Advertisement
ASHS 2024 Annual Conference

 

‘Doumei 1’: A New Faba Bean

Authors:
Chengzhang Du Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Chengzhang Du in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Juechen Long Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Juechen Long in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Yujiao Liu Qinghai University, Xi ning, Qinghai, China

Search for other papers by Yujiao Liu in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Xiaochun Zhang Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Xiaochun Zhang in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Wei Liu Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Wei Liu in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Wanwei Hou Qinghai University, Xi ning, Qinghai, China

Search for other papers by Wanwei Hou in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Ruoyu Xiao Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Ruoyu Xiao in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
, and
Jijun Zhang Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Jijun Zhang in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close

Doumei 1 is a new cultivar of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) jointly bred by Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qinghai University, and Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station. It has both horticultural and food functions. The flower color of this cultivar is pink and bright, with determinate inflorescence (Fig. 1A). During autumn sowing, the flowering period is ≈40 d in the field. ‘Doumei’ 1 is a new high-value horticulture crop (Fig. 2); the secondary branches are obvious (Fig. 1B), and it is suitable for mechanized harvesting because of its podding habit, with podding on the middle and upper nods (Fig. 1B). The emergence of faba bean cultivars with both horticultural and edible functions has endowed the traditional faba bean planting industry with landscape functions. This is essential for cross-industry innovation in faba bean breeding.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A) Flowers of ‘Doumei 1’. (B) Podded plant of ‘Doumei 1’.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16705-22

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A) Horticultural performance of a single plant during the blooming season of ‘Doumei 1’. (B) Horticultural performance of groups during the blooming season of ‘Doumei 1’.

Citation: HortScience 58, 3; 10.21273/HORTSCI16705-22

China is the largest area of dry faba bean cultivation in the world (826,597 ha), accounting for ≈30.9% of the world’s total dry faba bean area. Its protein content is higher than that of other common food legumes (Burstin et al. 2011). Faba beans contain L-dopa; therefore, it is a “natural supplement” for the prevention and treatment of Parkinson’s disease (Raguthu et al. 2009; Ramirez-Moreno et al. 2015). Moreover, faba beans have an advantage over legumes such as soybeans in cool-season environments because they have adapted to grow under low temperatures (Maalouf et al. 2019).

The statistics of Chinese scientists suggest that the faba bean planting area in China is 687,000 ha, consistent with the data of dry faba bean statistics by FAO. However, fresh faba beans in China occupy 76.9% of the cultivation area of faba beans (Du et al. 2021). Chongqing is located in the southeastern part of the Sichuan Basin, and in the middle and upper parts of the Yangtze River, which is surrounded by mountains. There is a short insolation duration in winter; however, the remainder of the year is rainy and foggy. Chongqing is one of the regions with the shortest sunshine hours in winter in China (Cheng et al. 2008). The cultivation area of faba bean in Chongqing is ≈100,000 ha, and it is the second-largest cold season crop after rapeseed (Du et al. 2019).

Faba bean can be divided into four categories according to function: grain, vegetable, forage, and green manure. Faba bean flowers are fragrant and abundant in quantity. Common faba bean flower colors are purple, white, and leucorrhea texture; flowers that are red, pink, brown, and black are infrequent (Cabrera and Martin 1989). Faba bean has potential horticultural value; however, few researchers focus on it. When the yield and disease resistance of faba bean are guaranteed, faba bean can bloom at the top by changing its flowering habit. Thereafter, the color saturation of faba bean flowers is improved, thus forming a new function of gardening for faba beans. Therefore, the transformation of the traditional faba bean planting industry has been promoted to a new format of multi-industry integration (Jense et al. 2010), and the added value of growing faba bean has been increased (Sayer et al. 2013).

Origin

In Yongchuan (Chongqing, China), in Mar 2010, a sexual cross was conducted to obtain the F1, with the determinate inflorescence type faba bean strain 9913-2-1-2, and the pink faba bean strain, 6834-5-6, as the female parent and male parent, respectively. The parent strains 9913-2-1-2 and 6834-5-6 were obtained from Qinghai University.

