‘Seneca’ Pecan: A Compact Cultivar for the Northern Growing Region

in HortScience
Authors:
Xinwang WangU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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Warren ChatwinU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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Keith KubenkaU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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Angelyn HiltonU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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Braden TondreU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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Tommy ThompsonU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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LJ GraukeU.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program, College Station, TX 77845

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‘Seneca’ is a new pecan (Carya illinoinensis) cultivar released and patented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). ‘Seneca’ is released because of its high nut quality, attractive cream-color kernels, early maturation, compact tree form, and scab disease (causal agent, Venturia effusa) resistance for both leaves and nuts. ‘Seneca’ has a determinate pattern of growth that shows a late budbreak in the spring and ceases growth early in the autumn, indicating possible freeze tolerance and adaption in northern regions. This cold hardy trait may be inherited from its two parents, which are from ‘Colby’ seedlings (Fig. 1). ‘Colby’ is a native seedling selection from the area around Niagara Falls in Illinois and is commonly used as a seedstock for much of the northern pecan industry. However, ‘Seneca’ has only been monitored in orchards with limited scab pressure in central Texas and has not been observed under all environmental conditions and cultural practices. Therefore, some of its characteristics may differ outside central Texas or with different management practices. ‘Seneca’ is one of the first three pecan cultivars patented by USDA-ARS (U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 17/667091) (Grauke et al. 2022; Wang et al. 2022b). Parties interested in licensing ‘Seneca’ should contact license@usda.gov with any questions. Graftwood will be distributed to licensees only.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Parentage of ‘Seneca’. The upper branch depicts the known ancestry of the female parent. The lower branch depicts the known ancestry of the male parent. The breeder or contributor is listed in parentheses along with the date of origin.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16825-22

The USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program conducts a national pecan breeding program and releases control-crossed superior pecan cultivars for all pecan-growing regions (Grauke 2019; Grauke et al. 2016; Thompson and Grauke 1991; Thompson and Hunter 1985). Crosses are made in both Brownwood and College Station, TX. Seedling trees are established on their own roots in basic breeding program orchards for initial evaluation of growth, disease, flowering, and nut yields (> 7 years). Then, controlled-cross seedlings that show potential are identified and grafted into a new National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System (NPACTS) orchard for further evaluation. Generally, an NPACTS orchard includes six blocks of trees containing five to six grafted clones of ∼30 breeding selections and three to five standard cultivars arranged in a completely randomized block design. After several years, the superior clones are given Native American tribal names and released to nurseries and growers. ‘Seneca’ is one of three patented USDA cultivars (Grauke et al. 2021; Wang et al. 2022a). Historically, the Seneca people lived south of Lake Ontario, and their tribal name can be translated as “People of the Great Hill” (Parker 1967; Preston and Voegelin 1949). This area is near where the parents of ‘Seneca’ were grown in a private orchard near Niagara Falls, Canada. ‘Seneca’ was named for this association and is expected to perform well across all growing regions, but its characteristics are especially suitable for the northern growing region.

Origin

‘Seneca’, tested as 1997-34-0017, is a progeny of a cross between two pecan varieties of northern origin, ‘NC-2B’ (seed parent) and ‘NC-4’ (pollen parent) made in 1997 in the USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program in College Station, TX (Fig. 1). Both parents were part of 13 seedling selections made by Doug Campbell in his orchard in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, in 1985 and introduced to the USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program in 1990. Nut morphology and genomic tests indicate ‘NC-4’ is a cross between ‘Colby’, an Illinois native pecan, and ‘Peruque’, a native pecan from Missouri. ‘NC-4’ is protandrous. ‘NC-2B’ is a cross between ‘Colby’ and an unknown pollen parent. ‘NC-2B’ has an indeterminate flowering pattern with overlapping pistillate and staminate receptivity. ‘Colby’ was a native seedling selection made by Wm. W. and J. W. Lawrence, Fayette County, IL, in the early 1940s and was selected by A. S. Colby and J. C. McDaniel and released in honor of A. S. Colby in 1957. ‘Colby’ is protogynous and has medium-size oblong nuts with golden kernels. ‘Peruque’ was a native seedling found by George Hunn in St. Charles, MO, in 1918, propagated in 1935 by R. Richterkessing, and introduced to the USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program in 1953. ‘Peruque’ is protandrous and has small, ovate nuts with golden kernels. ‘Seneca’ was grown and evaluated in Brownwood, TX, and was selected for further testing because of its early nut maturation, cream kernel color, and compact tree form. ‘Seneca’ has been evaluated most extensively in orchards of the USDA-ARS NPACTS in Brownwood, TX, in a test with a completely randomized block design with six replicates of 49 breeding selections and three standard cultivars (Kanza, Pawnee, and Wichita) (Sparks 1992; Thompson et al. 1996; Thompson and Hunter 1985).

