncertain origin. Lower leaf surface whiter than type.

‘Horizontalis’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information.

‘Hungary Globe’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 47, 1992

A.F. van Nijnatten, Zundert, the Netherlands, 1988. Globe shaped selection originating from Hungary, ca 1985. Compare ‘Silver Globe’, but slower growing. Propagated by top-grafting. ‘Bori’ is potentially synonymous.

‘Janos Wagner’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 48, 1992

An orthographic variation of ‘Wagner Janos’ to match typical Western European naming standards. Presentation of the surname first is linguistic custom in Hungary for Hungarian names and should be preserved. See T. tomentosa ‘Wagner Janos’.

‘Kevin Johnston’

Previously unpublished name. Selected by Kevin Johnston before 2002 for evaluation by Bailey Nursery, St. Paul, MN. More cold-hardy than typical. Not introduced to commerce, though some individuals still persisting in the landscape (D. Lonnee; K. Johnston, pers. comm.). A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (02060, from Bailey Nursery) is ca 6 × 3 m and upright-pyramidal in habit, though growing in heavy shade. Perhaps would have been more of a compact globe in open conditions.

‘Koolwijk’

H.J. Grootendorst, Dendroflora 7: 80, 1970

See T. tomentosa ‘Van Koolwijk’.

‘Kortrijk’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 48, 1992

From the same mother tree as ‘Doornik’ and therefore synonymous (de Jong 1992), assuming both cultivars were vegetatively propagated. See T. tomentosa ‘Doornik’.

‘Nijmegen’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 48, 1992

A. Peters, NAKB, before 1980. Vigorous, pyramidal habit. Compare T. tomentosa ‘Brabant’.

‘Nova’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. No further information. Santamour and McArdle (1985) considered invalid on the basis of ‘Nova’ being an established epithet for a T. americana selection. However, per the ninth edition of the Cultivated Code, duplication of cultivar epithets in Latin form within a denomination class is permissible so long as the cultivar epithets are assigned to different taxa and linked to the appropriate epithet (Article 21.7). It is unlikely that a T. americana and T. tomentosa selection would be confused, though this cultivar appears to be lost to cultivation regardless.

‘PNI 6051’

D.L. Morgan, American Nurseryman 197(8): 22, 2003

Princeton Nurseries, Allentown, NJ, before 2003. Upright, fast growing selection slightly more than 1.5 × taller than wide. Foliage dark green. Marketed as GREEN MOUNTAIN®.

Tilia tomentosa Pendula Group

A group established here for the placement of T. tomentosa cultivars with a relatively narrow or columnar habit and pendant branches, including the widely cultivated ‘Petiolaris’ [1] and similar selections.

‘Chelsea Sentinel’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 640, 1996

Hillier Nurseries, Romsey, United Kingdom, 1987. Selected from the landscape of the Royal Hospital, Chelsea, England. Broadly columnar and semipendant habit. Compare ‘Petiolaris’, but broader (Johnson and Sutton 2020).

‘Heterochroma’

V. Engler, Monographie der Gattung, Tilia, Breslau, 1909

Foliage somewhat variegated. = T. tomentosa ‘Aureovariegata’; T. tomentosa (Pendula Group) ‘Pendula Variegata’.

‘Mat’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 99: 90, 2014

J. van den Brandhof, ca 1990. Selected in Maastricht, the Netherlands, from a stock planting of T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’, from which it differs on the basis of its more distinct, pendulous habit. Initially distributed under the tentative name of “Selectie Maastricht”.

‘Parmentieri’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, p. 337, 1903

Nomen nudum. Per Engler (1909) a synonym of T. tomentosa var. petiolaris. Uncertain if this is a distinct clone, could potentially be a superfluous name for ‘Petiolaris’ [1].

‘Pendula’

Santamour & McArdle. Journal of Arboriculture 11(5): 163–164, 1985

Bean et al. (1984) suggested as an alternate epithet for ‘Petiolaris’ [1], a position accepted by Santamour and McArdle (1985) as it better described the characteristics of the plant. De Jong (1992) also accepted under suspicion that many of the cultivated plants carrying the name ‘Petiolaris’ probably represent Petzold and Kirchner’s form of German origin (‘Petiolaris’ [1]), rather than the tree at Odessa Botanic Garden described by De Candolle (‘Petiolaris’ [2]). ‘Petiolaris’ is still generally in use for the former and should be upheld to preserve existing usage. See T. tomentosa (Pendula Group) ‘Petiolaris’ [1].

