Preplant Application of Allyl Isothiocyanate Controls Weeds and Pathogens in Eastern North Carolina Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa cv. Camarosa) with and without Addition of Soil-applied Steam

Authors:
Emma Volk North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Emma Volk in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Katie Jennings North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Katie Jennings in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
,
Steven F. Fennimore University of California Davis, Department of Plant Sciences,1636 East Alisal Street, Salinas, CA 93905, USA

Search for other papers by Steven F. Fennimore in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close
, and
Mark Hoffmann North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Mark Hoffmann in
This Site
Google Scholar
Close

Click on author name to view affiliation information

Abstract

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a colorless aliphatic oil that naturally occurs in many plants of the cabbage and mustard family (Brassicaceae). It has antimicrobial activity and is used as pesticide for a variety of applications. However, AITC as a soil disinfectant has exhibited inconsistent weed and pathogen control, mainly because of its higher viscosity and low vapor pressure (5 mmHg at 25 °C). Steam, however, effectively controls soil-borne pathogens if soil temperatures of 65 °C or more are reached for a minimum duration of 30 minutes. We hypothesized that steam applications targeting lower temperatures, when combined with soil-injected AITC, will provide sufficient weed and pathogen control. We further hypothesized that the combination of AITC and steam will lead to higher strawberry yields compared with either of the components on their own. Two strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa cv. Camarosa) trials were conducted during two consecutive seasons (2020–21 and 2021–22). The trials were conducted at the Central Crops Research Station in Clayton, NC, USA, and the Horticulture Research Station in Castle Hayne, NC, USA. Eight treatments and a nontreated control were established in a randomized complete block design (four replicates each). The treatments were Pic-Clor 60, AITC, AITC followed by 60 minutes of steam injection, AITC followed by 30 minutes of steam injection, AITC followed by 10 minutes of steam injection, 60 minutes of steam injection, 30 minutes of steam injection, and 10 minutes of steam injection. Soilborne pathogen control efficacy was assessed using wet Pythium sp. plating assays. Weed control was assessed through weed seed/tuber germination assays. Our results showed that combining ATIC with steam did not reduce weed or pathogen levels or improve yield when compared with AITC alone or Pic-Clor 60. Moreover, treatment comprising steam alone did not provide sufficient control. However, AITC alone controlled weeds and pathogens as effectively as Pic-Clor 60 during both years and both locations of the study. These results showed that AITC alone could be a potential alternative soil disinfectant for Eastern North Carolina strawberry production.

The strawberry fruit production farm gate value was estimated at $3.6 billion in 2022 (CDFA 2023; USDA NASS 2023). Strawberry fruit production in California had a farm gate value of approximately $3 billion in 2022 (CDFA 2023), followed by Florida with $500 million (USDA NASS 2023). However, strawberries are grown commercially in almost every state in the United States. Other states with large strawberry industries are North Carolina ($21.3 million) (USDA NASS 2018) and Oregon ($22 million) (USDA NASS 2017). Nearly all strawberries grown in the United States are grown in annual hill plasticulture systems (Samtani et al. 2019). A typical strawberry season in North Carolina begins in August, when beds are raised and fumigated. North Carolina strawberry growers rely mostly on short-day strawberry cultivars such as Camarosa, Chandler, Camino Real, Fronteras, or Ruby June. Then, plants are planted between late September and mid-October. They often reach dormancy during winter. Harvest begins in early April and ends in May or early June.

Preplant fumigation is a critical component of strawberry plasticulture systems to control weeds, soilborne pathogens, and other pests. Diseases such as Verticillium wilt, Fusarium wilt, and charcoal rot are caused by soilborne pathogens and negatively impact yield in California and other growing regions in the western United States (Holmes et al. 2020). However, southeastern strawberry production is impacted mostly by black root rot (Louws and Cline 2019), Phytophthora crown rot (Marin et al. 2018), or Pestalotia leaf spot and fruit rot (Baggio and Peres 2020). Black root rot is caused by multiple pathogens including, but not limited to, Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia sp., and Pratylenchus penetrans (Heald 1920; LaMondia 1999; Louws and Cline 2019; Nemec and Sanders 1970; Raski 1956).

Soil fumigants also have a crucial role in weed control during strawberry production. Despite control provided through plastic mulch, weeds frequently emerge from uncovered soil in the planting hole. Post-transplant herbicide options for strawberry are sparse (Melanson et al. 2023). Preplant soil fumigation is often the only solution a grower has to sufficiently control weeds during strawberry production, although it has become more common to integrate fumigation with preplant applications of herbicide (Melanson et al. 2023). However, even then, not all weed species can be controlled using those tools, and especially nutsedge species (Cyperus sp.) can emerge from tubers and pierce through plastic even after integrated weed control approaches, causing substantial economic damage (Santos et al. 2006).

Typical preplant fumigants for strawberry production in the United States are limited to a few chemical options, mostly 1,3-dichloropropene (C3H4Cl2), chloropicrin (CCL3NO2), dazomet (C5H10N2S2), and metam sodium (C2H4NNaS2). These chemicals can be effective on their own (Desaeger et al. 2017; Fennimore et al. 2003; Qiao et al. 2015) or when applied in combination with each other (Gerik and Hanson 2011; Kabir et al. 2005; Mao et al. 2019). However, regional regulations (O’Malley 2010; USEPA 2008a, 2008b) and limited availability, especially in the Southeast, restrict the use of many of these chemicals in the United States.

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; C4H5NS) is naturally found in the cabbage and mustard family (Brassicaceae) (Morra and Kirkegaard 2002) and is available as a synthetically produced soil fumigant in the state of Florida under the trade name Dominus®. It has been reported that AITC effectively controls pathogens and weeds in vitro (Bangarwa and Norsworthy 2015, 2016; Bangarwa et al. 2017; Baysal Gurel et al. 2019; Brown and Morra 1997; Gao et al. 2021; Kim et al. 2020; Ren et al. 2018; Vandicke et al. 2020). However, at 25 °C, AITC is an oily substance with very low vapor pressure; therefore, it has a low tendency to disperse in the soil (Almasri et al. 2019). This has frequently led to ineffective control after soil applications, especially in areas with cooler climates such as the California central coast. An alternative method for organic production, especially in California, is anaerobic soil disinfestation, which incorporates organic material and aims to change microbial conditions before planting (Butler et al. 2012; Muramoto et al. 2014; Rosskopf et al. 2015; Shennan et al. 2017; Shrestha et al. 2016).

Steam has been shown to improve the efficacy of weed and pathogen control if combined with AITC in microplot studies (Kim et al. 2020). Generally, soil disinfestation through heat can occur through soil solarization, steam application, or the combination of both (Daugovish et al. 2016; Samtani et al. 2017). Soil solarization uses the application of clear plastic and solar energy to heat the soil (Baysal-Gurel et al. 2019; Israel et al. 2005; Stapleton and DeVay 1986). Steam has been used for decades to disinfest soil and can effectively control soilborne pests, weeds, and pathogens (Baker 1962). Steam has been used successfully in greenhouse settings through stationary application methods (Fenoglio et al. 2008; van Loenen et al. 2003). Field-based steam application methods can be either stationary or mobile (Dabbene et al. 2003; Fennimore et al. 2014; Peruzzi et al. 2011; Yang et al. 2019). Steam stand-alone treatments, applied with mobile prototype steam applicators, effectively control weeds and soilborne pathogens in strawberry production systems if target temperatures are reached and maintained (Fennimore et al. 2014; Hoffmann et al. 2017, 2020; Kim et al. 2022; Samtani et al. 2017).

