Research Hotspots and Development Trends of Konjac Based on Bibliometric Analysis

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Chuan ShenShaannan Eco-economy Research Center, Ankang University, Ankang, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China 725000

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Xia LiAnkang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ankang, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China, 725000

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Amorphophallus belongs to the family Araceae and contains a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide that was originally extracted from corms called Konjac glucomannan. During the past 10 years, a vast body of research of Amorphophallus konjac has been published. Based on the Web of Science literature database, this work used Co-Occurrence, VOSviewer, and SciMAT bibliometrics analysis software tools to conduct literature analyses and big data mining of Amorphophallus Konjac research from Jan. 2012 to Dec. 2021. Therefore, the present research sorted the development process of this field and analyzed the popular changes in research topics by combing through the visualization of the analysis results to systematically review and forecast the research of Amorphophallus Konjac-related fields. This work discusses current research trends and hotspots and explores and analyzes the content that needs improvement to provide a reference for follow-up research.

Abstract

Amorphophallus belongs to the family Araceae and contains a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide that was originally extracted from corms called Konjac glucomannan. During the past 10 years, a vast body of research of Amorphophallus konjac has been published. Based on the Web of Science literature database, this work used Co-Occurrence, VOSviewer, and SciMAT bibliometrics analysis software tools to conduct literature analyses and big data mining of Amorphophallus Konjac research from Jan. 2012 to Dec. 2021. Therefore, the present research sorted the development process of this field and analyzed the popular changes in research topics by combing through the visualization of the analysis results to systematically review and forecast the research of Amorphophallus Konjac-related fields. This work discusses current research trends and hotspots and explores and analyzes the content that needs improvement to provide a reference for follow-up research.

Amorphophallus konjac belongs to the family Araceae, subfamily Aroideae, and has properties common to the genus of perennial herbaceous tuber plants (Ulrich et al., 2017). Konjac-related research involves many fields, such as the cultivation, breeding, and processing of Konjac. A large number of studies of Konjac glucomannan (KGM), its chemical structure, special physical and chemical properties, biological functions, and extraction and processing methods have been published (Behera and Ray, 2016; Ho et al., 2017). Konjac tubers are rich in KGM, which has good processing and promotion values, and is widely planted in the mountains of China, Japan, Southeast Asia, and other places (Nishinari et al., 1992). KGM is a high-molecular-weight and water-soluble neutral polysaccharide that has been widely used because of its valuable functions in healthcare and pharmacology, food and food additives, the chemical industry, materials science, oil drilling, the construction industry, textiles, printing and dyeing, cosmetics, environmental protection, agriculture, and other fields. Therefore, much research has been performed to evaluate the applications of Konjac resources and natural polysaccharides and to expand and enrich the scope of KGM applications (Yang et al., 2017; Yuan et al., 2018; Zia et al., 2016).

Web of Science is a comprehensive database built by Clarivate Analytics. Its subdatabase, Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), has been recognized as the most authoritative scientific literature retrieval tool by the global academic community because it provides the most important research information about the fields of science and technology. Although scientists worldwide have conducted a series of innovative studies of Konjac, there is a lack of systematic literature reviews of Konjac research. Bibliometrics is commonly used to study the development of a field and provides an effective method of predicting future research hotspots (Sohrabi and Iraj, 2017).

This study statistically analyzed the bibliometric publications of Konjac research in SCIE from 2012 to 2021 using literature econometrics. From the perspective of scientific literature output, a comparative analysis of Konjac research during this period was conducted to reveal the changing trends and patterns of Konjac research to understand the current situation and future direction of Konjac research worldwide. Based on the scientific quantification of indicators, we analyzed the global Konjac research trends and research hotspots to provide a reference for further research of Konjac.

Data and Methodology

Data sources.

Because the Clarivate Analytics Web of Science core collection (1985–current) is an integrated academic literature database including multidisciplinary fields such as natural sciences and social sciences, the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) was chosen as the literature retrieval data source to mine research hotspots and development trends related to Konjac. The theme was used as a query set accompanied by the following search criteria: “Amorphophallus” OR “Konjac” and articles and online publications as the only document types. This resulted in 1493 articles downloaded between 1 Jan. 2012 and 31 Dec. 2021 as plain text for further analyses.

