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ASHS 2024 Annual Conference

 

‘UC Eclipse’, a Summer Plant-adapted Photoperiod-insensitive Strawberry Cultivar

Authors:
Steven J. Knapp Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Glenn S. Cole Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Dominique D.A. Pincot Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Cindy M. Lòpez Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Omar A. Gonzalez-Benitez Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Randi A. Famula Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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‘UC Eclipse’, a photoperiod-insensitive cultivar of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne), was developed and released by the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences for summer-plant production. The colloquial “summer-plant” designation has been adopted in California agriculture to distinguish summer- from autumn-planted production of day-neutral cultivars. The development of productive day-neutral cultivars has played a significant role in the evolution and expansion of strawberry production in California, starting with the release of an initial series of photoperiod-insensitive day-neutral cultivars in 1980 (‘Aptos’, ‘Brighton’, and ‘Hecker’) that effectively doubled the length of the harvest season, and complemented the seasonal production of photoperiod-sensitive short-day cultivars (Bringhurst and Voth 1980). The development of ‘Portola’, a “day-neutral” cultivar adapted for summer-plant production, 27 years later further widened the harvest season and greatly increased the supply of fresh strawberries in months of the year when production was historically more limited.

The summer-plant segment has been expanding in California to meet the demand for fresh strawberries in autumn markets and complement the production of autumn-planted short-day and day-neutral cultivars. Summer-plant cultivars are most often planted in June or July in coastal California production districts where autumn-planted short-day cultivars are grown, from San Diego (32.7°N) to Santa Maria (35.0°N). Summer-plant cultivars are annually planted in California plasticulture production systems using bare-root plants (stolon-propagated clones) propagated in low-elevation nurseries (e.g., Turlock, CA; 31 m; 37.3°N) that are harvested in the winter and stored at −2.0 °C until planting (colloquially known as “frigo plants”). Although ‘UC Eclipse’ was originally developed for summer-plant production and other contraseason open-field and protected-culture production systems, this cultivar can be grown anywhere day-neutral cultivars are adapted. That encompasses the coastal California production districts between Santa Maria and Watsonville (36.9°N) where day-neutral cultivars are commonly planted in October using bare-root plants propagated in high-elevation nurseries (e.g., Dorris, CA; 1294 m; 42.0°N).

‘UC Eclipse’ has consistently produced high yields of large, firm, long shelf life fruit in open-field summer-plant production trials on commercial farms in California (Fig. 1, Tables 1 and 2). Here we show that the cumulative marketable fruit yields of ‘UC Eclipse’ are substantially greater than ‘Portola’ (#US20090144866P1), currently the most widely grown summer-plant cultivar in California (Tables 1 and 2). ‘UC Eclipse’ and ‘Portola’ are heterozygous for FW1, a dominant gene that confers resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1, a disease caused by the prevalent race of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae currently found in California (Henry et al. 2017, 2021; Pincot et al. 2018, 2022). The deployment of Fusarium wilt race 1 resistant cultivars has become increasingly critical in California since outbreaks of the disease were first reported in 2005 (Koike et al. 2009; Koike and Gordon 2015).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

‘UC Eclipse’ plants and fruit.

Citation: HortScience 58, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI17363-23

Table 1.

Within-trial estimated marginal means (EMMs) for cumulative marketable fruit yield of ‘UC Eclipse’ and check cultivars grown on farms in coastal California locations over 3 years (2019–21).

Table 1.
Table 2.

Across-trial estimated marginal means (EMMs) for cumulative marketable fruit yield and fruit quality traits of ‘UC Eclipse’ and check cultivars grown on farms in coastal California locations over 3 years (2019–21).

Table 2.