‘Pendula Variegata’

L. Beissner, E. Schelle, and H. Zabel, Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung, Berlin, 1903, p. 337

See T. tomentosa (Pendula Group) ‘Heterochroma’

‘Petiolaris’ [1]

E. Petzold and G. Kirchner, Arboretum Muscaviense, p. 162, 1864

Weeping selection with pendant branches. Leaves with cordate bases and finely serrate margins. Golden yellow fall color, the best observed in the Arnold Arboretum’s collections by Dirr (1998). The original introduction into cultivation is unknown though de Jong (1992) conjectured origin in Muskau and distribution by Booth’s Nursery in Hamburg, Germany. Petzold and Kirchner (1864) received this plant as Tilia americana pendula, but noticed it was not true to name, changing determination to Tilia petiolaris DC and presenting as such with T. americana pendula and T. tomentosa pendula as synonyms. de Jong (1992) suspected this was in error, and they instead misapplied T. petiolaris to a distinct weeping clone of T. tomentosa. ‘Petiolaris’ should have ideally not been established for the selection as the Odessa Clone (Tilia tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’ [2], described below) would have priority. Regardless, use of ‘Petiolaris’ for this clone has persisted. At time of writing, 27 gardens reporting collections statistics to BGCI report an accession of T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’, while only 8 report T. tomentosa ‘Pendula’. Per Pigott (2012), this selection is commonly propagated by grafting, so ‘Petiolaris’ is currently in use for only one clone. Article 29.2 requires the accepted name to best preserve existing usage, regardless of priority. Maintaining ‘Petiolaris’ as the epithet for this cultivar would best do so.

‘Petiolaris’ [2]

De Candolle, Prodr. I: 514, 1824

A variant with longer petioles than typical, cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Odessa, Ukraine before 1816. Loudon (1838) describes the same plant, noting it has apparently yet to be introduced to England. Neither describe the pendulous habit of the branches, leading Bean et al. (1984), Santamour and McArdle (1985), and de Jong (1992) to suspect the common, pendulous clone carrying this name (‘Petiolaris’ [1]) is a different plant. Likely absent from cultivation, with practical usage of ‘Petiolaris’ now in reference to ‘Petiolaris’ [1].

‘Petrov’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 91, 2014

From a tree at the Botanical Garden and Arboretum of the Mendel University Brno, Czechia. named by Obdrzalek & Noheijl in 1994 and later introduced by the Silva Tarouca Research Institute Pruhonice, Czechia. Upright habit, compare ‘Brabant’.

‘Princeton’

P. Berrang and D.F. Karnosky, Street Trees for Metropolitan New York, Publ. No. 1, N.Y. Bot. Gard. Inst. Urban Hort., p. 149, 1983

A selection from Princeton Nurseries, Princeton, NJ, of uncertain origin or characteristics. Never formally named or described, and thus not accepted by Santamour and McArdle (1985) or Jablonski and Plietzsch (2014). Per Jacobson (1996), it is a vigorous selection with an ovate crown introduced before 1990 and distinct from ‘PNI 6051’.

‘Rheinland’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 48, 1992

Lappen Nursery, Kaldenkirchen, Germany, 1970. Upright to narrow conical habit, about one third as broad as the typical species. Good heat and drought tolerance.

‘Rhodopetala’

Deutsche Baumschule 16: 303, 1965

Described in 1965 as Tilia tomentosa f. rhodopetala Borbás. Santamour and McArdle (1985) presented as a cultivar, though later authors including Jablonski and Plietzsch (2013) and Johnson and Sutton (2020) have preferred the epithet ‘Wagner Janos’, or alternatively ‘Janos Wagner’ (de Jong 1992), which honors the introducer. Arguably, ‘Rhodopetala’ could be given priority as the cultivar epithet if properly described as a forma under the ICN, but use of ‘Wagner Janos’ would appear to best preserve existing usage (Article 29.2). See T. tomentosa ‘Wagner Janos’.