Data analysis.

Co-Occurrence 9.9 (COOC9.9) software was used to analyze the original literature data, including synonym combination, literature reduplication and cleaning, frequency statistics, co-occurrence matrix, dissimilarity matrix, word matrix, bimodal matrix, coupling matrix, clustering analysis, and theme evolution.

Data visualization.

VOSviewer software was used to verify text analysis results and visualize the results of the co-occurrence analysis and theme evolution. It also conducted visualization of the strategic diagram, cluster network, overlapping map, and evolution map (Van and Waltman, 2010).

Evolution map and strategy map.

SciMAT software was used as the knowledge mapping tool for research topics and their evolution paths during different periods. The strategic coordinates were based on the establishment of the co-word matrix and clustering of the subject words, and the results were represented in a visual form (Cobo et al., 2012). During this study, the Equivalence Index was chosen as the network’s standardization method, the Simple Centers Algorithm was chosen as the clustering method, Core mapper was chosen as the map type, Jaccard’s index was chosen as the standardization method for evolutionary graphs, and the Inclusion index was chosen as the normalization method for overlapping graphs.

Results and Discussion

Publication outputs analysis over the years.

Through the research of the growth law of scientific information, the characteristics and laws of scientific development can be revealed, the growth trends of the literature volume can be predicted, and the stage of scientific development can be determined. After literature deduplication and cleaning, a total of 1493 literatures about Amorphophallus konjac were collected from the Web of Science Core Collection Database from Jan. 2012 to Dec. 2021. The analysis of the number of published articles according to the development of time showed that during the past 10 years, the number of published articles about Amorphophallus konjac increased and then decreased. It has experienced approximately three stages: the slow development stage, the steady growth stage, and the high-speed development stage.

Although the cumulative number of published articles showed linear growth, the growth rate varied during different years. In 2012 and 2013, only 86 and 88 articles were published, respectively. This is because scientists have performed much original theoretical exploration of this emerging field. Therefore, publications have been slow. From 2014 to 2018, the number of publications about Amorphophallus konjac maintained a steady growth level limited to a certain extent by the yield of Amorphophallus konjac and the development speed of its physiological and biochemical properties. During the following years, there was a significant increase in publications. The sharp decline in growth from 2018 to 2019 may have occurred because a large number of problems had been solved, and the development of conventional science ushered in a bottleneck and saturation of information. Thereafter, the field of Konjac developed steadily (Fig. 1). From 2018 to 2021, the number of published articles grew in a “blowout” manner, with a steep and exponential trend. This is because a breakthrough occurred in the original technology and a large number of scientists entered this field. The processing and utilization methods and technologies of Amorphophallus konjac glucomannan have broken through the bottleneck period. In general, based on the analysis of the ascending trend and development prospects of the literature, it is clear that people will continue to focus attention on the research of Amorphophallus konjac. Therefore, the annual published literature volume is expected to maintain a rapid growth trend.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The number of posts and the cumulative number of posts.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Frequency analysis of keywords, countries, research areas, authors, institutions, and journals.

By analyzing the frequency of occurrence of keywords, countries, research fields, authors, institutions, and journals during the past 10 years, it was possible to mine the research hotspots and changes in the research structure during that time. After analyzing and summarizing the high-frequency keywords of the published literature, the core research areas were Amorphophallus konjac glucomannan, rheology, polysaccharide, beta-mannanase, microstructure, and hydrogel (Fig. 2A).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Frequency statistics. (A) Keyword frequency analysis. (B) Country frequency analysis. (C) Research direction analysis. (D) Author frequency analysis. (E) Institutional frequency analysis. (F) Journal frequency analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Statistical data from published works showed that studies were concentrated in China, India, the United States, Japan, and other countries (Fig. 2B). This is also related to the fact that Konjac is mainly distributed in the Southeast Asian region (Boyce and Wong, 2012).