‘Portola’ and other photoperiod-insensitive cultivars previously developed and released by UC Davis are heterozygous for PERPETUAL FLOWERING (PF), a dominant gene that mediates photoperiod-insensitive flowering under a wide range of latitudes and temperatures (Ahmadi et al. 1990; Bringhurst et al. 1989). The PF gene was originally introduced into cultivated strawberry in the 1950s from ‘Wasatch’, a photoperiod-insensitive ecotype of Fusarium virginiana subsp. glauca native to a high-elevation habitat in the Wasatch Mountains of Utah (Bringhurst and Voth 1980). The PF gene is necessary and sufficient for photoperiod-insensitive flowering (Ahmadi et al. 1990; Bringhurst et al. 1989) and is necessary but not wholly sufficient for adaptation to summer-plant production. ‘UC Eclipse’ was selected for dependable fruit production over the range of photoperiods and temperatures encountered in coastal California summer-plant production districts. This cultivar was primarily released to meet the need for a high-yielding, Fusarium wilt−resistant, long shelf life cultivar for the summer-plant segment.

Origin

‘UC Eclipse’ is an asexually propagated hybrid individual from a full-sib family (17C242) originating from a cross (01C206P005/12C166P002) between 01C206P005 (‘Portola’) and 12C166P002 (‘UCD Mojo’; #USPP34265P2). The cross was produced in the winter of 2017. The pedigree for ‘UC Eclipse’ is depicted in Fig. 2. Clones (daughter plants) of ‘UC Eclipse’ were asexually propagated from stolons of the original mother plant (hybrid individual) selected among seed-propagated 01C206P005/12C166P002 individuals grown and phenotyped at the UC Davis Wolfskill Experiment Orchard (WEO), Winters, CA, in 2018. ‘UC Eclipse’ (an asexually propagated hybrid individual) has since been preserved by annual cycles of asexual propagation at WEO.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Five-generation pedigree for ‘UC Eclipse’.

Citation: HortScience 58, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI17363-23

‘UC Eclipse’ was internally and externally tested as 17C242P023. Seeds of the 01C206P005/12C166P002 family were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants in the spring of 2017, germinated in Jun 2017, transplanted to a greenhouse in Jul 2017, hardened off in a shade house in Aug 2017, and transplanted to the field in Sep 2017 at WEO. Offspring of 01C206P005/12C166P002 were phenotyped in the spring of 2018 to a) identify individuals with outstanding fruit size, firmness, symmetry, color, gloss, and visual appeal; b) eliminate individuals with fruit defects and deformities; c) estimate marketable fruit yields; d) identify photoperiod-insensitive individuals; and e) assess runner production and plant architecture. The ‘UC Eclipse’ mother plant (17C242P023) and 24 additional hybrids from the 2017–18 selection cycle were selected in Jun 2018 for advanced testing in the summer-plant segment.

We applied marker-assisted selection to DNA samples isolated from seedlings to identify and select 01C206P005/12C166P002 individuals that were either heterozygous or homozygous for dominant FW1 and PF alleles (Ahmadi et al. 1990; Pincot et al. 2018, 2022). DNA samples of 17C242 individuals were genotyped with Kompetitive allele specific primer (KASP) markers for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium with FW1 and PF (Pincot et al. 2022; Famula RA, unpublished data). The genotypes predicted by PF- and FW1-associated KASP-SNP markers for ‘UC Eclipse’ were PFPF and FW1fw1, respectively.

‘UC Eclipse’ and check cultivars were field tested on commercial farms in Nipomo (35.0°N), Ventura (34.3°N), and Santa Maria, CA over three summer-plant growing seasons (Tables 1 and 2). The bare-root clones for advanced testing were propagated in low-elevation nurseries using standard commercial bare-root plant production and harvest practices and post-harvest chilling treatments optimized for the summer-plant market segment. Clones for the first year of testing (2018–19) were produced at WEO. Clones for subsequent years of testing (2019–20, 2020–21, and 2021–22) were produced in low-elevation nurseries operated by Lassen Canyon Nursery (Manteca, CA). Clones were harvested in January, trimmed, and stored at −2 °C until planting in the summer.