There are questions regarding whether AITC in combination with steam will lead to improved pathogen and weed control in strawberry under plasticulture field conditions. In this study, we assessed pathogen and weed control efficacy of AITC combined with steam. Strawberry (‘Camarosa’) field trials were conducted in two locations in eastern North Carolina over the course of two seasons. We hypothesized that the combination of steam and AITC will increase strawberry yield and control soilborne Pythium sp. And weeds more effectively than the components by themselves.

Materials and Methods

Field trial design.

Eight treatments and a nontreated control were established in a randomized complete block design (4 replicates, 20 plants per replicate). A complete list of application conditions is provided in Table 1. Application dates are provided in Table 2. The following application were made: chloropicrin plus 1,3-D (Pic-Clor 60); 60 min of steam injection (Steam60); 30 min of steam injection (Steam30); 10 min of steam injection (Steam10); AITC only (AITC); AITC followed by 60 min steam of steam injection (AITC60); AITC followed by 30 min of steam injection (AITC30); and AITC followed by 10 min of steam injection (AITC10) (Table 1). Research was conducted at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) in Clayton, NC, USA, and the Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) in Castle Hayne, NC, USA, over the course of two strawberry growing seasons (2020–21 and 2021–22).

Table 1.

Chemical fumigant application rates, steam pressure, and water usage for at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and the Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 growing seasons. Technical issues with the shank application system in 2020 led to differences in application rates between years.

Table 1.
Table 2.

Fumigation application, steam application, and strawberry planting dates at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 growing seasons.

Table 2.

Four 61-m-long beds were used at each location during both years of the trial. Each plot comprised a 3-m × 1.5-m block within each bed, and each replicate was separated by a 3-m-long buffer zone. Buffer zones did not include strawberry plants. In addition, there was a 4.6-m-long buffer zone on both ends of each bed. The field used at CCRS comprises a Norfolk sandy loam, and the soil at HCRS comprises Seagate fine sand. Before bed shaping and fumigation, preplant N–P–K fertilizer (6–6–18) was applied at a rate of 67.2 kg N ha−1.

Fumigation.

At the start of each season, beds were raised and overlain with black plastic, and fumigants were applied at a depth of 15.2 cm with two shanks (Table 1). Fumigation dates are listed in Table 2. A total of 158 m2 of treated area was shank-injected with AITC, and 56 m2 of treated area was injected with Pic-Clor 60 at both locations during both years of the trial. We purchased AITC from TriEst Inc. under the trade name Dominus® in a pressurized cylinder. Dominus® does not have an organic label. Application rates were lower in 2020–21 because of a malfunction of one of the shanks.

Steam injection.

Steam injection occurred after fumigation, bed shaping, and plastic laying, and before strawberry planting (Table 2). In AITC treatments that were combined with steam (AITC60, AITC30, AITC10) (Table 1), steam was applied 21 d after AITC application. Steam was generated using the Sioux® Steam-Flo 25L Boiler (Beresford, SD, USA). A 51-m hose with 18-cm spikes spaced 30 cm apart was attached to the boiler. The spikes poked through the plastic along the area where strawberries would eventually be planted. The spikes were 18 cm long and had small holes at their tips, where steam was released (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Steam generator and field application. (A) Sioux® Steam-Flo 25L Boiler (Beresford, SD, USA). (B) Spikes injecting steam into a raised bed. (C) Spike hose applied on both sides of the raised plastic bed.

Citation: HortScience 58, 10; 10.21273/HORTSCI17321-23

Cryopak iMini temperature loggers (Part #MX2ES8L; Cryopak, Edison, NJ, USA) recorded soil temperature in the center of the bed. Each logger recorded temperature at the 18-cm depth. The maximum and average temperatures recorded during steaming were collected (Tables 3 and 4).

Table 3.

Average soil temperature at a depth of 18 cm in the center of the raised bed during steam application at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 strawberry seasons.

Table 3.
Table 4.

Maximum soil temperature at a depth of 18 cm during steam application at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 strawberry seasons.

Table 4.

‘Camarosa’ plug plants were planted (planting dates in Table 2) with 0.3-m spacing between plants in a double row, which is common for strawberry plasitculture in North Carolina.

Harvest.

Harvest occurred twice weekly at CCRS from 19 Apr to 27 May 2021, and from 2 Apr to 26 May 2022. Harvest occurred twice weekly at HCRS from 12 Apr to 27 May 2021, and from 31 Mar to 19 May 2022. Once harvest began, 4–0–8 liquid fertilizer was applied at a rate of 5.6 to 7.8 kg N ha−1 per week. Marketable and nonmarketable yields were assessed twice per week. Fruit was determined as nonmarketable because of deformities, disease symptoms, water damage, and weight less than 5 g per berry.

Pythium sampling and media preparation.

Ten soil samples (diameter, 2.5 cm; depth, 18 cm) were collected from the strawberry planting holes in each replicate. Soil samples were collected on the day of strawberry planting. Soil samples were placed in labeled paper bags, mixed, and left to air-dry for 1 week. Once the soil dried, samples were transferred to sterile plastic containers and kept in the refrigerator at 7 °C. Samples were analyzed for Pythium propagules per gram of soil (ppg) using a wet plating assay according to Klose et al. (2007). Corn meal agar (17 g⋅L−1; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was autoclaved at 121 °C for 20 min on a liquid/slow cycle using a Sterilmatic® autoclave (Market Forge Industries, Inc., Everett, MA, USA). After autoclaving, Tween 20 (1 mL⋅L−1; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) was added to the solution. Once the agar cooled to ∼50 °C, antifungal and antibiotic solutions were added at the following rates: 25 mg⋅L−1 rose bengal (Fisher Chemical, Fair Lawn, NJ, USA); 250 mg⋅L−1 ampicillin (Fisher Bioreagents, Fair Lawn, NJ, USA); 22 mg⋅L−1 benomyl (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA); 10 mg⋅L−1 rifampicin (Fisher Chemical); and 50 uL⋅L−1 of 2.5% aqueous pimaricin stock solution (Sigma-Aldrich). Afterward, the agar was poured into 100-mm × 15-mm petri dishes (FisherBrand, Fair Lawn, NJ, USA). The prepared petri dishes were left in the dark at room temperature for 72 h before plating soil solutions.

A 0.5-g soil sample was measured and placed into a 50-mL plastic screw cap tube. Under a sterile flow hood, 20 mL of sterile deionized water was added to each 50 mL tube and placed on a vortex. Then, 0.5 mL of solution was plated across five petri dishes. This process was replicated three times for each soil sample. The solution was spread across the agar using a sterile cell spreader (VWR International, Radnor, PA, USA). Plates were left in the dark at room temperature. Pythium ppg were counted 48 h and 72 h after plating. Then, the average number of ppg per gram of soil was calculated.