Research of Konjac involves many directions, with the main focus being KGM and its derivatives in fields such as chemistry, food science and technology, polymer science, biochemistry and molecular biology, materials science, agriculture and nutrition, and dietetics (Fig. 2C). The main reason for this phenomenon is the high value of the compound glucomannan in Konjac, which is generally referred to as KGM (Behera and Ray, 2016).

Based on the total number of published works, a research group represented by authors such as Li Bin, Pang Jie, Li Jing, Jiang Fatang, Wang Lin, Wu Lichao, Wu Chunhua, and Jin Weiping has been formed in the field of Konjac research. These authors have contributed a large amount of high-quality scientific literature (Fig. 2D). Of course, these authors are mainly from Asian regions.

Among the institutions that researched Konjac, most are concentrated in China. These include Huazhong Agricultural University, which published the most literature, followed by Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University, Hubei University of Technology, China Agricultural University, and Southwest University. Other research institutions, such as Jiangnan University, Southwest University of Science and Technology, University of Nottingham, and Wuhan University, also contributed much literature, indicating that the research of Konjac has attracted the attention of many scientific institutions worldwide (Fig. 2E).

During the statistical evaluation of the number of journal publications, it was found that Food Hydrocolloids has published the largest number of works regarding this field. Other target journals include Carbohydrate Polymers, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Food Chemistry, Chinese Journal of Structural Chemistry, and Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (Fig. 2F).

During the past 10 years, scientists have mainly performed research of key issues, such as the improvement of the economic benefits of Konjac, the detection and extraction of KGM and its derivatives, and the processing and production of KGM. However, the breadth, depth, and innovation of research in the field of Konjac requires further strengthening.

Author, institution, journal, country, and keyword coupling analysis.

The coupling analysis method can be used to reveal the hot topics and knowledge structure of research regarding the subject area. During this study, the coupling analysis method was used to construct the coupling relationship of authors based on keywords associated with the bimodal network to perform the similarity analysis and cluster analysis of the authors. It was also used to reveal the tacit knowledge of the subject areas possessed by the authors (Yang et al., 2016). The more authors with the same keywords, the greater the similarity of the research direction. Works with high similarity were clustered together (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Network visualization maps of the author coupling analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

The coupling analysis results showed that there were five clusters. Cluster 1 had seven authors (Xiao Man, Ni Xuewen, Jiang Fatang, Corke Harold, Nishinari Katsuyoshi, and C. Ruiz-Caoillas). Cluster 2 also had seven authors (Li Yuanzhao, Wang Lin, Pang Jie, Yuan Yi, Mu Ruojun, Wu Chunhua, and Ni Yongsheng). Cluster 3 had four authors (Li Jing, Li Bin, Xu Wei, and Jin Weiping). Cluster 4 had four authors (Cheng Yongqiang, Zhou Yun, Ding Yuting, and Xue Changhu). Cluster 5 had three authors (Kang Huiting, Pang Jie, and Duan Tao). These results showed the potential for clustering together in a similar research direction to produce collaboration.

The keyword-based coupling analysis of the institutions allowed for their similarity analysis and cluster analysis. The more keywords that were the same between institutions, the greater the similarity. Institutions with high similarity were clustered together (Fig. 4). The coupling analysis results showed four clusters. Cluster 1 had eight institutions (Huazhong Agricultural University, Qilu University of Technology, Hubei University of Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, University of Nottingham, Osaka City University, Nanchang University, and Central Tuber Crops Research Institute). Cluster 2 had seven institutions (Wuhan University of Technology, South China University Technology, Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University, Sichuan Agricultural University, and Southwest University of Science and Technology). Cluster 3 and cluster 4 had six and three institutions, respectively. Based on the coupling relationships of institutions, it was observed that many countries had the same research directions.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Network visualization maps of the institution coupling analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