We field tested ‘UC Eclipse’ with 24 other hybrids (selection candidates) in 2019 and eight other hybrids in 2020 and 2021 (Table 1). These trials were planted on commercial strawberry farms and managed according to the production practices of individual growers. Soils were either flat-fumigated with Pic-Clor 60 (Cardinal Professional Products, Woodland, CA) at a rate of 500 lb/acre or drip-fumigated with Triform 80 at a rate of 15 gallons/acre. There was minimal pressure from diseases caused by soilborne pathogens on these farms, including the lone organic farm where these cultivars were tested. Hybrids and check cultivars were arranged in randomized complete block experimental designs in 2019 and 2020 and a completely randomized experimental design in 2021. The summer-plant check cultivars ‘Portola’, ‘UCD Mojo’, and ‘UCD Finn’ (#USPP34242P2) were tested in every trial (Table 1). Although ‘UCD Mojo’ and ‘UCD Finn’ are susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1, they were used as checks because they were previously shown to produce firmer and sweeter fruit than ‘Portola’, a finding substantiated by our on-farm testing (Table 2). Hybrids were grown in two 20-plant plots in 2019 and 2020 and 500- to 1000-plant strips in 2021 (yield data were collected from two 50-plant blocks within each 500–1000 plant strip). Over the course of advanced testing, yield data were collected from eighty-four 20- or 50-plant plots grown in six summer-plant year × location trials (Table 1). Hybrids were planted between 15 May and 15 Jun in Nipomo and Santa Maria and between 1 and 15 Jul in Ventura. The number of harvests ranged from 14 to 26 per trial (Fig. 3). Yield, weight, and count data were collected from marketable fruit harvested once or twice weekly throughout the commercial summer-plant harvest season, which differed farm-to-farm and year-to-year (Tables 1 and 2, Fig. 3). Fruit from peak and late season harvests were sampled for measuring fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), and titratable acidity (TA), as previously described (Petrasch et al. 2022). We sampled four fruit per plot per harvest for fruit firmness, TSS, and TA measurements.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Yields of marketable fruit are shown for ‘UC Eclipse’ (solid black lines) and the check cultivar ‘Portola’ (dashed gray lines) grown on California farms over three summer-plant growing seasons. The estimated marginal means (EMMs) for both cultivars are plotted for every harvest. The number of harvests per trial varied from 14 to 26. The Santa Maria 2020 trial was grown using organic production practices. The other trials were grown using conventional production practices. Trials were grown on two different Nipomo farms in 2020.

Citation: HortScience 58, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI17363-23

‘UC Eclipse’ and 243 to 262 other hybrids and check cultivars were screened in the field for resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1, Verticillium wilt, and Phytophthora crown rot (PhCR) using previously described artificial inoculation protocols, screening methods, and visual disease symptom ratings (Jiménez et al. 2022; Pincot et al. 2020, 2022). These experiments were conducted at the UC Davis Armstrong Plant Pathology Farm. The field sites were rotated every year and flat-fumigated with Pic-Clor 60 at a rate of 500 lb/acre ∼3 months before planting. Commercially produced bare-root plants (clones) were inoculated with individual pathogens at the time of planting as previously described (Jiménez et al. 2022; Pincot et al. 2020, 2022). Statistics were estimated from four clonal replicates per hybrid per field trial over three growing seasons (2019–20, 2020–21, and 2021–22). Hybrids were arranged in randomized complete block experimental designs. Ordinal disease scores were recorded on five dates in June and July of each year to evaluate the progression of disease symptoms and select the final time point for statistical analyses and comparisons (Table 3) (Jiménez et al. 2022; Pincot et al. 2020, 2022).

Table 3.

Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, and Phytophthora crown rot resistance scorei estimated marginal means (EMMs) for ‘UC Eclipse’ and check cultivars observed in 2019–20, 2020–21, and 2021–22 disease resistance screening studies in Davis, CA.

Table 3.

Linear mixed model (LMM) statistical analyses of traits observed within and across trials were performed using the R package lme4 with replicates, subsamples, years, and locations as random effects and hybrids as fixed effects (Bates et al. 2015). Hybrid × trial interaction effects were included in the LMMs used for across-trial statistical analyses. Variance components were estimated using REML in the R package ‘lme4’ (Bates et al. 2015). Estimated marginal means (EMMs) for hybrids within and across years and linear contrasts between ‘UC Eclipse’ and check hybrid EMMs were estimated using the R package ‘emmeans’ (Lenth et al. 2019). Linear contrasts were used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference between ‘UC Eclipse’ and check cultivar EMMSs.