Weed germination assay.

Ten soil samples (diameter, 2.5 cm; depth, 18 cm) were collected from each plot. Samples were taken from the planting holes on the same day as planting, just before strawberries were planted. The 10 soil cores were mixed together and used for the weed seed survival analysis. In the greenhouse, 12.7-cm × 12.7-cm × 5.0-cm plastic containers were lined with a paper towel, labeled, and filled with 10 g of soil medium. Then, 400 g of the soil sample was measured and placed on top of the soil medium to reach container capacity. Samples were hand-watered every other day. Soil medium was tested for potential weed contamination by using additional containers to assess potential germination. Weed seedlings were identified and counted as they germinated. Soil samples were mixed 30 d after establishment. Seedlings that were too difficult to identify at an early stage were collected and grown in large pots to ensure accurate identification.

Statistical analysis.

Data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance (α ≤ 0.05; factors: year and treatment) using RStudio (RStudio Desktop version 2022.07.02, Boston, MA, USA) with R 3.3.3. When appropriate, treatment effects were analyzed separately for each year. Fisher’s least significant difference post hoc test was performed when necessary (α ≤ 0.05). Pythium, weed germination, and yield were data-tested for normal distribution (Shapiro-Wilk, α ≤ 0.05) beforehand. Pythium data were log10-transformed before further analysis.

Results

Pythium control.

During both years and at both locations, shank-injected AITC alone showed similar Pythium control compared with shank-injected Pic-Clor 60 (Table 5). Additional steam injections (AITC60, AITC30, and AITC10) did not enhance Pythium control compared with AITC alone or Pic-Clor 60 (Table 5). Steam-alone treatments did not effectively control Pythium sp. (Table 6).

Table 5.

Average Pythium ppg⋅g−1 soil for the allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) treatments. Data are from the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 strawberry seasons. Means (n = 4 reps) followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 5.
Table 6.

Average Pythium ppg⋅g−1 soil for the steam-alone treatments. Data are from the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 strawberry seasons. Means (n = 4 repetitions) followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 6.

Weed seed germination.

During both years and at both locations, AITC alone and AITC60 controlled weeds in a manner similar to Pic-Clor 60 (Table 7). All weed species identified in the weed germination assay were effectively controlled by AITC alone (Table 7). Steam alone did not effectively control weeds; AITC in combination with steam (AITC60, AITC30, AITC10) did not enhance weed control above AITC alone (Table 8). However, AITC combined with steam (AITC60, AITC30, AITC10) improved weed control compared with steam-alone treatments. At CCRS, Cyperus sp. germination was significantly lower in AITC10 compared with Steam10. At HCRS, AITC10 had significantly less Spergula sp., Cyperus sp., and Portulaca sp. germination compared with Steam10. AITC30 had significantly less Cyperus sp. and Trifolium sp. germination compared with Steam30. Additionally, AITC60 had significantly less Spergula sp., Cyperus sp., Trifolium sp., and Portulaca sp. germination, compared with Steam60 (Supplemental Table 1).

Table 7.

Average weed seeds germinated during a 2-month assay for the 2021–22 season at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and the Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS). Data shown are from allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) treatments. Means (n = 4 repetitions) followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 7.
Table 8.

Average weed seeds germinated from during a 2-month assay for the 2021–22 season at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and the Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS). Data shown are from steam-alone treatments. Means (n = 4 repetitions) followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 8.

Strawberry yield.

During both years and at both locations, marketable yields of the AITC alone treatment were similar to those of the Pic-Clor 60 treatment (Tables 9 and 10). Steam-alone treatments did not increase yields compared to the NTC (Table 10). The highest yield of 1001 g/plant was achieved with AITC followed by 60 min of steam injection (AITC60) during the 2021–22 season at HCRS.

Table 9.

Average cumulative yield per plant for AITC treatments. Data shown are from the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 seasons. Means (n = 4) and SE followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 9.
Table 10.

Average cumulative yield per plant for steam-alone treatments. Data shown are from the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 seasons. Means (n = 4) and SE followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Table 10.

The AITC treatments combined with steam had higher yields compared with steam alone (Supplemental Table 2). During the 2020–21 season at CCRS, AITC10 and AITC30 had significantly higher yields compared with Steam10 and Steam30, respectively. During the 2021–22 season at HCRS, AITC10, AITC30, and AITC60 had higher yields compared with Steam10, Steam30, and Steam60, respectively (α ≤ 0.05) (Supplemental Table 2).

Discussion

Pathogen and weed control.

Our results showed that shank-injected AITC can sufficiently control Pythium sp. and weeds (Spergula arvensis, Cyperus esculentus, Trifolium repens, Portulaca amilis, and Lolium multiflorum) to some extent in eastern North Carolina strawberry production. This could be consistently observed through both field sites and in both application years, regardless of fumigant application rates. Furthermore, AITC is a potent pesticide, able to decrease Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae (Vandicke et al. 2020). A field study found that AITC controlled Fusarium sp., Pythium sp., and Phytophthora sp., as well as, or in some years better than, chloropicrin (Ren et al. 2018). Additionally AITC (183–275 kg⋅ha−1) controlled Fusarium oxysporum as well as Pic-Clor 60 (337 kg⋅ha−1), and AITC significantly decreased F. oxysporum colony-forming units when it was applied at a rate of 367 kg⋅ha−1 (Yu et al. 2019).

Shank-injected AITC has shown successful control of large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and yellow nutsedge when applied as a preplant fumigant (Devkota et al. 2013; Ren et al. 2018). Moreover, AITC has effectively controlled purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) in tomato production (Yu et al. 2019) and palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in bell pepper production (Bangarwa et al. 2011).

Although AITC controlled Pythium in the present study, the pathogen control efficacy of AITC may vary based on environmental conditions. For examples, AITC alone did not sufficiently control V. dahliae beyond its injection point compared with chemical fumigants in California strawberry production (Kim et al. 2020). Another study in California found poor control of P. ultimum in cut flower production (Hoffmann et al. 2020). However, it is likely that low soil temperatures and heavier soils negatively affected the belowground distribution at those trial locations. Kim et al. 2020 conducted their trial in June in Salinas, CA, USA, where average temperatures are 7 to 8 °C lower than those in September in Clayton and Castle Hayne, NC, USA (US Climate Data 2023), when these studies were conducted. Presumably, higher soil temperatures during and after AITC application could lead to conditions that will favor dispersion of AITC through the soil profile (National Library of Medicine 2023). Additionally, it is very likely that dispersion of AITC through the soil profile is further facilitated by sandy soils with high porosity, as used in this study (USDA, Natural Resources and Conservation Service 2019).