The keyword-based coupling analysis of the journal frequency allowed the similarity analysis and cluster analysis of the journals. The coupling analysis results (Fig. 5) showed only two clusters. Cluster 1 had eight journals (Food Hydrocolloids, Food Chemistry, Food Research International, Journal of the Science of Food, Journal of Agricultural and Food, and others). This classification mainly focused on the food development uses and biochemical properties analysis of Konjac. Cluster 2 had seven journals (Carbohydrate Polymers, International Journal of Biology, Journal of Food Science and Technology, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Chinese Journal of Structural, and others). This classification mainly focused on the biological characteristics analysis of Konjac and the chemical characteristics analysis of starch and glucomannan.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Network visualization maps of the cited journal coupling analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

The keyword-based coupling analysis of the countries allowed the similarity analysis and cluster analysis of the countries. The coupling analysis results (Fig. 6) showed three clusters. Cluster 1 had seven countries (core countries in Asia, such as South Korea, India, and Thailand, and core countries in Europe, such as Spain, Turkey, Iran, and Brazil). Cluster 2 had six countries (China was the largest, followed by the United States and England). Cluster 3 had four countries (Japan had the highest weight, followed by Germany and the Netherlands). The research weight corresponding to the country with the most research of Konjac was highest.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Network visualization maps of the country coupling analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Analysis of research hotspots.

By analyzing high-frequency keywords, the development trend and research hotspots of a research field can be inferred. Hotspots in the Konjac field were determined based on the academic attention and historical context analysis (Fig. 7). High-frequency research of Konjac was observed from 2012 to 2021; however, there are some differences in development during each year. Therefore, this field has been in a state of dynamic change. In 2012, the main focuses were the content of KGM, Konjac mannanase, KGM rheology, and components of Araceae. In 2013, the main focuses were mining KGM-enriched products, research of industrial development strategies, research of factors restricting industrial development, and olive oil content. In 2014, the main focuses were Konjac morphology and texture, KGM extraction and properties, and the production of polysaccharides. In 2015, the main focuses were research of Chitosan, elephant foot yam, phase separation, and Konjac flour. In 2016, the main focuses were the development of Konjac dietary fiber agricultural products, pichia pastoris, and chitosan. In 2017, the main focuses were gelation, Konjac paeoniifolius, schizothorax prenanti, and Konjac microstructure. In 2018, the main focuses were the production of hydrogel, the application of drug release, and graphene oxide. In 2019, the main focuses were Konjac physicochemical properties, Konjac oligo-glucomannan, mannan, and aerogel. In 2020, the main focuses were Konjac microstructure, the production of starch, hydrocolloids, and polysaccharides. In 2021, the main focuses were Konjac microstructure, rheological properties, Konjac gum, thermal properties, and kappa-carrageenan.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Progressive analysis of keywords from 2012 to 2021 in the Web of Science. Ten keywords with the highest frequency were selected for the year-by-year analysis.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

The keywords in the literature are generally correlated, and this correlation can be evaluated using the co-occurrence frequency (Chang et al., 2015). The keyword co-occurrence map clearly showed the interconnection between research hotspots and other hotspots. The larger the number of keywords, the higher the frequency of co-occurrence in a document (Fig. 8). The analysis results showed that the keywords that appeared at least 12 times were Konjac glucomannan and hydrogel. Those that appeared at least 10 times were Konjac glucomannan, chitosan, kappa-carrageenan, and rheology. Those that appeared at least nine were Konjac glucomannan, adsorption, and rheological properties. Those that appeared eight times were Konjac glucomannan and gelation. Those that appeared seven times were Konjac glucomannan, starch, and polysaccharide. In summary, the research hotspots of Konjac mainly focus on its physical and chemical properties, the synthesis and utilization of starch and chitosan, and the exploration of the Konjac microstructure.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Double-cluster diagram of keywords in the Web of Science.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

A cluster analysis of keywords can describe the similarity between data sources and classify data sources into different clusters. The clustering results showed the following three clusters with significant differences: Konjac glucomannan; glucomannan, polysaccharides, texture, hydrocolloids, viscosity, Araceae, Konjac flour, beta-mannanase, and physicochemical properties; and rheology, starch, xanthan gum, microstructure, gelation, hydrogel, rheological properties, kappa-carrageenan, chitosan, and adsorption (Fig. 8).