Description

Tree form and foliage.

‘Seneca’ has a compact, sturdy tree form with an average height of 10.65 m at 15 years after grafting, with a slightly narrow canopy (height-to-width ratio, 1.10) (Fig. 2A). Mature tree trunks have a scaly texture and light-olive-gray bark (2.5Y 5/2, Munsell Plant Tissue Color Book 2012 Year Revision, 2018) (Fig. 2B). Its long, narrow dark-forest-green leaves are comparable in color to ‘Pawnee’ and are arranged in an odd pinnately compound opposite orientation. Leaflet orientation is similar to most pecan trees, wherein the opposite leaflet pairs are oriented about 45° from the rachis (Fig. 2C).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

‘Seneca’ pecan tree, leaves, and flower. (A) Canopy structure of a 9-year-old tree after grafting on an open-pollinated ‘Apache’ seedling rootstock in 2007 (Brownwood, TX, on 5 Oct 2016). (B) Matured tree trunk with scaly texture and light olive-gray bark (2.5Y 5/2) (Munsell Plant Tissue Color Book 2012 Year Version, 2018) (7 Apr 2021). (C) Leaf architecture at 15 years after grafting (Brownwood, TX, on 4 Jun 2021). (D) Yellowish green staminate catkin (2.5GY 6/10) (5 May 2021). (E) Light-red pistillate flower with occasional splashes of green (5R 3/2) (13 May 2021).

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16825-22

Flowering.

‘Seneca’ is monoecious, anemophilous, and has a protandrous or type I bloom pattern like its parents NC-4/NC-2B and popular cultivar Pawnee (Thompson and Hunter 1985). It has yellowish green staminate catkins (Fig. 2D) that have a mid- to late-season pollen shed, comparable to ‘Wichita’ (Sparks 1992) (Table 1). It should be a good pollinizer for ‘Pawnee’, ‘Waco’, ‘Western’, and ‘Wichita’, and be well pollinized by ‘Kanza’ and ‘Lakota’ (Thompson et al. 2008). ‘Seneca’ usually bears four to seven alternately positioned pistillate flowers per pedicel spike. Its pistillate flowers have reflexed, light-red stigmas sometimes containing patches of green (Fig. 2E). The stigmas have mid- to late-season receptivity, similar to ‘Pawnee’ in the test orchard in Brownwood, TX (Table 1). In 2021, spring budbreak for ‘Seneca’ was in early April in Brownwood, TX, around the same time as ‘Pawnee’ and ‘Kanza’, and about a week later than ‘Wichita’ (Table 1). No damage was observed from the prolonged freeze in early Feb 2021 in central Texas.

Table 1.

Budbreak, pollen shedding, and stigma receptivity of ‘Seneca’ and three standard pecan cultivars in the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System orchard in Brownwood, TX.

Table 1.

Scab disease resistance.