Soil-applied steam can control weeds if soil temperatures of 70 °C are reached for 15 min. Steam injections control most pathogens if soil temperatures are 65 °C for 30 min (Baker and Roistacher 1957; Fennimore et al. 2014; Hoffmann et al. 2017). The highest temperature reached in this study was 48.86 °C over the course 60 min. Our aim was to improve AITC dispersion in a strawberry bed; our aim was not to control weeds and pathogens with a steam-alone treatments. Typical commercial and prototype mobile soil steam applicator prototypes raise soil temperatures to 70 to 80 °C (Fennimore et al. 2014; Guerra et al. 2022; Hoffmann et al. 2017; Kim et al. 2020). Heat transfer through steam application varies depending on soil type (Miller et al. 2014), soil depth (Gelsomino et al. 2010), distance from steam application (Hoffmann et al. 2017), steam application speed (Huh et al. 2020), and application method (Miller et al. 2014).

Application methods that shank-apply steam and simultaneously mix the soil have been proven to be more effective for heat transfer compared with stationary steam application (Fennimore et al. 2014; Kim et al. 2021; Miller et al. 2014). Field-based steam application has also controlled Pythium sp. and weeds in lettuce production (Guerra et al. 2022). In addition, mobile steam systems in combination with exothermic substances have effectively controlled pathogens (Luvisi et al. 2006; Triolo et al. 2004). Stand-alone steam applications have also effectively controlled pathogens (Fennimore et al. 2014; Hoffmann et al. 2017). However, these steam applications are predicted to be costly and time-intensive (Fennimore and Goodhue 2016; Michuda et al. 2021).

Efforts to combine AITC with steam applications have been successfully evaluated by Kim et al. (2020). However, our study did not support those results for raised plasitculture beds using lower-than-effective steam temperatures. Pathogen control and weed control as well as yield did not improve when steam was combined with AITC compared with AITC alone under the field conditions of this study. Naturally occurring conditions in the Southeast (sandy soils, high temperatures when fumigating) could have contributed to better distribution of AITC in a raised bed compared with cooler climates such as those in most strawberry production regions in California. However, these assumptions will require additional research and could not be answered during this study.

Conclusion

Our study showed that shank-applied AITC was as effective as shank-applied Pic-Clor 60 to control soilborne pathogens and weeds and produced similar marketable yields. The addition of spike-injected steam did not enhance the efficacy of AITC. These results showed the potential for shank-applied AITC as a preplant fumigant alternative in eastern North Carolina strawberry production. However, further research needs to be conducted to develop tangible application guidelines for North Carolina and the Southeast.

References Cited

  • Almasri F, Ajwa HA, Parikh SJ, Al-Khatib K. 2019. Soil mobility of allyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin as influenced by surfactants and soil texture. HortScience. 54(4):706714. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13836-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baggio JS, Peres NA. 2020. Pestalotia leaf spot and fruit rot of strawberry. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services Extension. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/PP357. [accessed 23 May 2023].

  • Baker KF. 1962. Principles of heat treatment of soil and planting material. J Aust Inst Agric Sci. 28:118126.

  • Baker KF, Roistacher CN. 1957. Section 9: Principles of heat treatment of soil, p 138–161. In: Baker KF (ed). The U.C. system for producing healthy container-grown plants. University of California Div Agric Sci Agric Exp Stn—Ext Serv. Berkeley, CA, USA.

  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE, Zhang J, Habtom T. 2011. Allyl Isothiocyanate: A methyl bromide replacement in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol. 25(1):9096. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-10-00076.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK. 2015. Herbicidal activity of three isothiocyanates against yellow nutsedge and their dissipation under two plastic mulches. Crop Prot. 74:145149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.04.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK. 2016. Effect of phenyl, allyl, and methyl isothiocyanate on Cyperus rotundus tuber under LDPE and VIF mulch. Crop Prot. 84:121124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.03.006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Mattice JD, Gbur EE. 2017. Glucosinolate and isothiocyanate production from Brassicaceae cover crops in a plasticulture production system. Weed Sci. 59(2):247254. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-10-00137.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baysal-Gurel F, Liyanapathiranage P, Addesso KM. 2019. Effect of Brassica crop-based biofumigation on soilborne disease suppression in woody ornamentals. Can J Plant Pathol. 42(1):94106. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fplants8050138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown PD, Morra MJ. 1997. Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolate-containing plants. Adv Agron. 61:167231. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60664-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler DM, Kokalis-Burelle N, Muramoto J, Shennan C, McCollum TG, Rosskopf EN. 2012. Impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation combined with soil solarization on plant–parasitic nematodes and introduced inoculum of soilborne plant pathogens in raised-bed vegetable production. Crop Prot. 39:3340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CDFA. 2023. California Agricultural Statistics Review 2021-2022. https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/Statistics/PDFs/2022_Ag_Stats_Review.pdf. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • Dabbene F, Gay P, Tortia C. 2003. Modelling and control of steam soil disinfestation processes. Biosyst Eng. 84(3):247256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1537-5110(02)00276-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daugovish O, Howell A, Fennimore S, Koike S, Gordon T, Subbarao K. 2016. Non-fumigant treatments and their combinations affect soil pathogens and strawberry performance in southern California. Int J Fruit Sci. 16(1):3746. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Desaeger J, Dickson DW, Locascio SJ. 2017. Methyl bromide alternatives for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in tomato production in Florida. J Nematol. 49(2):140149. https://doi.org/10.21307%2Fjofnem-2017-058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devkota P, Norsworthy JK, Rainey R. 2013. Comparison of allyl isothiocyanate and metam sodium with methyl bromide for weed control in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol. 27(3):468474. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00174.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimore S, Haar M, Ajwa H. 2003. Weed control in strawberry provided by shank and drip-applied methyl bromide alternative fumigants. HortScience. 38(1):5561. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.38.1.55.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimmore SA, Goodhue RE. 2016. Soil disinfestation with steam: a review of economics, engineering and soil pest control in california strawberry. Int J Fruit Sci. 16(S1):7183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimore SA, Martin FN, Mille TC, Broome JC, Dorn N, Greene I. 2014. Evaluation of a mobile steam applicator for soil disinfestation in California strawberry. HortScience. 49(12):15421549. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.49.12.1542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fenoglio S, Gay P, Malacarne G, Cucco M. 2008. Rapid recolonization of agricultural soil by microarthropods after steam disinfestation. J Sustain Agric. 27(4):125135. https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v27n04_09.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao J, Pei H, Xie H. 2021. Influence of allyl isothiocyanate on the soil microbial community structure and composition during pepper cultivation. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 31(7):978989. https://doi.org/10.4014%2Fjmb.2012.12016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelsomino A, Petrovičová B, Zaffina F, Peruzzi A. 2010. Chemical and microbial properties in a greenhouse loamy soil after steam disinfestation alone or combined with CaO addition. Soil Biol Biochem. 42(7):10911100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.03.006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerik JS, Hanson BD. 2011. Drip application of methyl bromide alternative chemicals for control of soilborne pathogens and weeds. Pest Manag Sci. 67(9):11291133. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guerra N, Fennimore SA, Siemens MC, Goodhue RE. 2022. Band steaming for weed and disease control in leafy greens and carrots. HortScience. 57(11):14531459. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16728-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heald FD. 1920. Report of division of plant pathology. Annual Report of the Washington Agricultural Experimental Station. 1919:3438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffmann M, Barbella A, Miller T, Broome J, Martin F, Koike S, Rachuy J, Greene I, Dorn N, Goodhue R, Fennimore S. 2017. Weed and pathogen control with steam in California strawberry production. Acta Hortic. 1156:593601. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1156.88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffmann M, Ajwa HA, Westerdahl BB, Koike ST, Stanghellini M, Wilen C, Fennimore SA. 2020. Multitactic preplant soil fumigation with allyl isothiocyanate in cut flowers and strawberry. HortTechnology. 30(2):251258. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04362-19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes GJ, Mansouripour SM, Hewavitharana SS. 2020. Strawberries at the crossroads: Management of soilborne diseases in California without methyl bromide. Phytopathology. 110(5):956968. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-11-19-0406-IA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huh D, Chae WR, Lim HL, Kim JH, Kim YS, Kim Y, Moon KW. 2020. Optimizing operating parameters of high-temperature steam for disinfecting total nematodes and bacteria in soil: Application of the Box-Behnken design. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(14):5029. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph17145029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Israel S, Mawar R, Lodha S. 2005. Soil solarisation, amendments, and bio-control agents for the control of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini in aridisols. Ann Appl Biol. 146(4):481491. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.040127.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kabir Z, Fennimore SA, Duniway JM, Martin FN, Browne GT, Winterbottom CQ, Ajwa HA, Westerdahl BB, Goodhue RE, Haar MJ. 2005. Alternatives to methyl bromide for strawberry runner plant production. HortScience. 40(6):17091715. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.40.6.1709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Hoffmann M, Kim S, Scholler BA, Fennimore SA. 2020. Integration of steam with allyl-isothiocyanate for soil disinfestation. HortScience. 55(6):920925. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14600-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Kim S, Fennimore SA. 2021. Evaluation of broadcast steam application with mustard seed meal in fruiting strawberry. HortScience. 56(4):500505. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI15669-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Kim SB, Stanghellini M, Meyer-Jertberg M, Fennimore SA. 2022. Evaluation of a steam application by a mobile applicator for soil disinfestation in strawberry nurseries. HortScience. 57(6):726730. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16561-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klose S, Ajwa HA, Fennimore SA, Martin FN, Browne GT, Subbarao KV. 2007. Dose response of weed seeds and soilborne pathogens to 1,3-D and chloropicrin. Crop Prot. 26(4):535542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.05.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaMondia JA. 1999. Effects of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae on vigor and yield of strawberry. J Nematol. 31(4):418423. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2620392/ accessed 20 May 2023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Louws F, Cline B. 2019. Black root rot of strawberry. North Carolina State University Extension. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/black-root-rot-of-strawberry-1. [accessed 21 Mar 2023].