Another way to analyze keywords is to apply a co-occurrence matrix to the occurrence rate. Through the co-occurrence matrix analysis of keywords, the co-occurrence relationship was displayed with at least two occurrences (Fig. 9). Among them, Konjac glucomannan, hydrogel, adsorption, chitosan, and polysaccharide were clustered in one class.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

VOSviewer co-occurrence network visualization mapping of the most frequent keywords.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Additionally, by analyzing the dendrogram results of the cluster analysis of the keyword correlation matrix, we could further understand the situation of each class merging in the cluster analysis and corroborate the analysis results. The results of the cluster analysis reflected the degree of affinity among the keywords, and the keywords with close relationships were recombined. Through an analysis of the results (Fig. 10), it was concluded that there were four clusters comprising viscosity, xanthan gum, texture, rheology, hydrocolloids, and starch. Konjac flour, Amorphophallus konjac, glucomannan, beta-mannanase, and polysaccharide also comprised a cluster.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Keyword correlation matrix cluster analysis tree diagram.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Research trends and evolution analysis.

The keyword time zone view was used to show the evolution of research hotspots related to Konjac (Fig. 11). Each point represented the time of the first appearance of the keyword. The larger the node, the more research literature that has been mentioned. The hotspots were as follows:

  1. In 2012, the terms “rheological characteristics,” “polysaccharides,” “rheology,” and “hydrogel” appeared, probably as a result of a new understanding of the use of Konjac glucomannan in food. Konjac glucomannan aqueous solution has a high viscosity and molecular weight, as well as excellent water-holding capacity, rheology, and antibacterial characteristics. It has the potential to evolve into a new type of nontoxic, pollution-free, edible food packaging, food additive, and food preservation agent (Du et al., 2012; Wu et al., 2012).

  2. In 2013, the terms “cellulose,” “prebiotics,” “kappa-carrageenan,” “adsorption,” and “response surface technique” first appeared. A prior study found that biopolymers like K-carrageenan and Konjac glucomannan powder could be combined with highly water-absorbent hydrogel sheets. The mixture increased the mechanical and water-resistant qualities of the blended hydrogel film, as well as its suitability for use as a food packaging material (Liu et al., 2013; Rhim and Wang, 2013).

  3. In 2014, the terms “retrogradation,” “morphology,” and “drug delivery” debuted, showing that Konjac research is becoming more diverse. Because of their superior qualities, natural biopolymers have been widely exploited as materials for the creation of drug delivery formulations (Luo and Wang, 2014; Wang et al., 2014a). The terms “deacetylated” and “carboxymethyl” also surfaced, showing that the study of KGM is steadily broadening. Deacetylation has been shown to reduce the solubility of KGM in water; however, carboxymethyl Konjac glucomannan film has many mechanical characteristics and high water resistance, biocompatibility, film-forming ability, and biodegradability (Wang et al., 2014b; Zhu and Tong, 2014). Furthermore, “salep,” “graphene oxide,” and “physicochemical characteristics” indicate that the goals of the studies were to describe the physicochemical and functional qualities of the material (Kurt and Kahyaoglu, 2014; Reddy et al., 2014).

  4. Antioxidant activity, oxidized Konjac glucomannan, and sodium alginate were all mentioned in 2015. As a novel delivery mechanism, the oxidized Konjac glucomannan microsphere may absorb positively charged anthocyanins (Lu et al., 2015). Konjac oligo-glucomannan degradation products were used as a natural antioxidant (Liu et al., 2015). Additionally, the terms “wound dressing,” “wound healing,” “functional qualities,” and “thermal properties” surfaced, suggesting that many areas of the Konjac industry are being investigated, and the medical sector and its marketing system are progressively emerging. Because adding Konjac glucomannan to chitosan materials used as wound dressings can increase biocompatibility, KGM offers a wide range of applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical areas (Huang et al., 2015).