In Xining (Qinghai, China), in Jul 2011, the high-yield, red chocolate spot faba bean germplasm Tongcanxian 8 was used as the female parent to perform compound crosses with the aforementioned F1 plants. In Sep 2011, the recrossed F1 was obtained. The recrossed F1 was planted in Yongchuan from Winter 2011 to Spring 2012, and all seeds were harvested.

The compound F2 was planted in Yongchuan from Winter 2012 to Spring 2013. Two-hundred thirty-six individual plants with limited flowering habits, bright flower color, resistance to red spot disease of faba bean, tall plants, and good yield traits were selected.

From 2014 to 2018, the cold season was in Yongchuan, and the hot season was in the high-altitude mountainous area of Maerkang (Sichuan, China). The strain identification was achieved at two generations per year. The best in the continuous selection, the excellent line, and the final selection line more suitable for both places were selected.

The yield of fresh seed was evaluated in Yongchuan from Winter 2018 to Spring 2019; it was 6154.5 kg⋅ha−1. The line exhibited stable and consistent agronomic traits, strong ornamental quality during flowering, and a good yield level. The line was numbered GS5.

GS5 participated in two regional trials of faba bean (dry) in Chongqing from Winter 2019 to Spring 2020, and from Winter 2020 to Spring 2021.

In Apr 2021, GS5 passed the field test of peer experts organized by the Chongqing Seed Industry Association. It was renamed ‘Doumei 1’.

In Nov 2021, the crop appraisal committee of Chongqing Seed Industry Association issued a cultivar certificate for ‘Doumei 1’, with certificate number Yu pinshenjian 202111.

Description

Horticultural performance.

The cultivar is sown on 20 Oct in the area below 350 m in Chongqing (China). The first flowering period is ≈20 Jan of the second year, and the full bloom period is ≈15 Feb. The period for the largest number of flowers is from 1 Mar to 15 Mar. On 11 Mar 2022, Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences invited experts engaged in beans and flower breeding to evaluate the ornamental function of ‘Doumei 1’ in Taiping Village, Shuangshi Town, Yongchuan District, Chongqing City, China. The test results of experts showed that this cultivar has a limited growth habit, has an erect plant, has a plant height of 74.5 cm, has a stem and leaves that are green, and has 4.3 branches per plant with obvious secondary branches. Flowering occurs in early Feb; the flowering period is 50 to 60 d, and the full flowering period is ≈40 d. There are short racemes at the top and leaf axils, the flowering branches are 15.5 to 22.5 cm long, and there are flowers at four to five nodes. It has a butterfly-shape corolla, bright flowers, flag petals that are rose red (RHS67B-C), and wing petals that are dark purple (RHS71A-B) (Fig. 1A). There are three to six flowers at the top, but there can be up to ten. There are two to four flowers in the leaf axils. The flag petals have a width of 2.1 to 2.4 cm and a length of 2.5 to 2.7 cm. The wing petals have a width of 0.9 to 1.2 cm and length of 1.5 to 1.7 cm. This cultivar blooms in the upper part and the top, has bright colors and fragrant flowers, and has good ornamental value.

Food performance.

During the regional production test of the faba bean (dry) cultivar in Chongqing from 2019 to 2021, the average yield per unit was 1690.5 kg⋅ha−1, and the 100-seed weight of dry seed was 55.8 g. The seed has a short column shape and milky white color. The yield increased by 12.2% compared with Chenghu 18. The yield level ranked first among the five cultivars tested. It continued to be tested from 2020 to 2021, with an average yield of 2211.0 kg⋅ha−1 and an increase of 8.7% compared with other cultivars. The average yield for 2 years was 1951.5 kg⋅ha−1, which was 10.44% higher than that of the control, Chenghu 18, ranking first among the five tested cultivars.

Nutrition traits.

The test results of Zhejiang Hongzheng Testing Company in May 2021 (report number 20212403) reveal that the protein content, starch content, oil content, and dietary fiber contents of ‘Doumei 1’ are 23.9%, 44.7%, 1.5%, and 16.1%, respectively.