‘Sashazam’

A.L. Jacobson, North American Landscape Trees, p. 640, 1996

Lake County Nursery, Perry, OH, before 1990. Per Jacobson (1996), hardly distinct from type, but perhaps more compact. A tree at Longenecker Horticultural Gardens, Madison, WI (93050) is very dense and near globe-shaped, ca 9 × 9 m. Marketed as SATIN SHADOW™. = T. tomentosa ‘Satin Shadow’.

‘Satin Shadow’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, fifth ed., p. 1024, 1998

A trademark is claimed on this name in the United States, so it is unavailable for use as a cultivar epithet. See T. tomentosa ‘Sashazam’.

‘Sildolzam’

North American Plants, LLC, Lafayette, OR, Ornamentals Catalog 2008/2009, p. 25

Lake County Nursery, Perry, OH, before 2008. Pyramidal habit. Leaves smaller than typical, comparable in size to T. cordata. Marketed as SILVER DOLLARS™.

‘Silver Globe’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 48, 1992

A.F. van Nijnatten, Zundert, The Netherlands, 1988. Hungarian selection with globe-shaped habit, propagated by top-grafting. Compare ‘Hungary Globe’ (same origin), but growing faster, larger, and coarser. ‘Bori’, another globe-shaped selection in Hungary during this time period, is a potential synonym. = T. tomentosa ‘Teri’.

‘Silver Lining’

M.A. Dirr and K.S. Warren, The Tree Book, Timber Press, p. 860, 2019

Habit pyramidal and somewhat narrower than typical.

‘Sisi’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

Elemér Barabits, Alsótekeresi Nursery, Enying, Hungary, 2019. Symmetrical crown with ascending branches. Leafing out 8–10 d later than typical, fall color starting 4–5 d earlier than typical.

‘Sterling’

United States Plant Patent 6511, 1989

Willet Wandell, Urbana, IL, ca 1989. Broad pyramidal habit. Dark green leaves. Resistant to Japanese beetle and other insect pests. = T. tomentosa ‘Sterling Silver’; = T. tomentosa ‘Wandell’

‘Sterling Silver’

Bailey Nurseries, Inc., Wholesale Catalog 1990–91

See T. tomentosa ‘Sterling’.

‘Szeleste’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 29: 49, 1992

Arboretum Szelestei, Szeleste, Hungary, before 1950. Vigorous selection with pyramidal habit. Compare ‘Brabant’. Introduced to Western European cultivation ca 1982 (Santamour and McArdle 1985).

‘Teri’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 92. 2014

See T. tomentosa ‘Silver Globe’.

‘Umbraculifera’

Vannucci Piante., Pistoia, Italy, Vannucci Piante catalog 90/91

Vannucci Piante Nursery, Pistoia, Italy 1990. Smaller than typical, with dense and spherical crown. Not established. The Cultivated Code prohibits cultivar epithets composed entirely of Latin later than 1 January 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Van Koolwijk’

P. Lombarts Nurs., Zundert, The Netherlands, Cat. 1940–41, p. 47

P. Lombarts, Zundert, The Netherlands. Selected 1935 from a nursery near Breda and named for C.M. van Koolwijk. Slow growing, eventually developing a broad pyramidal habit. Per de Jong (1992), lost to cultivation. Initially listed as a T. americana selection, corrected to T. tomentosa in a later catalog (de Jong 1992).

‘Varsaviensis’

Przegląd Ogrodniczy 21(6), 1938.