  5. In 2016, the terms “drug release,” “myosin,” and “Konjac oligo-glucomannan” surfaced, indicating that increased drug release was a result of increased drug permeability and drug solubility via the ERL film (Wiranidchapong et al., 2016). “Encapsulation,” “glycation,” “gut microbiota,” and “biomass” also appeared as a result of mounting evidence that the gut microbiota has a critical role in the development of metabolic disorders (Tan et al., 2016).

  6. In 2017, the terms “texture profile analysis,” “myofibrillar protein,” “wheat gluten,” and “gluten” were coined, which provide a perfect interpretation of KGM and dynamic oscillatory rheology. Because KGM has a higher water-binding capacity than gluten, it can use hydrogen bonding to affect water distribution and protein structure (Wang et al., 2017). Because KGM is a potential adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals based on the presence of hydroxyl groups in its polymer chains, the keywords “polydopamine,” “lipid metabolism,” “curcumin”, and “pH-sensitive” have surfaced (Chen et al., 2017).

  7. Words like “ceramide,” “bifidobacteria,” “neurite outgrowth,” and “films” emerged in 2018. “Silk fibroin,” “nanoemulsion,” “wastewater treatment,” and “mechanical property” were also mentioned. Innovative studies of these topics can boost the economic advantages of the Konjac industry while also promoting its healthy and long-term growth. Biodegradable film, emulsion, medicinal and pharmaceutical materials, encapsulation and controlled release, separation medium, aerogel, and absorbance for the removal of contaminants in wastewater have involved KGM (Zhu, 2018).

  8. Words like “antibacterial,” “colon-targeted delivery,” and “constipation,” as well as “microfluidic spinning technology aroids” and “water mobility,” emerged in 2019. This is most likely because KGM polysaccharides are a preferred foundation for tailored medicinal delivery systems. They are frequently affordable as natural biomaterials, have great biocompatibility and biodegradability, and are nontoxic and nonreactogenic (Yuan et al., 2019). Because of the appearance of “composite gel” and “cellulose nanocrystals,” the KGM compound gel created under particular circumstances has low brittleness, high flexibility, and good water retention ability, thus leading to the synergistic impact of various polysaccharides (Barclay et al., 2019).

  9. Words like “crafting” and “hard capsules” began to appear in 2020. Pullulan is a natural extracellular polysaccharide used in the pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetics industries, as well as in the production of hard capsules (Ding et al., 2020). “Anthocyanins” and “camellia oil” were also investigated because the gelling activity of KGM shielded anthocyanins from thermos-exposure, indicating that it might be a potential technique for preserving thermo-sensitive bioactive substances (Jin et al., 2020).

  10. The terms “heat moisture treatment” and “injectable hydrogel” appeared at the same time in 2021. This is because oxidized Konjac glucomannan has been widely used as scaffolds or carriers of therapeutic agents such as proteins, cells, drugs, and bioactive molecules for disease treatment and tissue regeneration and repair (Ghorbani et al., 2021). Because studies indicated that KGM could slow the hydrolysis of FS, thereby increasing slowly digested starch and resistant starch (Fan et al., 2021), terms like “antioxidant defense,” “fecal microbiota,” and “in vitro digestibility” were developed. KGM polysaccharide comprises several oxygen-containing functional groups, which easily form small-molecule hydrogen bonds and promote energy dissipation through effective reversible hydrogen bond breakdown and recombination (Li et al., 2021).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Keyword evolution map.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