‘Seneca’ exhibited no leaf scab and minimal susceptibility to nut scab disease, caused by the fungal pathogen V. effusa, within our unsprayed orchards in Brownwood, TX. Its pollen parent ‘NC-4’ showed minimal leaf scab susceptibility and moderate nut scab disease severity in a separate orchard in College Station, TX. Brownwood, TX, occurs in a geographic area that occasionally has greater scab disease pressure under specific weather conditions, which makes it suitable for assessing leaf and nut scab susceptibility. During 2010–12 and 2015, ‘Wichita’ showed a severe infection of V. effusa on leaves, whereas most other cultivars showed little to no leaf scab disease symptoms (Table 2). ‘Seneca’ displayed minimal nut scab disease symptoms during 2012–15. In 2016, we observed the expected levels of nut scab disease severity for the known susceptible cultivars (Pawnee and Wichita) in that orchard. The average nut scab disease coverage per total nut area for ‘Seneca’ was rated at 1.5% (range, 1%–3%) observed in 2015–17 on the standard area diagram scale of 1% to 100% (Yadav et al. 2013), comparable to the known scab-resistant cultivar Kanza (Thompson et al. 1997), which was rated at an average of 1.42% nut scab disease coverage. The two known susceptible cultivars, Pawnee and Wichita, presented an average nut scab disease coverage of 30.9% and 91.5%, respectively (Table 2), indicating that ‘Seneca’ has much greater resistance to infection by V. effusa than the susceptible control cultivars. However, ‘Seneca’ presented minor nut scab (Table 3) in the unsprayed orchard in Brownwood, TX. Therefore, we recommend fungicide management in more humid environments for control of scab disease.

Table 2.

Comparison of average leaf and fruit scab susceptibility of ‘Seneca’ and three standard cultivars in the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System unsprayed orchard in Brownwood, TX.

Table 2.
Table 3.

Average nut clusters and maturation timing of ‘Seneca’ and three standard cultivars in the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System orchard in Brownwood, TX, from 2009 to 2012.

Table 3.

Nuts.

‘Seneca’ produces high-quality nuts, even under limited irrigation, that mature early and are ready to harvest in late September in central Texas at the same time as ‘Pawnee’. On average, ‘Seneca’ nuts ripen on 23 Sep in Brownwood, TX (24 Sep for ‘Pawnee’ in the same orchard) (Table 3). Its nuts are elliptic in shape and round in cross-section. The average nut weight for ‘Seneca’ is 7.4 g, compared with 8.5 g for ‘Pawnee’, 6.6 g for ‘Kanza’, and 7.1 g for ‘Wichita’. The nut size of ‘Seneca’ is small to medium (138.7 nuts/kg), slightly larger than ‘Wichita’ (148.1 nuts/kg) and ‘Kanza’ (153.2 nuts/kg), but smaller than ‘Pawnee’ (120.5 nuts/kg) (Table 4). Its pollen parent, ‘NC-4’, produced an average of 140.8 nuts/kg, whereas its seed parent, ‘NC-2B’, produced an average of 145.6 nuts/kg in a USDA-ARS repository orchard in College Station, TX. ‘Seneca’ has nut dimensions with a height-to-width ratio of 1.80, comparable to ‘Kanza’ (Thompson et al. 1997). The kernels are attractive, typically cream in color, with dorsal grooves that are deep and wide (Fig. 3B). The pronounced ventral groove and basal cleft do not trap packing material. The ‘Seneca’ nut kernel percentage averages 57.38% compared with ‘Pawnee’, which has an average of 59.14% kernel with a golden color, and ‘Kanza’, which has a 52.83% kernel with golden kernels in Brownwood, TX (Table 4). The pollen parent, ‘NC-4’, has an average of 54.57% kernel with a dark golden color.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

‘Seneca’ pecan nuts. (A) Nut clusters (Brownwood, TX; 20 Aug 2018). (B) Nut quality panel (Brownwood, TX; 1 Dec 2015).

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16825-22

Table 4.

Nut characteristics of ‘Seneca’ and three standard cultivars in the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System orchard in Brownwood, TX (2–11 years after grafting to open-pollinated ‘Apache’ rootstocks).

Table 4.

Nut yield.