Józef Wrzesiński, 1926, from a spontaneous tree in the Warsaw Botanic Garden, Poland. Kobendza (1951) described as a nothospecies for T. tomentosa × T. platyphyllos with a Latin description but with no reference to or illustration of the type specimen. Marcynski (1992) considered it instead a form of T. tomentosa, correctly so per Jakub Dolatowski (pers. comm). Compared with typical T. tomentosa, it exhibits a more compact crown and red, tomentose young shoots becoming glabrous later in the season (Fig. 16). Drought tolerant and widely used as a street tree in Poland (de Jong 1992). Introduced into Canadian commerce by Mrs. J. Stensson, landscape architect of Oakville, Ontario under the cultivar epithet ‘Mrs Stensson’ in 1951 and though registered as such by Wyman (1966), it is our opinion that use of ‘Varsaviensis’ better preserves both priority and existing usage. At time of writing, 3 gardens reporting collections statistics to BGCI report an accession of ‘Varsaviensis’, while only 1 reports ‘Mrs Stensson’. = Tilia ‘Mrs Stensson’.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Establishing street tree specimen of Tilia tomentosa ‘Varsaviensis’, exhibiting a compact crown.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

‘Wagner Janos’

Jablonski and Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. (MDDG) 99: 92. 2014

Wagner Janos, Hungary, before 1900. Flowers emerging from red buds and with purple-pink as opposed to yellow petals. First propagated in 1930. Later named in Mr. Wagner’s honor. = T. tomentosa ‘Janos Wagner’; = T. tomentosa ‘Rhodopetala’

‘Wandell’

Dendrologie Online, http://databaze.dendrologie.cz/index.php?menu=6&id=24336, Accessed 21 Feb 2020

See T. tomentosa ‘Sterling’.

‘Wouter’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 92–93, 2014

J. van den Brandhof, Linden Arboretum Winterswijk, The Netherlands, Selected ca 1994 and introduced 2012. Compact, slow growing selection with dark green leaves persisting late into growing season. Good resistance to common insects.

‘Zenta Silver’

G. Schmidt, Acta. Hort. Regiotect, 2010, s. 34–35.

G. Schmidt, B. Nagy and M. Jozsa, Hungary, 1996. Columnar habit, becoming more conical with age. Tolerant of urban conditions. = T. tomentosa ‘Zentai Ezüst’

‘Zentai Ezüst’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., Nr. 99, 2014, p. 93

See T. tomentosa ‘Zenta Silver’.

Other Hybrids and Selections of Uncertain Parentage

‘Alan Mitchell’

N. Muir, The Tree Register 5:3, 1995/96

Tilia mongolica × T. tomentosa. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, England, 1970, named in 1995. Leaves three-lobed, emerging yellow with silvery hairs, fading to light green and losing pubescence over the growing season. Twigs orange-brown in winter. Original tree on the grounds of West Dean College, Chichester, West Sussex, England (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2014). One of the “Hanwell hybrids”, a group of unrelated seedlings selected by N. Muir in the 1970s.

‘Alison Rosse’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 92, 2014

T. cordata × T. mongolica. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, England, ca 1973. Ornamental young shoots comparable to Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex. Endl. Cultivated at the Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, Romsey, United Kingdom.

‘Aurea’

Girard Nurs., Geneva, OH, Cat. 1976, p. 30

A selection offered by Girard Nurseries, Geneva, OH, in 1976 with no description other than “habit similar to ‘Euchlora’ but with golden leaves” (Santamour and McArdle 1985). Likely represented one of the various golden-leaved selections of T. cordata or T. platyphyllos. Not established as the cultivar epithet was comprised entirely of Latin after 1959 (Article 21.11).

‘Blue Star’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

T. mongolica × T. japonica ‘Ernest Wilson’. One of the “Hanwell hybrids”, unrelated seedlings selected by Nigel Muir, England before 1995. The type tree still existed on the grounds of West Dean College near Chichester, West Sussex as of 2014 (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2014), but the tree does not appear to have been propagated or distributed. Compare ‘Harold Hillier’, another of Muir’s selections with the same parentage.

‘Blechiana’

L. Späth Nurs., Berlin, Cat. 1904, p. 124

Dr. Dieck, Zöschen, Germany, before 1885. To 25 m height, with rounded crown and slightly ascending branches. Leaves 15–20 cm in length with greenish-white hirsute lower surface and sharp awns. Hybrid of uncertain parentage. Upon commercial release, Späth (1894) conjectured as a hybrid of T. americana × T. tomentosa, an opinion supported by Engler (1909), and presented more definitively as such in later catalogs (Späth 1930). It is comparable to ‘Moltkei’, though with a somewhat tighter crown. It may similarly be better considered a T. americana selection.