  • Luvisi A, Materazzi A, Triolo E. 2006. Steam and exothermic reactions as alternative techniques to control soil-borne diseases in basil. Agron Sustain Dev. 26(3):201207. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2006016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mao L, Jiang H, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Sial MU, Yu H, Cao A. 2019. Assessment of the potential of a reduced dose of dimethyl disulfide plus metham sodium on soilborne pests and cucumber growth. Sci Rep. 24(9):19806. https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fs41598-019-56450-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marin M, Seijo TE, Oliveira M, Zuchelli E, Mertely JC, Peres N. 2018. Resistance of Phytophthora cactorum isolates causing crown and leather rot in Florida strawberries to mefenoxam. In: International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2018: Plant Health in A Global Economy. APSNET. https://apsnet.confex.com/apsnet/ICPP2018/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/9806. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • Melanson RA, Brannen P, Cline B. 2023. Southeast regional strawberry integrated pest management guide focused on plasticulture production. UGA Cooperative Extension Annual Publication 119-4. https://secure.caes.uga.edu/extension/publications/files/pdf/AP%20119-4_1.PDF. [accessed 1 Aug 2023].

  • Michuda AM, Goodhue RE, Hoffmann M, Fennimore SA. 2021. Predicting net returns of organic and conventional strawberry following soil disinfestation with steam or steam plus additives. Agronomy (Basel). 11(1):149. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller TC, Samtani J, Fennimore SA. 2014. Mixing steam with soil increases heating rate compared to steam applied to still soil. Crop Prot. 64:4750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.06.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morra MJ, Kirkegaard JA. 2002. Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues. Soil Biol Biochem. 34(11):16831690. https://doi-org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00153-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muramoto J, Shennan C, Baird G, Zavatta M, Koike ST, Bolda MP, Daugovish O, Dara SK, Klonsky K, Mazzola M. 2014. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for California strawberries. Acta Hortic. 1044:215220. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1044.25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Library of Medicine. 2023. Allyl isothiocyanate. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Allyl-isothiocyanate. [accessed 15 Apr 2023].

  • Nemec S, Sanders H. 1970. Pythium species associated with strawberry root necrosis in Southern Illinois. Plant Dis Rep. 54:4951. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vcRDAQAAMAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA49&ots=fYsYGoqc03&sig=E5UNkFc39w2Us3SFMPvqXJRcsFY#v=onepage&q&f=false. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley M. 2010. The regulatory evaluation of the skin effects of pesticides. Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Elsevier Science and Technology. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ncsu/detail.action?docID=625355. [accessed 21 Mar 2023].

  • Peruzzi A, Raffaelli M, Ginanni M, Fontanelli M, Frasconi C. 2011. An innovative self-propelled machine for soil disinfection using steam and chemicals in an exothermic reaction. Biosyst Eng. 110(4):434442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.09.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiao K, Wang Z, Wei M, Wang H, Wang Y, Wang K. 2015. Evaluation of chemical alternatives to methyl bromide in tomato crops in China. Crop Prot. 67:223227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.10.017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raski OJ. 1956. Pratylenchus penetrans tested on strawberries grown in Black root rot soil. Plant Dis Rep. 40:690693.

  • Ren Z, Li Y, Fang W, Yan D, Huang B, Zhu J, Wang X, Wang X, Wang Q, Guo M, Cao A. 2018. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil‐borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China. Pest Manag Sci. 74(9):21462155. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosskopf EN, Serrano-Pérez P, Hong J, Shrestha U, Rodríguez-Molina MC, Martin K, Kokalis-Burelle N, Shenna C, Muramoto J, Butler D. 2015. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and soilborne pest management, p 277–305. In: Meghvansi M, Varma A (eds). Organic amendments and soil suppressiveness in plant disease management. Springer, New York, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23075-7_13.