‘Seneca’ averaged 2.62 nuts per cluster from 2009 to 2017 (no data in 2013 and 2015) (Fig. 3A), compared with 3.28 for ‘Pawnee’, 2.99 for ‘Kanza’, and 3.31 for ‘Wichita’ in the same orchard (Table 3). On average, between the 3 to 6 leaf years of age after grafting (2009–12), ‘Seneca’ bore 1.4 kg of dry weight nuts compared with 1.1 kg for ‘Kanza’, 2.5 kg for ‘Pawnee’, and 2.9 kg for ‘Wichita’ (Table 5). In the sixth year after grafting (2012), they bore 5.5, 3.8, 9.6, and 10.6 kg/tree, respectively. ‘Seneca’ has a greater alternate bearing tendency [4 years of alternate bearing index (ABI) = 0.86, Table 5] than other standard cultivars in the test orchard. Although the ABIs were calculated from the yields of the young trees, the alternate bearing tendency of the ‘Seneca’ trees, along with those standard cultivars in the same test orchard when trees are growing older, agree with the ABI values, and, most importantly, the ABI values are critical information to our pecan growers for their pecan orchard management.

Table 5.

Average dry nut yield (measured in kilograms per tree) of ‘Seneca’ and three standard cultivars growing in the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service National Pecan Advanced Clone Testing System orchard in Brownwood, TX, from 2009 to 2012 (2–5 years after grafting to open-pollinated ‘Apache’ rootstocks).

Table 5.

Availability

‘Seneca’ is patent pending. The USDA Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program staff cannot discuss licensing terms with prospective licensees but can discuss the trees. The USDA does not have trees for distribution. Graftwood is currently being grown and will be distributed to licensees in Jan 2023. Parties interested in licensing ‘Seneca’ can visit https://www.ars.usda.gov/ott/licenses-section-folder/licensing-process/ for more information on the licensing process or contact license@usda.gov with any questions. It is requested that appropriate recognition be made if this germplasm contributes to developing a new variety.

References

  • Grauke, L.J 2019 Family trees: Generations and propagations Pecan South Mag. 52 6 25

  • Grauke, L.J., Thompson, T.T. & Madden, G.D. 2021 Pecan tree named ‘Pueblo’ U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 17/506091. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grauke, L.J., Thompson, T.T. & Madden, G.D. 2022 Pecan tree named ‘Seneca’ U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 17/667091. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grauke, L.J., Wood, B.W. & Harris, M.K. 2016 Crop vulnerability: Carya HortScience 51 653 663 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.51.6.653

  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) Pecan Q. 12 3 3 6

  • MUNSELL Plant Tissue Color Book 2012 Revision 2018 https://pss-guide.com/en/product/munsell-plant-tissue-color-book-2012-revision-en/. [accessed 4 Jun 2018.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, A.C 1967 The history of the Seneca Indians. I. J. Friedman Empire State Historical Publications Series XLIII 13 20

  • Pearce, S.C.S. & Doberšek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The measurement of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hortic. Sci. 42 295 305 https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1967.11514216

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preston, W.D. & Voegelin, C.F. 1949 Seneca I Int. J. Am. Linguist. 15 23 44

  • Sparks, D 1992 Pecan cultivars: The orchard’s foundation Pecan Production Innovations Watkinsville, GA

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) Acta Hortic. 290 839 906 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1991.290.19

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J. & Reid, W. 2008 ‘Lakota’ pecan HortScience 43 250 251 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.250

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J., Reid, W., Smith, M.W. & Winter, S.R. 1997 ‘Kanza’ pecan HortScience 32 139 140 https://doi.org/10.21273/ HORTSCI.32.1.139

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J. & Young, E.F. 1996 Pecan kernel color: Standards using the Munsell color notation system J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 121 548 553 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.121. 3.548

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, T.E. & Hunter, R.E. 1985 ‘Pawnee’ pecan HortScience 20 776

  • Wang, X., Chatwin, W., Kubenka, K. & Hilton, A. 2022a Three new pecan varieties patented by USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program Pecan South 55 6 14

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, X., Kubenka, K., Chatwin, W., Thompson, T. & Grauke, L.J. 2022b ‘Pueblo’ pecan: A compact cultivar for the western and central growing regions HortScience 57 785 788 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16601-22

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yadav, N.V.S., de Vos, S.M., Bock, C.H. & Wood, B.W. 2013 Development and validation of standard area diagrams to aid assessment of pecan scab symptoms on fruit Plant Pathology 62 325 335 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02641.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Contributor Notes

X.W., W.C., and K.K. contributed equally to this work.

X.W. and L.J.G. are the corresponding authors. E-mail: xinwang.wang@usda.gov or ljgrauke@gmail.com.