Späth appeared to consider a synonym of ‘Spectabilis’ in catalogs between 1894 and 1901, but listed independently starting in 1904, distinguishing as less hairy and vigorous than ‘Spectabilis’ (Späth 1904). See discussion under T. ‘Spectabilis’.

‘Emerald Spire’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 93, 2014

Wisley Gardens, before 2013. No description or further information.

‘Hanwell’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

T. mongolica × T. ×euchlora. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, Hanwell, England, ca 1970. Has been propagated and distributed in small quantities. Specific characteristics uncertain. Ideally a new cultivar epithet should be selected to avoid undue confusion with other unrelated “Hanwell hybrids”.

‘Harold Hillier’

P.C. de Jong, Dendroflora 31: 87, 1994

T. japonica ‘Ernest Wilson’ × T. mongolica. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, England, ca 1971–1973, and named by Allen Coombes, Hillier Arboretum, 1993. Leaves distinctly three pointed, with serrate leaf margins, and glaucous and glabrous lower surfaces save for patches of brownish tomentum in vein axils. Fall color golden yellow. One of the “Hanwell hybrids”, and probably the most widely distributed. Some initial distribution as “Hybrid 2”.

‘Harvest Gold’

M.A. Dirr, Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. Fifth Ed., p. 1025, 1998

Tilia cordata × Tilia mongolica. Wilbert G. Ronald, Jeffries Nurseries, Portage la Prairie, Canada. Registered 1996. Upright pyramidal habit. Glossy green leaves similar to T. cordata, but larger. Reliable golden-yellow fall color. Has been listed as selection of T. cordata or T. mongolica in various references, though as a hybrid in recent references (Dirr and Warren 2019).

‘Henryk Eder’

Sophora Decorative Plant School, Zbroslawice, Poland, Catalog 2020, http://www.sophora.pl/katalog-roslin/tilia/henryk-eder-p71 Accessed 1 Apr 2020

Chance seedling originating at Rogów Arboretum, Rogów Poland. Dwarf and slow growing cutleaf with an irregular habit, reaching 3–4 m in height. Parentage uncertain, one parent presumably T. americana. Named in honor of the founder and first director of Rogów Arboretum (B. Szmit, pers. comm.)

‘Janley’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges., 99: 94, 2014

T. mongolica × T. cordata. Open pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, ca 1970. Characteristics uncertain. Presumably referable to ‘Harvest Gold’ (same parentage). No living trees currently documented (Johnson and Sutton 2020), probably lost to cultivation.

‘Mrs Stensson’

D. Wyman, Arnoldia 26: 16, 1966

Registered 1966, though we consider a superfluous synonym for ‘Varsaviensis’. See T. tomentosa ‘Varsaviensis’.

‘New Millennium’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 94, 2014

T. japonica ‘Ernest Wilson’ × T. mongolica. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir, England, in the early 1970s. The type tree at the University Park in Oxford was still alive as of 2014 (Jablonski and Plietzsch 2014), but the tree itself does not appear to have been propagated or distributed. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Orbicularis’

C.K. Schneider, Handbuch der Laubholzkunde 2: 374, 1912

Parentage disputed, perhaps T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’ × T. ×euchlora. Simon-Louis Frères Nursery, Plantières, France, ca 1870 (de Jong 1992). Large tree with conical habit. Leaves with glossy and glabrous upper surface, grey tomentose lower surface. Compare T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’, but branches less pendant, petioles shorter, and leaves more suborbicular to truncate.

The parentage of this selection has been oft disputed. It is generally considered to be either a hybrid of T. tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’ and T. ×euchlora, or merely a selection of Tilia tomentosa. A specimen at The Morton Arboretum (2126-22), received from the Monroe County Parks Department, Rochester, NY, lacks the glossy upper and grey tomentose lower leaf surfaces, overall comparable to Tilia platyphyllos subsp. cordifolia and probably representing understock.

