Lycoris is a genus in the Amaryllidaceae family that contains ≈20 species and is native to eastern and southern Asia, mainly China and Japan (Tsi and Meerow, 2000). There are 15 species (10 that are endemic) in China, and its native habitat is the moist, wooded slopes of eastern China (Hsu et al., 1994; Ji and Meerow, 2000). Because of the special flower shape and flowering biological habit, in English they have common names such as Spider Lily, Surprise Lily, Hurricane Lily, and Magic Lily (Knox, 2006). They are bulbous perennials, their bulbs are subglobose to ovoid, they are dormant in the summer, they bloom in late summer to fall, and then they grow in autumn, winter, and spring. When they bloom, the flower stems are drawn from the base of the bulb, which bears a terminal umbel of four to eight flowers. The flowers divide into two types: tube flowers and symmetrical spider shapes on both sides. The leaves can be linear or strap-shaped. Their abundant flower color and special flower shape make them excellent ornamental plants, which have been used in gardens, as cut flowers, and in landscapes. In addition, they are an important medicinal plant. The bulb contains various Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, in which the galantamine is the most known representative and is used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. They also display a range of biological activities, including those that are antitumor and antibacterial (Cahlíková et al., 2020). The species Lycoris longituba is a long-tube Surprise Lily, which is endemic to China and is distributed naturally in a limited range of two provinces (Anhui and Jiangsu) (Deng et al., 2006). It has spring foliage and is the earliest flowering species in Lycoris. It has the wonderful surprise of white to off-white trumpet flowers borne on tall flower stalks in late summer to early autumn.
Cahlíková, L., Breiterová, K. & Opletal, L. 2020 Chemistry and biological activity of alkaloids from the genus Lycoris (Amaryllidaceae) Molecules 25 4797 https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25204797
Cai, J., Fan, J., Wei, X. & Zhang, L. 2019 A three-dimensional analysis of summer dormancy in the red spider lily (Lycoris radiata) HortScience 54 1459 1464 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14080-19
Deng, C., Zhou, J., Gao, W., Sun, F., Qin, R. & Lu, L. 2006 Assessment of genetic diversity of Lycoris longituba (Amaryllidaceae) detected by RAPDs J. Genet. 85 205 207 https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/085/03/0205-0207
Liu, K., Tang, C., Zhou, S., Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Wu, G. & Chang, L. 2012 Comparison of the photosynthetic characteristics of four Lycoris species with leaf appearing in autumn under field conditions Photosynthetica 50 570 576 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-012-0067-x
Royal General Bulb Growers’ Association 2018 Koninklijke Algemeene Vereeniging voor Bloembollencultuur (KAVB) Hillegom, The Netherlands. 28 Feb. 2019. <https://www.kavb.nl/english/organisation>
Salachna, P. & Piechocki, R. 2019 Comparison of nutrient content in bulbs of Japanese red spider lily (Lycoris radiata) and golden spider lily (Lycoris aurea), ornamental and medicinal plants World News Natural Sci. 26 72 79
Xu, S., Jiang, M., Fu, J., Liang, L., Xia, B. & Wang, R. 2015 Physiological and antioxidant parameters in two Lycoris species as influenced by water deficit stress HortScience 50 1702 1708 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.50.11.1702