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  • View in gallery
    Fig. 1.

    Parentage of ‘Seneca’. The upper branch depicts the known ancestry of the female parent. The lower branch depicts the known ancestry of the male parent. The breeder or contributor is listed in parentheses along with the date of origin.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 2.

    ‘Seneca’ pecan tree, leaves, and flower. (A) Canopy structure of a 9-year-old tree after grafting on an open-pollinated ‘Apache’ seedling rootstock in 2007 (Brownwood, TX, on 5 Oct 2016). (B) Matured tree trunk with scaly texture and light olive-gray bark (2.5Y 5/2) (Munsell Plant Tissue Color Book 2012 Year Version, 2018) (7 Apr 2021). (C) Leaf architecture at 15 years after grafting (Brownwood, TX, on 4 Jun 2021). (D) Yellowish green staminate catkin (2.5GY 6/10) (5 May 2021). (E) Light-red pistillate flower with occasional splashes of green (5R 3/2) (13 May 2021).

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 3.

    ‘Seneca’ pecan nuts. (A) Nut clusters (Brownwood, TX; 20 Aug 2018). (B) Nut quality panel (Brownwood, TX; 1 Dec 2015).

  • Grauke, L.J 2019 Family trees: Generations and propagations Pecan South Mag. 52 6 25

  • Grauke, L.J., Thompson, T.T. & Madden, G.D. 2021 Pecan tree named ‘Pueblo’ U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 17/506091. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grauke, L.J., Thompson, T.T. & Madden, G.D. 2022 Pecan tree named ‘Seneca’ U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 17/667091. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grauke, L.J., Wood, B.W. & Harris, M.K. 2016 Crop vulnerability: Carya HortScience 51 653 663 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.51.6.653

  • Hunter, R.E. & Roberts, D.D. 1978 A disease grading system for pecan scab (Fusicladium effusum) Pecan Q. 12 3 3 6

  • MUNSELL Plant Tissue Color Book 2012 Revision 2018 https://pss-guide.com/en/product/munsell-plant-tissue-color-book-2012-revision-en/. [accessed 4 Jun 2018.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parker, A.C 1967 The history of the Seneca Indians. I. J. Friedman Empire State Historical Publications Series XLIII 13 20

  • Pearce, S.C.S. & Doberšek-Urbanc, S. 1967 The measurement of irregularity in growth and cropping J. Hortic. Sci. 42 295 305 https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1967.11514216

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Preston, W.D. & Voegelin, C.F. 1949 Seneca I Int. J. Am. Linguist. 15 23 44

  • Sparks, D 1992 Pecan cultivars: The orchard’s foundation Pecan Production Innovations Watkinsville, GA

  • Thompson, T.E. & Grauke, L.J. 1991 Pecans and other hickories (Carya) Acta Hortic. 290 839 906 https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1991.290.19

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J. & Reid, W. 2008 ‘Lakota’ pecan HortScience 43 250 251 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.1.250

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J., Reid, W., Smith, M.W. & Winter, S.R. 1997 ‘Kanza’ pecan HortScience 32 139 140 https://doi.org/10.21273/ HORTSCI.32.1.139

  • Thompson, T.E., Grauke, L.J. & Young, E.F. 1996 Pecan kernel color: Standards using the Munsell color notation system J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 121 548 553 https://doi.org/10.21273/JASHS.121. 3.548

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, T.E. & Hunter, R.E. 1985 ‘Pawnee’ pecan HortScience 20 776

  • Wang, X., Chatwin, W., Kubenka, K. & Hilton, A. 2022a Three new pecan varieties patented by USDA-ARS Pecan Breeding and Genetics Program Pecan South 55 6 14

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, X., Kubenka, K., Chatwin, W., Thompson, T. & Grauke, L.J. 2022b ‘Pueblo’ pecan: A compact cultivar for the western and central growing regions HortScience 57 785 788 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI16601-22

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yadav, N.V.S., de Vos, S.M., Bock, C.H. & Wood, B.W. 2013 Development and validation of standard area diagrams to aid assessment of pecan scab symptoms on fruit Plant Pathology 62 325 335 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02641.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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