  • Samtani JB, Derr J, Conway MA, Flanagan RD. 2017. Evaluating soil solarization for weed control and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) yield in annual plasticulture production. Weed Technol. 31(3):455463. https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2017.4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samtani JB, Rom CB, Friedrich H, Fennimore SA, Finn CE, Petran A, Wallace RW, Pritts MP, Ferandez G, Chase CA, Kubota C, Bergefurd B. 2019. The status and future of the strawberry industry in the United States. HortTechnology. 29(1):1124. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04135-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos BM, Gilreath JP, Motis TN. 2006. Impact of chloropicrin on nutsedge emergence through polyethylene mulch. HortTechnology. 16(1):3032. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.16.1.0030.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shennan C, Muramoto J, Koike S, Baird G, Fennimore S, Samtani J, Bolda M, Dara S, Daugovish O, Lazarovits G, Butler D, Rosskopf E, Kokalis-Burelle N, Klonsky K, Mazzola M. 2017. Anaerobic soil disinfestation is an alternative to soil fumigation for control of some soilborne pathogens in strawberry production. Plant Pathol. 67(1):5166. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shrestha U, Augé RM, Butler DM. 2016. A meta-analysis of the impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation on pest suppression and yield of horticultural crops. Front Plant Sci. 7:1254. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stapleton JJ, DeVay JE. 1986. Soil solarization: A non-chemical approach for management of plant pathogens and pests. Crop Prot. 5(3):190198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(86)90101-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Triolo E, Materazzi A, Luvisi A. 2004. Exothermic reactions and steam for the management of soil-borne pathogens: Five years of research. Adv Hortic Sci. 18(2):8994. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42882310. [accessed 7 Jan 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • US Climate Data. 2023. https://www.usclimatedata.com/. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2017. Quick stats Oregon. https://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/results/1750A365-086D-3654-A4E4-D026BC155866. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2018. Quick Stats North Carolina. https://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/results/A89909B9-0A74-3342-AC12-2DCA176783F5. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2023. National State Agricultural Overview Florida. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/Ag_Overview/stateOverview.php?state=FLORIDA. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • USDA Natural Resources and Conservation Service. 2019. Web Soil Survey. https://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/. [accessed 23 May 2023].

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008a. RED fact sheet: Chloropicrin. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/reregistration/fs_PC-081501_10-Jul-08.pdf. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008b. Health effects support document for 1,3-dichloropropene. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-09/documents/health_effects_support_document_for_13_dichloropropene.pdf. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • van Loenen MC, Turbett Y, Mullins CE, Feilden NE, Wilson MJ, Leifert C, Seel WE. 2003. Low temperature–short duration steaming of soil kills soil-borne pathogens, nematode pests and weeds. Eur J Plant Pathol. 109(9):9931002. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EJPP.0000003830.49949.34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandicke J, De Visschere K, Deconinck S, Leenknecht D, Vermeir P, Audenaert K, Haesaert G. 2020. Uncovering the biofumigant capacity of allyl isothiocyanate from several Brassicaceae crops against Fusarium pathogens in maize. Science of Food and Agriculture. 100(15):54765486. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang Z, Wang X, Ameen M. 2019. Influence of the spacing of steam-injecting pipes on the energy consumption and soil temperature field for clay-loam disinfection. Energies. 12(17):3209. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu J, Baggio JS, Boyd NS, Freeman JH, Peres NA. 2019. Evaluation of ethanedinitrile (EDN) as a preplant soil fumigant in Florida strawberry production. Pest Manag Sci. 76(3):11341141. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Supplemental Table 1.

Average weed seeds germinated during a 2-month assay for the 2021–22 season at the Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and the Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS). Means (n = 4) followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher’s least significant difference test.

Supplemental Table 1.
Supplemental Table 2.

Average cumulative yield per plant at Central Crops Research Station (CCRS) and Horticultural Crops Research Station (HCRS) during the 2020–21 and 2021–22 seasons. Means (n = 4) and SE followed by different lowercase letters within the same row and within the same steam time indicate significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) according to Fisher's least significant difference test.

Supplemental Table 2.
  • Fig. 1.

    Steam generator and field application. (A) Sioux® Steam-Flo 25L Boiler (Beresford, SD, USA). (B) Spikes injecting steam into a raised bed. (C) Spike hose applied on both sides of the raised plastic bed.

  • Almasri F, Ajwa HA, Parikh SJ, Al-Khatib K. 2019. Soil mobility of allyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin as influenced by surfactants and soil texture. HortScience. 54(4):706714. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI13836-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baggio JS, Peres NA. 2020. Pestalotia leaf spot and fruit rot of strawberry. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Services Extension. https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/publication/PP357. [accessed 23 May 2023].

  • Baker KF. 1962. Principles of heat treatment of soil and planting material. J Aust Inst Agric Sci. 28:118126.

  • Baker KF, Roistacher CN. 1957. Section 9: Principles of heat treatment of soil, p 138–161. In: Baker KF (ed). The U.C. system for producing healthy container-grown plants. University of California Div Agric Sci Agric Exp Stn—Ext Serv. Berkeley, CA, USA.