Description

The photoperiod insensitivity of ‘UC Eclipse’, predicted by the homozygosity of PF-associated SNPs, was confirmed by 3 years of field testing in coastal California summer-plant production systems. ‘UC Eclipse’ consistently flowered and fruited throughout the summer-plant harvest seasons in Ventura, Nipomo, and Santa Maria, where photoperiods ranged from 9.8 to 14.5 h (Tables 12, Fig. 3). The production of fruit declined in the late fall months (Fig. 3).

The cumulative marketable fruit yields of ‘UC Eclipse’ were greater than the check cultivars in every trial (Table 1). The yield differences were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) for 16 of the 18 trial × check cultivar comparisons (Table 1). Most importantly, the yields of ‘UC Eclipse’ were 37.2% to 223.9% greater than ‘Portola’, the Fusarium wilt–resistant summer-plant check cultivar (Table 1). The yields of ‘UC Eclipse’ exceeded ‘Portola’ by 25,736 kg/ha across trials, a 54% increase (Table 2). The yield difference between ‘UC Eclipse’ and ‘Portola’ (43,344 kg/ha) was particularly extreme in one of the Nipomo 2020 trials (Table 1). The reasons for this are unclear. With this outlier excluded, ‘UC Eclipse’ yields were estimated to be 37.2% to 49.8% greater than ‘Portola’ across trials.

‘UC Eclipse’ meets or exceeds the fruit quality and shelf life standards necessary for large-scale production and long-distance shipping of cold-stored fruit in California (Table 2, Fig. 4). ‘UC Eclipse’ fruit were significantly larger and firmer than ‘Portola’ (Table 2, Fig. 4). The TSS content for ‘UC Eclipse’ (7.5%) was significantly lower than ‘Portola’ (8.0%); however, the TSS/TA ratio for ‘UC Eclipse’ (10.1) was not significantly different from ‘Portola’ (10.1). The shelf life of ‘UC Eclipse’ fruit cold-stored in the dark for 14 d post-harvest was not significantly different from ‘UCD Finn’, ‘UCD Mojo’, or ‘Portola’ (Fig. 4). We did not observe significant time-series differences between ‘UC Eclipse’ and the check cultivars for fruit weight, firmness, TSS, or TA (data not shown).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

‘UC Eclipse’ and summer-plant check cultivar fruit stored in 454-g clamshells in the dark at 4 °C for 0, 7, and 14 d post-harvest.

Citation: HortScience 58, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI17363-23

The Fusarium wilt resistance of ‘UC Eclipse’, predicted by the heterozygosity of FW1-associated SNP genotypes (Pincot et al. 2018, 2022), was confirmed by 3 years of replicated testing of plants artificially inoculated with the race 1 isolate AMP132 (Table 3). The Fusarium wilt resistance score for ‘UC Eclipse’ (y¯ = 1.2) was not significantly different from the resistant check ‘San Andreas’ (y¯ = 1.2). ‘UC Eclipse’ was found to be moderately resistant to Verticillium wilt (y¯ = 2.1; Table 3). The strength of resistance was not significantly different from ‘UCD Finn’ (y¯ = 3.0; P = 0.11), ‘UCD Mojo’ (y¯ = 2.0; P = 0.78), or ‘San Andreas’ (y¯ = 1.3; P = 0.26). ‘UC Eclipse’ was found to be moderately susceptible to PhCR (y¯ = 2.8; Table 3). The strength of resistance was not significantly different from ‘UCD Finn’ (y¯ = 3.1; P = 0.69), ‘UCD Mojo’ (y¯ = 3.1; P = 0.65), or ‘San Andreas’ (y¯ = 1.8; P = 0.18).