‘Palace Garden’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 94, 2014

T. oliveri × T. platyphyllos. Open-pollinated seedling selected and named by Nigel Muir, England. No description, and perhaps lost to cultivation. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Peasmarsh Filigree’

E. Jablonski and A. Plietzsch, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 99: 94, 2014

T. oliveri × T. mongolica. Open-pollinated seedling selected and named by Nigel Muir, England, 1973. Columnar habit. Type tree located at Peamarsh Place, Rye, United Kingdom.

‘Redmond’

Plumfield Nurseries, Fremont, NE, Wholesale Trade List, 1942, p. 18

C. Matthew Redmond, Plumfield Nurseries, Fremont, NE, ca 1927. Distinct pyramidal habit. Widely cultivated in the United States at time of writing due to superior urban tolerance. Chance seedling initially suspected as Tilia ×euchlora, though parentage uncertain and disputed. Dirr (1975) preferred to consider as a hybrid of T. americana and T. ×euchlora. Santamour and McArdle (1985) believed it to be a hybrid but listed it as a selection of T. americana due to a desire to include it with the closest species.

Specimens at The Morton Arboretum exhibit relatively large leaves, but noticeably smaller than other T. americana in the collection. Additionally, the fruits are smaller, include a thicker wall, and often with 2–4 “wings” beneath the mesocarp. This is overall similar to T. platyphyllos, and may suggest ‘Redmond’ is best considered under Tilia ×flaccida. However, we have been unable to obtain enough material of Tilia ×flaccida to offer more than conjecture at this stage. Since ‘Redmond’ is distinct enough from either T. americana or T. ×euchlora to preclude assignment to either taxon, it is considered here as Tilia ‘Redmond’.

‘Skinur’

International Register of Ornamental Plant Cultivars: Woody Plants, OROC Book VIII: 8.0

Hugh Skinner, from a tree in Manitoba, Canada before 2016. Presumed T. mandshurica × americana. Vigorous selection with broad, upright crown and large leaves. Under evaluation by Jeffries Nurseries, Manitoba, Canada ca 2016, though did not catch on in the regional market. Parentage disputed, Gerald Straley considered the cross impossible, suggesting T. platyphyllos as a potential pollen donor, though that species is rare or unknown in that area of Manitoba (P. Ronald, pers. comm.).

‘Spectabilis’

Späth, Katalog 102, p. 130, 1898

G. Dieck, Zoschen, Germany, 1893. Large tree to nearly 70’, with leaves measuring 7.5 × 6” (Jacobson 1996). Apparently originated as an open-pollinated seedling of T. tomentosa, with T. americana suspected as the pollen donor. Compare ‘Blechiana’, but more pendant (Späth 1930), and with some stellate pubescence on buds and twigs (Bean et al. 1984). Per Jacobson (1996), lost to cultivation in the early 1930s, though Clarke (1988) provided a measurement of a tree at Kew dating to 1974.

Dippel (1893) applied the basionym (T. ×spectabilis Dippel) as a nothospecies for hybrids of T. americana and T. alba Mchx. [sic]. It cannot be established as such since it both lacks a Latin description and is a later homonym of Tilia spectabilis Host ex Bayer. Dippel also stated he avoided the epithet “Blechiana” for this nothospecies as he was aware Lavallée had applied it to a small-leaved form (See T. platyphyllos ‘Blechiana’). This implies “Blechiana” and spectabilis were in use for the same concept during this time period. Späth appeared to initially agree with this upon release but applied these names to apparently distinct clones after 1904 (see discussion under T. ‘Blechiana’). Similarly, Krüssmann (1978) and Armitage et al. (2014) both present the basionym T. spectabilis Dipp. non Host as a synonym of ‘Moltkei’ (Basionym: T. ×moltkei Späth). This confusion may result from these epithets being variously applied as nothospecies concepts or horticultural clones by different authors.

‘Tammy Girl’

O. Johnson and J. Sutton. Tilia in Trees and Shrubs Online Website, https://treesandshrubsonline.org/articles/tilia/, 2020

T. mongolica × T. platyphyllos. Open-pollinated seedling selected by Nigel Muir. Specific characteristics uncertain. The original plant died, and the selection is likely lost to cultivation. Not established due to lack of description (Article 27.1).