  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Gbur EE, Zhang J, Habtom T. 2011. Allyl Isothiocyanate: A methyl bromide replacement in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol. 25(1):9096. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-10-00076.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK. 2015. Herbicidal activity of three isothiocyanates against yellow nutsedge and their dissipation under two plastic mulches. Crop Prot. 74:145149. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2015.04.012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK. 2016. Effect of phenyl, allyl, and methyl isothiocyanate on Cyperus rotundus tuber under LDPE and VIF mulch. Crop Prot. 84:121124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.03.006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bangarwa SK, Norsworthy JK, Mattice JD, Gbur EE. 2017. Glucosinolate and isothiocyanate production from Brassicaceae cover crops in a plasticulture production system. Weed Sci. 59(2):247254. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-10-00137.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baysal-Gurel F, Liyanapathiranage P, Addesso KM. 2019. Effect of Brassica crop-based biofumigation on soilborne disease suppression in woody ornamentals. Can J Plant Pathol. 42(1):94106. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fplants8050138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown PD, Morra MJ. 1997. Control of soil-borne plant pests using glucosinolate-containing plants. Adv Agron. 61:167231. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60664-1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Butler DM, Kokalis-Burelle N, Muramoto J, Shennan C, McCollum TG, Rosskopf EN. 2012. Impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation combined with soil solarization on plant–parasitic nematodes and introduced inoculum of soilborne plant pathogens in raised-bed vegetable production. Crop Prot. 39:3340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CDFA. 2023. California Agricultural Statistics Review 2021-2022. https://www.cdfa.ca.gov/Statistics/PDFs/2022_Ag_Stats_Review.pdf. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • Dabbene F, Gay P, Tortia C. 2003. Modelling and control of steam soil disinfestation processes. Biosyst Eng. 84(3):247256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1537-5110(02)00276-3.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Daugovish O, Howell A, Fennimore S, Koike S, Gordon T, Subbarao K. 2016. Non-fumigant treatments and their combinations affect soil pathogens and strawberry performance in southern California. Int J Fruit Sci. 16(1):3746. https://doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195314.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Desaeger J, Dickson DW, Locascio SJ. 2017. Methyl bromide alternatives for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in tomato production in Florida. J Nematol. 49(2):140149. https://doi.org/10.21307%2Fjofnem-2017-058.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Devkota P, Norsworthy JK, Rainey R. 2013. Comparison of allyl isothiocyanate and metam sodium with methyl bromide for weed control in polyethylene-mulched bell pepper. Weed Technol. 27(3):468474. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00174.1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimore S, Haar M, Ajwa H. 2003. Weed control in strawberry provided by shank and drip-applied methyl bromide alternative fumigants. HortScience. 38(1):5561. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.38.1.55.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimmore SA, Goodhue RE. 2016. Soil disinfestation with steam: a review of economics, engineering and soil pest control in california strawberry. Int J Fruit Sci. 16(S1):7183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15538362.2016.1195312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fennimore SA, Martin FN, Mille TC, Broome JC, Dorn N, Greene I. 2014. Evaluation of a mobile steam applicator for soil disinfestation in California strawberry. HortScience. 49(12):15421549. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.49.12.1542.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fenoglio S, Gay P, Malacarne G, Cucco M. 2008. Rapid recolonization of agricultural soil by microarthropods after steam disinfestation. J Sustain Agric. 27(4):125135. https://doi.org/10.1300/J064v27n04_09.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao J, Pei H, Xie H. 2021. Influence of allyl isothiocyanate on the soil microbial community structure and composition during pepper cultivation. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 31(7):978989. https://doi.org/10.4014%2Fjmb.2012.12016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelsomino A, Petrovičová B, Zaffina F, Peruzzi A. 2010. Chemical and microbial properties in a greenhouse loamy soil after steam disinfestation alone or combined with CaO addition. Soil Biol Biochem. 42(7):10911100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2010.03.006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerik JS, Hanson BD. 2011. Drip application of methyl bromide alternative chemicals for control of soilborne pathogens and weeds. Pest Manag Sci. 67(9):11291133. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guerra N, Fennimore SA, Siemens MC, Goodhue RE. 2022. Band steaming for weed and disease control in leafy greens and carrots. HortScience. 57(11):14531459. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16728-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heald FD. 1920. Report of division of plant pathology. Annual Report of the Washington Agricultural Experimental Station. 1919:3438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffmann M, Barbella A, Miller T, Broome J, Martin F, Koike S, Rachuy J, Greene I, Dorn N, Goodhue R, Fennimore S. 2017. Weed and pathogen control with steam in California strawberry production. Acta Hortic. 1156:593601. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1156.88.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hoffmann M, Ajwa HA, Westerdahl BB, Koike ST, Stanghellini M, Wilen C, Fennimore SA. 2020. Multitactic preplant soil fumigation with allyl isothiocyanate in cut flowers and strawberry. HortTechnology. 30(2):251258. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04362-19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holmes GJ, Mansouripour SM, Hewavitharana SS. 2020. Strawberries at the crossroads: Management of soilborne diseases in California without methyl bromide. Phytopathology. 110(5):956968. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-11-19-0406-IA.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huh D, Chae WR, Lim HL, Kim JH, Kim YS, Kim Y, Moon KW. 2020. Optimizing operating parameters of high-temperature steam for disinfecting total nematodes and bacteria in soil: Application of the Box-Behnken design. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 17(14):5029. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fijerph17145029.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Israel S, Mawar R, Lodha S. 2005. Soil solarisation, amendments, and bio-control agents for the control of Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini in aridisols. Ann Appl Biol. 146(4):481491. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.040127.x.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kabir Z, Fennimore SA, Duniway JM, Martin FN, Browne GT, Winterbottom CQ, Ajwa HA, Westerdahl BB, Goodhue RE, Haar MJ. 2005. Alternatives to methyl bromide for strawberry runner plant production. HortScience. 40(6):17091715. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.40.6.1709.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Hoffmann M, Kim S, Scholler BA, Fennimore SA. 2020. Integration of steam with allyl-isothiocyanate for soil disinfestation. HortScience. 55(6):920925. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14600-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Kim S, Fennimore SA. 2021. Evaluation of broadcast steam application with mustard seed meal in fruiting strawberry. HortScience. 56(4):500505. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI15669-20.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim DS, Kim SB, Stanghellini M, Meyer-Jertberg M, Fennimore SA. 2022. Evaluation of a steam application by a mobile applicator for soil disinfestation in strawberry nurseries. HortScience. 57(6):726730. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16561-22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klose S, Ajwa HA, Fennimore SA, Martin FN, Browne GT, Subbarao KV. 2007. Dose response of weed seeds and soilborne pathogens to 1,3-D and chloropicrin. Crop Prot. 26(4):535542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.05.004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LaMondia JA. 1999. Effects of Pratylenchus penetrans and Rhizoctonia fragariae on vigor and yield of strawberry. J Nematol. 31(4):418423. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2620392/ accessed 20 May 2023.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Louws F, Cline B. 2019. Black root rot of strawberry. North Carolina State University Extension. https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/black-root-rot-of-strawberry-1. [accessed 21 Mar 2023].

  • Luvisi A, Materazzi A, Triolo E. 2006. Steam and exothermic reactions as alternative techniques to control soil-borne diseases in basil. Agron Sustain Dev. 26(3):201207. https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2006016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mao L, Jiang H, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Sial MU, Yu H, Cao A. 2019. Assessment of the potential of a reduced dose of dimethyl disulfide plus metham sodium on soilborne pests and cucumber growth. Sci Rep. 24(9):19806. https://doi.org/10.1038%2Fs41598-019-56450-7.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marin M, Seijo TE, Oliveira M, Zuchelli E, Mertely JC, Peres N. 2018. Resistance of Phytophthora cactorum isolates causing crown and leather rot in Florida strawberries to mefenoxam. In: International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2018: Plant Health in A Global Economy. APSNET. https://apsnet.confex.com/apsnet/ICPP2018/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/9806. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • Melanson RA, Brannen P, Cline B. 2023. Southeast regional strawberry integrated pest management guide focused on plasticulture production. UGA Cooperative Extension Annual Publication 119-4. https://secure.caes.uga.edu/extension/publications/files/pdf/AP%20119-4_1.PDF. [accessed 1 Aug 2023].

  • Michuda AM, Goodhue RE, Hoffmann M, Fennimore SA. 2021. Predicting net returns of organic and conventional strawberry following soil disinfestation with steam or steam plus additives. Agronomy (Basel). 11(1):149. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11010149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miller TC, Samtani J, Fennimore SA. 2014. Mixing steam with soil increases heating rate compared to steam applied to still soil. Crop Prot. 64:4750. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.06.002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morra MJ, Kirkegaard JA. 2002. Isothiocyanate release from soil-incorporated Brassica tissues. Soil Biol Biochem. 34(11):16831690. https://doi-org.prox.lib.ncsu.edu/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00153-0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muramoto J, Shennan C, Baird G, Zavatta M, Koike ST, Bolda MP, Daugovish O, Dara SK, Klonsky K, Mazzola M. 2014. Optimizing anaerobic soil disinfestation for California strawberries. Acta Hortic. 1044:215220. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2014.1044.25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Library of Medicine. 2023. Allyl isothiocyanate. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Allyl-isothiocyanate. [accessed 15 Apr 2023].