Disease reactions.

‘Doumei 1’ was evaluated for chocolate spot under field conditions together with ‘Chenghu 18’ (CK1) and other 81 cultivars (Du et al. 2021). In contrast to ‘CK1’, the cultivar ‘Doumei 1’ is resistant to chocolate spot. The disease severity directly affects commercial yield.

Dissemination of Cultivars

Sowing.

Areas with no frost during the growing season and an average maximum temperature of less than 30 °C were selected (Catt et al. 2017; Ellis et al. 1988). The row spacing was 40 cm, the plant spacing was 10 cm, and the density was ≈250,000 plants per hectare. Before sowing, a seed-coating agent with both bactericidal and insect-proof functions is recommended.

Field management.

Organic fertilizer or 375 kg⋅ha−1 of low-nitrogen slow-release compound fertilizer with N:P2O5:K2O of 14:15:14 can be used as the base fertilizer. Additionally, the soil was sealed with metolachlor and other herbicides 2 to 4 d after sowing. Chemical herbicides were not recommended during growing.

Disease and pest control.

Faba bean had diseases (Sahile et al. 2008) and pests during flowering and fruiting. During the blooming period, common insecticides were adopted to control faba bean weevil in the field. After 7 to 10 d, treatment was performed again. Aphids were treated by spraying with 5% acetamiprid emulsifiable concentrate (EC) 15,000 times or 4.5% beta-cypermethrin EC 1500 times (Roubinet 2016). Aphids were treated by spraying with 5% acetamiprid EC 15,000 times or 4.5% beta-cypermethrin EC 1500 times. Chocolate spot (Creighton et al. 1985) and other leaf diseases were treated 800 times with 70% mancozeb wettable powder, once every 20 d, two to three times consecutively.

Harvest technology.

Dry beans were harvested when the leaves fell and the pods were fully mature. A combined harvester is recommended for harvesting. After harvesting, the seeds were dried over time and stored until the moisture content of the seeds was less than 13%. Moreover, the storage environment should be kept dry, dark, and at a temperature less than 5 °C to maintain the vitality of the seeds and prevent the discoloration of the seedcoat (Roberts 1972).

Uses

‘Doumei 1’ has good yield and ornamental value. It can be grown on large farms or in small gardens for leisure sightseeing agriculture.

Availability

The cultivar was released in 2021. We plan to license ‘Doumei 1’ to a private seed company on an exclusive basis for seed production and sales. The date of the first commercial seed sales is unknown. Distribution of seed of ‘Doumei 1’ to other breeders requires a signed material transfer agreement that can be obtained from Prof. Chengzhang Du (Chengzhangdu@qq.com) at Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China.

References Cited

  • Burstin, J, Gallardo, K, Mir, RR, Varshney, RK & Duc, G. 2011 Improving protein content and nutrition quality 314 328 Pratap, A & Kumar, J Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes. CABI Oxfordshire, UK

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabrera, A & Martin, A. 1989 Genetics of tannin content and its relationship with flower and testa colours in Vicia faba J Agric Sci. 113 1 93 98 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00298-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catt, SC, Braich, S, Kaur, S & Paull, JG. 2017 QTL detection for flowering time in faba bean and the responses to ambient temperature and photoperiod Euphytica. 213 6 1 13 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-1910-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, ZJ, Cha, SP, Gao, YH & Yang, XM. 2008 Characters and rules of the variation of sunlight radiation duration in Chongqing J Nantong University (Natural Science Edition). 02 55 59