Availability

The release of ‘UC Eclipse’ was approved by the College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences at UC Davis in 2023. The US Plant Patent for ‘UC Eclipse’ is pending. Plant Breeder’s Rights are pending in territories outside the United States. Those interested in acquiring plants of ‘UC Eclipse’ for commercial purposes should contact the Strawberry Licensing Program at Innovation Access in the Office of Research at UC Davis (https://itc.ucdavis.edu/strawberry-licensing-program/). Disease-free stock plants can be obtained from UC Davis Foundation Plant Services (https://fps.ucdavis.edu/strawberry.cfm).

References Cited

  • Ahmadi H, Bringhurst RS, Voth V. 1990. Modes of inheritance of photoperiodism in Fragaria. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 115(1):146152. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.115.1.146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bates D, Mächler M, Bolker B, Walker S. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw. 67(1):148. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringhurst RS, Ahmadi H, Voth V. 1989. Inheritance of the day-neutral trait in strawberries. Acta Hortic. 265:3542. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1989.265.2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringhurst RS, Voth V. 1980. Six new strawberry varieties released. Calif Agr. 34:1215.

  • Henry PM, Pincot DDA, Jenner BN, Borrero C, Aviles M, Nam M-H, Epstein L, Knapp SJ, Gordon TR. 2021. Horizontal chromosome transfer and independent evolution drive diversification in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. New Phytol. 230:327340. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henry PM, Kirkpatrick SC, Islas CM, Pastrana AM, Yoshisato JA, Koike ST, Daugovish O, Gordon TR. 2017. The population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, cause of Fusarium wilt of strawberry, in California. Plant Dis. 101(1):550556. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1058-RE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez NP, Feldmann MJ, Famula RA, Pincot DDA, Bjornson M, Cole GS, Knapp SJ. 2022. Harnessing underutilized gene bank diversity and genomic prediction of cross usefulness to enhance resistance to Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry. Plant Genome. 16(1):E20275. https://doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koike ST, Gordon TR. 2015. Management of Fusarium wilt of strawberry. Crop Prot. 73:6772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koike ST, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR. 2009. Fusarium wilt of strawberry caused by Fusarium oxysporum in California. Plant Dis. 93(10):1077. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-10-1077A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenth R, Singmann H, Love J, Buerkner P, Herve M. 2019. Package ‘emmeans’. R Package version 1.7.3. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/emmeans/index.html.

  • Petrasch S, Mesquida-Pesci SD, Pincot DDA, Feldmann MJ, López CM, Famula R, Hardigan MA, Cole GS, Knapp SJ, Blanco-Ulate B. 2022. Genomic prediction of strawberry resistance to postharvest fruit decay caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. G3: Genes Genom Genet. 12(1):Jkab378. https://doi.org/10.1093/g3journal/jkab378.

  • Pincot DDA, Feldmann MJ, Hardigan MA, Vachev MV, Henry PM, Gordon TR, Bjornson M, Rodriguez A, Cobo N, Famula RA, Cole GS, Coaker GL, Knapp SJ. 2022. Novel Fusarium wilt resistance genes uncovered in natural and cultivated strawberry populations are found on three non-homoeologous chromosomes. Theor Appl Genet. 135:21212145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04102-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pincot DDA, Hardigan MA, Cole GS, Famula RA, Henry PM, Gordon TR, Knapp SJ. 2020. Accuracy of genomic selection and long-term genetic gain for resistance to Verticillium wilt in strawberry. Plant Genome. 13(3):E20054. https://doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pincot DDA, Poorten TJ, Hardigan MA, Harshman JM, Acharya CB, Cole GS, Gordon TR, Stueven M, Edger PP, Knapp SJ. 2018. Genome-wide association mapping uncovers Fw1, a dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in strawberry. G3: Genes Genom Genet. 8(5):18171828. https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.118.200129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fig. 1.

    ‘UC Eclipse’ plants and fruit.

  • Fig. 2.

    Five-generation pedigree for ‘UC Eclipse’.

  • Fig. 3.

    Yields of marketable fruit are shown for ‘UC Eclipse’ (solid black lines) and the check cultivar ‘Portola’ (dashed gray lines) grown on California farms over three summer-plant growing seasons. The estimated marginal means (EMMs) for both cultivars are plotted for every harvest. The number of harvests per trial varied from 14 to 26. The Santa Maria 2020 trial was grown using organic production practices. The other trials were grown using conventional production practices. Trials were grown on two different Nipomo farms in 2020.