  • Nemec S, Sanders H. 1970. Pythium species associated with strawberry root necrosis in Southern Illinois. Plant Dis Rep. 54:4951. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=vcRDAQAAMAAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA49&ots=fYsYGoqc03&sig=E5UNkFc39w2Us3SFMPvqXJRcsFY#v=onepage&q&f=false. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Malley M. 2010. The regulatory evaluation of the skin effects of pesticides. Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. Elsevier Science and Technology. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ncsu/detail.action?docID=625355. [accessed 21 Mar 2023].

  • Peruzzi A, Raffaelli M, Ginanni M, Fontanelli M, Frasconi C. 2011. An innovative self-propelled machine for soil disinfection using steam and chemicals in an exothermic reaction. Biosyst Eng. 110(4):434442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.09.008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Qiao K, Wang Z, Wei M, Wang H, Wang Y, Wang K. 2015. Evaluation of chemical alternatives to methyl bromide in tomato crops in China. Crop Prot. 67:223227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2014.10.017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raski OJ. 1956. Pratylenchus penetrans tested on strawberries grown in Black root rot soil. Plant Dis Rep. 40:690693.

  • Ren Z, Li Y, Fang W, Yan D, Huang B, Zhu J, Wang X, Wang X, Wang Q, Guo M, Cao A. 2018. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil‐borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China. Pest Manag Sci. 74(9):21462155. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.4911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rosskopf EN, Serrano-Pérez P, Hong J, Shrestha U, Rodríguez-Molina MC, Martin K, Kokalis-Burelle N, Shenna C, Muramoto J, Butler D. 2015. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and soilborne pest management, p 277–305. In: Meghvansi M, Varma A (eds). Organic amendments and soil suppressiveness in plant disease management. Springer, New York, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23075-7_13.

  • Samtani JB, Derr J, Conway MA, Flanagan RD. 2017. Evaluating soil solarization for weed control and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) yield in annual plasticulture production. Weed Technol. 31(3):455463. https://doi.org/10.1017/wet.2017.4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Samtani JB, Rom CB, Friedrich H, Fennimore SA, Finn CE, Petran A, Wallace RW, Pritts MP, Ferandez G, Chase CA, Kubota C, Bergefurd B. 2019. The status and future of the strawberry industry in the United States. HortTechnology. 29(1):1124. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04135-18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos BM, Gilreath JP, Motis TN. 2006. Impact of chloropicrin on nutsedge emergence through polyethylene mulch. HortTechnology. 16(1):3032. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.16.1.0030.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shennan C, Muramoto J, Koike S, Baird G, Fennimore S, Samtani J, Bolda M, Dara S, Daugovish O, Lazarovits G, Butler D, Rosskopf E, Kokalis-Burelle N, Klonsky K, Mazzola M. 2017. Anaerobic soil disinfestation is an alternative to soil fumigation for control of some soilborne pathogens in strawberry production. Plant Pathol. 67(1):5166. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shrestha U, Augé RM, Butler DM. 2016. A meta-analysis of the impact of anaerobic soil disinfestation on pest suppression and yield of horticultural crops. Front Plant Sci. 7:1254. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stapleton JJ, DeVay JE. 1986. Soil solarization: A non-chemical approach for management of plant pathogens and pests. Crop Prot. 5(3):190198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(86)90101-8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Triolo E, Materazzi A, Luvisi A. 2004. Exothermic reactions and steam for the management of soil-borne pathogens: Five years of research. Adv Hortic Sci. 18(2):8994. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42882310. [accessed 7 Jan 2023].

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • US Climate Data. 2023. https://www.usclimatedata.com/. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2017. Quick stats Oregon. https://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/results/1750A365-086D-3654-A4E4-D026BC155866. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2018. Quick Stats North Carolina. https://quickstats.nass.usda.gov/results/A89909B9-0A74-3342-AC12-2DCA176783F5. [accessed 20 Jun 2023].

  • USDA NASS. 2023. National State Agricultural Overview Florida. https://www.nass.usda.gov/Quick_Stats/Ag_Overview/stateOverview.php?state=FLORIDA. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • USDA Natural Resources and Conservation Service. 2019. Web Soil Survey. https://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/. [accessed 23 May 2023].

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008a. RED fact sheet: Chloropicrin. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/reregistration/fs_PC-081501_10-Jul-08.pdf. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008b. Health effects support document for 1,3-dichloropropene. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-09/documents/health_effects_support_document_for_13_dichloropropene.pdf. [accessed 29 Mar 2023].

  • van Loenen MC, Turbett Y, Mullins CE, Feilden NE, Wilson MJ, Leifert C, Seel WE. 2003. Low temperature–short duration steaming of soil kills soil-borne pathogens, nematode pests and weeds. Eur J Plant Pathol. 109(9):9931002. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EJPP.0000003830.49949.34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandicke J, De Visschere K, Deconinck S, Leenknecht D, Vermeir P, Audenaert K, Haesaert G. 2020. Uncovering the biofumigant capacity of allyl isothiocyanate from several Brassicaceae crops against Fusarium pathogens in maize. Science of Food and Agriculture. 100(15):54765486. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10599.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang Z, Wang X, Ameen M. 2019. Influence of the spacing of steam-injecting pipes on the energy consumption and soil temperature field for clay-loam disinfection. Energies. 12(17):3209. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12173209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu J, Baggio JS, Boyd NS, Freeman JH, Peres NA. 2019. Evaluation of ethanedinitrile (EDN) as a preplant soil fumigant in Florida strawberry production. Pest Manag Sci. 76(3):11341141. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5626.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Emma Volk North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Emma Volk in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Katie Jennings North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Katie Jennings in
Google Scholar
Close
,
Steven F. Fennimore University of California Davis, Department of Plant Sciences,1636 East Alisal Street, Salinas, CA 93905, USA

Search for other papers by Steven F. Fennimore in
Google Scholar
Close
, and
Mark Hoffmann North Carolina State University, Department of Horticultural Science, 2721 Founders Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA

Search for other papers by Mark Hoffmann in
Google Scholar
Close

Contributor Notes

We thank Drs. Gina Fernandez and Frank Louws for their support with the development of this paper. We thank the personnel, Faye Weldon, Charles Barrow, Eric Lender, Josh Brady, Michael King, John Garner, Jonathan Franck, Albert “Buddy” Daniels, and Michael Hamby, at the Central Crops and Horticultural Crops Research Stations. We thank Sarah Barbee, Amanda Lay-Walters, Amanda Lewis, Kyle Freedman, Paige Mesecar, Rania Hassan, and Caleb Stephenson for their help in the field and laboratory. This study was funded by the US Department Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agriculture Methyl Bromide Transition program (grant no. 2020-51102-32920), the North American Strawberry Association, the Southern Regional Small Fruits Consortium, and the North Carolina Strawberry Association.

M.H. is the corresponding author. E-mail: mark.hoffmann@ncsu.edu.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 383 383 16
PDF Downloads 205 205 21
  • Fig. 1.

    Steam generator and field application. (A) Sioux® Steam-Flo 25L Boiler (Beresford, SD, USA). (B) Spikes injecting steam into a raised bed. (C) Spike hose applied on both sides of the raised plastic bed.

 

Advertisement
Longwood Gardens Fellows Program 2024

 

Advertisement
Save