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creighton, NF, Bainbridge, A & Fitt, BD. 1985 Epidemiology and control of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) on winter field beans (Vicia faba) Crop Prot. 4 2 235 243 https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(85)90021-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, CZ, Huang, X, Liu, W, Xiao, RY, Wang, XJ, Li, ZY & Zhang, JJ. 2021 Comprehensive evaluation and selection of faba bean phenotype for both fresh food and green manure Southern Agric. 15 31 1 7 https://doi.org/10.19415/j.cnki.1673-890x.2021.31.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, CZ, Long, JC, Gong, WZ, Zhu, ZD, Zong, XX & Zhang, JJ. 2019 Analysis of major genes plus polygenes mixed inheritance for resistance to chocolate spot on faba bean Plant Prot. 45 06 131 137 https://doi.org/10.16688/j.zwbh.2018444. (in Chinese)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, RH, Summerfield, RJ & Roberts, EH. 1988 Effects of temperature, photoperiod and seed vernalization on flowering in faba bean Vicia faba Ann. Bot. 61 1 17 27 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a087524

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jense, ES, Peoples, MB & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. 2010 Faba bean in cropping systems Field Crops Res. 115 3 203 216 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maalouf, F, Hu, J, O’Sullivan, DM, Zong, X, Hamwieh, A, Kumar, S & Baum, M. 2019 Breeding and genomics status in faba bean (Vicia faba) Plant Breed. 138 4 465 473 https://doi.org/10.1111/pbr.12644

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raguthu, L, Varanese, S, Flancbaum, L, Tayler, E & Di Rocco, A. 2009 Fava beans and Parkinson’s disease: Useful ‘natural supplement’ or useless risk? Eur J Neurol. 16 10 e171 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02766.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramírez-Moreno, JM, Bodes, IS, Romaskevych, O & Duran-Herrera, MC. 2015 Broad bean (Vicia faba) consumption and Parkinson’s disease: A natural source of L-dopa to consider Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain 30 6 375 376 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2013.08.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roubinet, E. 2016 Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Technical report. https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/13631/1/roubinet_e_160704.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, EH. 1972 Storage environment and the control of viability 14 58 Roberts, EH Viability of seeds. Springer Dordrecht https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5685-8_2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahile, S, Ahmed, S, Fininsa, C, Abang, MM & Sakhuja, PK. 2008 Survey of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and assessment of factors influencing disease epidemics in northern Ethiopia Crop Prot. 27 11 1457 1463 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2008.07.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sayer, J, Sunderland, T, Ghazoul, J, Pfund, JL, Sheil, D, Meijaard, E, Venter, M, Boedhihartono, AK, Day, M, Garcia, C, van Oosten, C & Buck, LE. 2013 Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 110 21 8349 8356 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1210595110. [accessed 24 Nov 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fig. 1.

    (A) Flowers of ‘Doumei 1’. (B) Podded plant of ‘Doumei 1’.

  • Fig. 2.

    (A) Horticultural performance of a single plant during the blooming season of ‘Doumei 1’. (B) Horticultural performance of groups during the blooming season of ‘Doumei 1’.

  • Burstin, J, Gallardo, K, Mir, RR, Varshney, RK & Duc, G. 2011 Improving protein content and nutrition quality 314 328 Pratap, A & Kumar, J Biology and Breeding of Food Legumes. CABI Oxfordshire, UK

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cabrera, A & Martin, A. 1989 Genetics of tannin content and its relationship with flower and testa colours in Vicia faba J Agric Sci. 113 1 93 98 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00298-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Catt, SC, Braich, S, Kaur, S & Paull, JG. 2017 QTL detection for flowering time in faba bean and the responses to ambient temperature and photoperiod Euphytica. 213 6 1 13 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10681-017-1910-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cheng, ZJ, Cha, SP, Gao, YH & Yang, XM. 2008 Characters and rules of the variation of sunlight radiation duration in Chongqing J Nantong University (Natural Science Edition). 02 55 59