  • Fig. 4.

    ‘UC Eclipse’ and summer-plant check cultivar fruit stored in 454-g clamshells in the dark at 4 °C for 0, 7, and 14 d post-harvest.

  • Ahmadi H, Bringhurst RS, Voth V. 1990. Modes of inheritance of photoperiodism in Fragaria. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 115(1):146152. https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.115.1.146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bates D, Mächler M, Bolker B, Walker S. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J Stat Softw. 67(1):148. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v067.i01.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringhurst RS, Ahmadi H, Voth V. 1989. Inheritance of the day-neutral trait in strawberries. Acta Hortic. 265:3542. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1989.265.2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bringhurst RS, Voth V. 1980. Six new strawberry varieties released. Calif Agr. 34:1215.

  • Henry PM, Pincot DDA, Jenner BN, Borrero C, Aviles M, Nam M-H, Epstein L, Knapp SJ, Gordon TR. 2021. Horizontal chromosome transfer and independent evolution drive diversification in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. New Phytol. 230:327340. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henry PM, Kirkpatrick SC, Islas CM, Pastrana AM, Yoshisato JA, Koike ST, Daugovish O, Gordon TR. 2017. The population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, cause of Fusarium wilt of strawberry, in California. Plant Dis. 101(1):550556. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1058-RE.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez NP, Feldmann MJ, Famula RA, Pincot DDA, Bjornson M, Cole GS, Knapp SJ. 2022. Harnessing underutilized gene bank diversity and genomic prediction of cross usefulness to enhance resistance to Phytophthora cactorum in strawberry. Plant Genome. 16(1):E20275. https://doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koike ST, Gordon TR. 2015. Management of Fusarium wilt of strawberry. Crop Prot. 73:6772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.02.003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koike ST, Kirkpatrick SC, Gordon TR. 2009. Fusarium wilt of strawberry caused by Fusarium oxysporum in California. Plant Dis. 93(10):1077. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-10-1077A.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lenth R, Singmann H, Love J, Buerkner P, Herve M. 2019. Package ‘emmeans’. R Package version 1.7.3. https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/emmeans/index.html.

  • Petrasch S, Mesquida-Pesci SD, Pincot DDA, Feldmann MJ, López CM, Famula R, Hardigan MA, Cole GS, Knapp SJ, Blanco-Ulate B. 2022. Genomic prediction of strawberry resistance to postharvest fruit decay caused by the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. G3: Genes Genom Genet. 12(1):Jkab378. https://doi.org/10.1093/g3journal/jkab378.

  • Pincot DDA, Feldmann MJ, Hardigan MA, Vachev MV, Henry PM, Gordon TR, Bjornson M, Rodriguez A, Cobo N, Famula RA, Cole GS, Coaker GL, Knapp SJ. 2022. Novel Fusarium wilt resistance genes uncovered in natural and cultivated strawberry populations are found on three non-homoeologous chromosomes. Theor Appl Genet. 135:21212145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-022-04102-2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pincot DDA, Hardigan MA, Cole GS, Famula RA, Henry PM, Gordon TR, Knapp SJ. 2020. Accuracy of genomic selection and long-term genetic gain for resistance to Verticillium wilt in strawberry. Plant Genome. 13(3):E20054. https://doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20054.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pincot DDA, Poorten TJ, Hardigan MA, Harshman JM, Acharya CB, Cole GS, Gordon TR, Stueven M, Edger PP, Knapp SJ. 2018. Genome-wide association mapping uncovers Fw1, a dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in strawberry. G3: Genes Genom Genet. 8(5):18171828. https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.118.200129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Steven J. Knapp Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Glenn S. Cole Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Dominique D.A. Pincot Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Cindy M. Lòpez Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Omar A. Gonzalez-Benitez Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Randi A. Famula Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA

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Contributor Notes

S.J.K. is the corresponding author. E-mail: sjknapp@ucdavis.edu.

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