Breeding for new phalaenopsis varieties has been conducted for many decades. With the efforts of breeders, a lot of varieties have been bred and sold in the market, including many colorful varieties with various flower sizes. However, new varieties are constantly being bred and selected every year and are expected to create new colors or new types that are different from those on the market. Breeding for indigo flowers has been a common goal for many breeders in the world. Currently, indigo Phalaenopsis is rarely seen on the commercial market. Most of them are crossed or backcrossed from certain species or commercial varieties such as Phal. equestris, Phal. pulcherrima, Phal. violacea, Phal. Kenneth Schubert, and Phal. Purple Martin, and only a few native blue species have been applied to blue Phalaenopsis hybridization (Tsao et al., 2020). Blue flowers of most plants are the result of delphinidin accumulation or expression (Qingyu and Silan, 2004), and in only a few cases (such as Phalaenopsis) is the blue color a result of cyaniding in flowers (Tatsuzawa et al., 2004). Blue flowers of most Phalaenopsis varieties faded easily without delphinidin expression as a result of the lack of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene. It is necessary to introduce other genes to the Phalaenopsis genus by crossing with other genera or by transferring a gene or genes from other genera to create unique flower colors or characteristics. In our study, we introduced a stable blue color to Phalaenopsis from the genus Rhynchostylis to breed Rhynchonopsis Tariflor Blue Kid ‘1030-4’ successfully with a deep and nonfading blue color.
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