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Creighton, NF, Bainbridge, A & Fitt, BD. 1985 Epidemiology and control of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) on winter field beans (Vicia faba) Crop Prot. 4 2 235 243 https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(85)90021-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, CZ, Huang, X, Liu, W, Xiao, RY, Wang, XJ, Li, ZY & Zhang, JJ. 2021 Comprehensive evaluation and selection of faba bean phenotype for both fresh food and green manure Southern Agric. 15 31 1 7 https://doi.org/10.19415/j.cnki.1673-890x.2021.31.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, CZ, Long, JC, Gong, WZ, Zhu, ZD, Zong, XX & Zhang, JJ. 2019 Analysis of major genes plus polygenes mixed inheritance for resistance to chocolate spot on faba bean Plant Prot. 45 06 131 137 https://doi.org/10.16688/j.zwbh.2018444. (in Chinese)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ellis, RH, Summerfield, RJ & Roberts, EH. 1988 Effects of temperature, photoperiod and seed vernalization on flowering in faba bean Vicia faba Ann. Bot. 61 1 17 27 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a087524

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jense, ES, Peoples, MB & Hauggaard-Nielsen, H. 2010 Faba bean in cropping systems Field Crops Res. 115 3 203 216 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maalouf, F, Hu, J, O’Sullivan, DM, Zong, X, Hamwieh, A, Kumar, S & Baum, M. 2019 Breeding and genomics status in faba bean (Vicia faba) Plant Breed. 138 4 465 473 https://doi.org/10.1111/pbr.12644

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raguthu, L, Varanese, S, Flancbaum, L, Tayler, E & Di Rocco, A. 2009 Fava beans and Parkinson’s disease: Useful ‘natural supplement’ or useless risk? Eur J Neurol. 16 10 e171 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02766.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ramírez-Moreno, JM, Bodes, IS, Romaskevych, O & Duran-Herrera, MC. 2015 Broad bean (Vicia faba) consumption and Parkinson’s disease: A natural source of L-dopa to consider Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain 30 6 375 376 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2013.08.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roubinet, E. 2016 Management of the broad bean weevil (Bruchus rufimanus Boh.) in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) Technical report. https://pub.epsilon.slu.se/13631/1/roubinet_e_160704.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, EH. 1972 Storage environment and the control of viability 14 58 Roberts, EH Viability of seeds. Springer Dordrecht https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5685-8_2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sahile, S, Ahmed, S, Fininsa, C, Abang, MM & Sakhuja, PK. 2008 Survey of chocolate spot (Botrytis fabae) disease of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and assessment of factors influencing disease epidemics in northern Ethiopia Crop Prot. 27 11 1457 1463 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2008.07.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sayer, J, Sunderland, T, Ghazoul, J, Pfund, JL, Sheil, D, Meijaard, E, Venter, M, Boedhihartono, AK, Day, M, Garcia, C, van Oosten, C & Buck, LE. 2013 Ten principles for a landscape approach to reconciling agriculture, conservation, and other competing land uses Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 110 21 8349 8356 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1210595110. [accessed 24 Nov 2022]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Chengzhang Du Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Chengzhang Du in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Juechen Long Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Juechen Long in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Yujiao Liu Qinghai University, Xi ning, Qinghai, China

Search for other papers by Yujiao Liu in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Xiaochun Zhang Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Xiaochun Zhang in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Wei Liu Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Wei Liu in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Wanwei Hou Qinghai University, Xi ning, Qinghai, China

Search for other papers by Wanwei Hou in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Ruoyu Xiao Chongqing Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Ruoyu Xiao in
Google Scholar
Close
, and
Jijun Zhang Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chongqing, China

Search for other papers by Jijun Zhang in
Google Scholar
Close

Contributor Notes

This study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Chongqing (cstc2020jcyj-msxmX0508), the China Agriculture Research System of MOF and MARA-Food Legumes (CARS-08), the Yong Chuan Science and Technology Project (Ycstc,2019cc0101), the Chongqing characteristic coarse grain innovation demonstration team (CQYC201903216), and the research and demonstration on integrated innovation of new peanut and bean varieties with Sichuan-Chongqing characteristics (2020YFQ0044).

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

C.D. and J.L. contributed equally to this work.

We thank the Chongqing Science and Technology Bureau, the National Industrial Technology System and Yong Chuan Science and Technology Bureau for the financial assistance in this research.

J.Z. is the corresponding author. E-mail: 294143881@qq.com.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 371 265 14
PDF Downloads 234 144 9
Save