‘Varsaviensis’

See T. tomentosa ‘Varsaviensis’

‘Zamoyskiana’

Katalog drzew i krzewów ozdobnych, Ogrody Kórnickie No.12, 1937

Kórnik Arboretum, Kórnik, Poland, 1928. Open-pollinated seedling of Tilia tomentosa ‘Petiolaris’, with a nearby Tilia americana var. americana considered the pollen donor. Compare ‘Moltkei’, but slightly narrower and more pendant (Fig. 17). Named by A. Wróblewski in honor of Count Władysław Zamoyski (1853–1924), who donated all his properties, including the Kórnik Arboretum, to the Polish nation.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Narrow and relatively pendant habit of a mature Tilia ‘Zamoyskiana’ (MOR 1024-40*1).

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16882-22

A specimen at The Morton Arboretum, received from Kórnik Arboretum in the 1940s, is one of the most iconic trees on the Administration Building Grounds and exhibits good resistance to Japanese Beetle. It has recently been propagated for further distribution and evaluation in the greater Chicago area, where it is marketed as CENTENNIAL™.

References Cited

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  • Fig. 1.

    Foliage of Tilia americana ‘Dentata’ (MOR 579-54*2), with teeth somewhat more dentate than typical but still within range of variability for species.

  • Fig. 2.

    Upright habit of Tilia americana ‘Lincoln’ (UW 97016) with foliage somewhat brighter green than typical.

  • Fig. 3.

    Loose pyramidal habit of Tilia americana var. heterophylla ‘Sparkling Waters’ (HFG 94-87-B). Image courtesy of Thomas Arbour, Holden Forests and Gardens.

  • Fig. 4.

    Tilia cordata ‘Cully’ (CBG 526-92), exhibiting a pyramidal to rounded habit and slightly pendant lower branches.

  • Fig. 5.

    Tilia cordata ‘Radziul’, exhibiting creamy-yellow variegation to foliage.

  • Fig. 6.

    Broad habit of a mature specimen of Tilia cordata ‘Turesi’ (UW 76031).

  • Fig. 7.

    (A) Glossy foliage of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142), exhibiting distinct pale colored teeth comparable to Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’. (B) Rounded habit of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142) with somewhat pendant lower branches.

  • Fig. 8.

    Yellow-green foliage of Tilia ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Wratislaviensis’.

  • Fig. 9.

    Tilia platyphyllos ‘Örebro’ (MOR 344-66*3), exhibiting acute branch angles and a habit turning from fastigiate to broad at maturity as space permits.

  • Fig. 10.

    Tight, acute branching of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’ (UW 75114) resulting in an upright to fastigiate habit.

  • Fig. 11.

    (A) Dense upright to conical habit of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015). (B) Coarsely serrate leaves of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015), exhibiting a distinct acuminate apex and obliquely cordate to truncate base.

  • Fig. 12.

    Twisted shoots of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Tortuosa’.

  • Fig. 13.

    (A) Foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064), with leaves variably dissected and cut into 3–5 lobes. (B) Slightly arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064).

  • Fig. 14.

    (A) Dissected foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014). (B) Dwarf, arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014).

  • Fig. 15.

    Tilia tomentosa ‘Erecta’ (MOR 1040-65*2), not exhibiting an erect habit at maturity, likely due to failure to subvert competing branches or understock.

  • Fig. 16.

    Establishing street tree specimen of Tilia tomentosa ‘Varsaviensis’, exhibiting a compact crown.

  • Fig. 17.

    Narrow and relatively pendant habit of a mature Tilia ‘Zamoyskiana’ (MOR 1024-40*1).

  • Armitage, J, Edwards, D & Lancaster, N. 2014 The Hillier manual of trees & shrubs 8th ed Royal Horticultural Society London

  • Aubin Nurseries 2021 Our products - Shade trees https://www.aubinnurseries.ca/shade-trees. [accessed 22 Mar 2021]

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  • Beissner, L, Schelle, E & Zabel, H. 1903 Handbuch der Laubholz-Benennung Paul Parey Berlin

  • Bengtsson, R. 2005 Variation in common lime (Tilia ×europaea L.) in Swedish Gardens of the 17th and 18th centuries Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. 2005 64

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chalupa, V. 2003 In vitro propagation of Tilia platyphyllos by axillary shoot proliferation and somatic embryogenesis J Sci. 49 537 543 https://doi.org/10.17221/4722-jfs

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
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Matthew S. Lobdell The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532, USA

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Eike J. Jablonski Dept of Horticulture et Arboretum, Ministère de l’Education nationale, Luxembourg

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Lindsey B. Worcester The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL 60532, USA

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Contributor Notes

We acknowledge Kris Bachtell, Dénes Bartha, Jakub Dolatowski, Michael Dosmann, Michal Dvorak, David Gressley, Rita Hassert, Ed Hedborn, Ethan Johnson, Kevin Johnston, Mateusz Korbik, Debbie Lonnee, Greg Payton, David Roberts, Philip Ronald, David Stevens, David Stevenson, Bronislaw Szmit, and Todd West for their support in clarifying the origin and characteristics of several cultivars listed here through reference acquisition and personal communication.

Some cultivars listed in this register are considered proprietary products, subject to trademark, and/or originate with and are sold by specific vendors. Mention of such is for reference purposes and does not constitute endorsement or approval by the authors or The Morton Arboretum.

M.S.L. is the corresponding author. E-mail: mlobdell@mortonarb.org.

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  • Fig. 1.

    Foliage of Tilia americana ‘Dentata’ (MOR 579-54*2), with teeth somewhat more dentate than typical but still within range of variability for species.

  • Fig. 2.

    Upright habit of Tilia americana ‘Lincoln’ (UW 97016) with foliage somewhat brighter green than typical.

  • Fig. 3.

    Loose pyramidal habit of Tilia americana var. heterophylla ‘Sparkling Waters’ (HFG 94-87-B). Image courtesy of Thomas Arbour, Holden Forests and Gardens.

  • Fig. 4.

    Tilia cordata ‘Cully’ (CBG 526-92), exhibiting a pyramidal to rounded habit and slightly pendant lower branches.

  • Fig. 5.

    Tilia cordata ‘Radziul’, exhibiting creamy-yellow variegation to foliage.

  • Fig. 6.

    Broad habit of a mature specimen of Tilia cordata ‘Turesi’ (UW 76031).

  • Fig. 7.

    (A) Glossy foliage of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142), exhibiting distinct pale colored teeth comparable to Tilia ×euchlora ‘Euchlora’. (B) Rounded habit of Tilia ×euchlora ‘Laurelhurst’ (UW 91142) with somewhat pendant lower branches.

  • Fig. 8.

    Yellow-green foliage of Tilia ×europaea (Kaiserlinde Group) ‘Wratislaviensis’.

  • Fig. 9.

    Tilia platyphyllos ‘Örebro’ (MOR 344-66*3), exhibiting acute branch angles and a habit turning from fastigiate to broad at maturity as space permits.

  • Fig. 10.

    Tight, acute branching of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Pyramidalis’ (UW 75114) resulting in an upright to fastigiate habit.

  • Fig. 11.

    (A) Dense upright to conical habit of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015). (B) Coarsely serrate leaves of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Sundell’ (UW 94015), exhibiting a distinct acuminate apex and obliquely cordate to truncate base.

  • Fig. 12.

    Twisted shoots of Tilia platyphyllos ‘Tortuosa’.

  • Fig. 13.

    (A) Foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064), with leaves variably dissected and cut into 3–5 lobes. (B) Slightly arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Fastigiata Laciniata’ (UW 93064).

  • Fig. 14.

    (A) Dissected foliage of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014). (B) Dwarf, arborescent habit of Tilia platyphyllos (Laciniata Group) ‘Parade’ (UW 94014).

  • Fig. 15.

    Tilia tomentosa ‘Erecta’ (MOR 1040-65*2), not exhibiting an erect habit at maturity, likely due to failure to subvert competing branches or understock.

  • Fig. 16.

    Establishing street tree specimen of Tilia tomentosa ‘Varsaviensis’, exhibiting a compact crown.

  • Fig. 17.

    Narrow and relatively pendant habit of a mature Tilia ‘Zamoyskiana’ (MOR 1024-40*1).

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