According to an analysis of the evolution of the research hotspots of Konjac during the past 10 years and further sorting and integration, there have been four main evolution trends: the scope of research is gradually broadening to include agricultural production, food, chemicals, medicine, polymer materials, and dietary nutrition; the focus is gradually shifting to the development of functional polymer materials derived from Konjac glucomannan, such as rheology, hydrogel, kappa-carrageenan, graphene oxide, composite gel, film, nanoemulsion, silk fibroin, wastewater treatment, mechanical property, cellulose nanocrystals, graphitic carbon nitride, and layered structure; ongoing food research and development of prebiotics, wheat gluten, salep, antioxidant activity, oxidized Konjac glucomannan, sodium alginate, myofibrillar protein, anthocyanins, camellia oil, and in vitro digestibility; and ongoing research and development of Konjac glucomannan-based medical and pharmaceutical materials, including drug release, myosin, gut microbiota, polydopamine, curcumin, ceramide, bifidobacteria, neurite outgrowth, microfluidic spinning technology aroids, hard capsules, wound dressing, wound healing, injectable hydrogel, and heat moisture treatment. In the future, the multifunctional bionanocomposite films could have interesting uses in active and intelligent food packaging.

Research of the gelation and rheological behavior of Konjac glucan and its complexes with other polysaccharides and proteins, as well as its role as an important component of functional compounding materials, has received significant attention during the past decade, and research of its health benefits as a high-quality dietary fiber has also received increased attention. With the advancement of the economy and society, as well as the importance of people’s health, scientists from more countries and research areas will be interested in investigating the health effects of Konjac.

Theme overlapping, evolution, and strategy map drawing.

SciMAT software was used to determine the development trends, subdomain maturity was predicted by the generated theme evolution chart, and the strategy map was used to predict the future development trends (Cobo et al., 2012). Figure 12 shows the birth and demise of keywords over the course of 10 years during four time periods (2012–2014, 2015–2017, 2018–2019, and 2020–2021). The number of new words was greater than the number of dead words during each period, indicating that this field is booming. Year after year, the total number of keywords grows, and more and more keywords are reserved from one stage to the next, indicating that this field is maturing and that the discipline has a strong inheritance.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Overlapping map of keywords during four periods using SciMAT. The horizontal arrows represent keywords retained from one stage to the next. The downward arrows represent new words. The upward arrows represent dead words. The horizontal arrows represent keywords retained from one stage to the next.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

A timeline of the evolution of Konjac research topics was created (Fig. 13). According to the evolution path map and the evolution status of themes during each period, the number of themes increased over time, indicating diverse development. During the latter period, the number of published works increased significantly, new research themes emerged, and research content became more abundant. From 2012 to 2014, a few research topics received little attention and had little relevance to later topics. From 2015 to 2017, the number of research themes increased, but the level of interest remained low. A large number of new themes emerged, the connection between themes grew stronger, some mainstream and tributary research directions evolved and developed, and a small number of themes emerged and remained unchanged. From 2018 to 2019 and from 2020 to 2021, the number of topics increased, as did research interest, and the evolution between topics became more complex. The mainstream evolution direction developed steadily and continued to be a research hotspot with the appearance of new research topics and stable professional topics. However, it has received little attention and has not developed into a research facility. In general, research in the field of Konjac is still in its early stages. The research themes have changed dramatically over time, the theme evolution relationship is complex, and the phenomenon of theme differentiation, integration, transfer, and regeneration are evident.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

The evolution path map of the Konjac research theme. The nodes represent clustering topics, and their size is proportional to the amount of literature related to the topic. The solid lines between nodes during adjacent periods indicate that the two topics share the main keywords (usually core keywords), which represent the mainstream evolution direction. The dotted lines indicate that the two topics share secondary keywords, which represent the evolution direction of the tributaries.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

In the strategy map, the X-axis is the centripetal degree, which represents the strength of the mutual influence between fields (Fig. 14). It indicates the strength of the internal connection in a certain field. The higher the density, the closer the connection between the keywords within the cluster, and the higher the development maturity.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

The strategy map of the Konjac research theme. (A) Strategic Map in 2012 to 2014; (B) Strategic Map in 2015 to 2017; (C) Strategic Map in 2018 to 2019; (D) Strategic Map in 2020 to 2021. The upper right quadrant indicates that the topic is closely related and has a high degree of development. The lower right quadrant indicates that the topic is in the core position but not mature enough and has great development potential. The upper left quadrant indicates that the research maturity is high but on the edge. The lower left quadrant indicates low research maturity and marginal positions, typically new or declining clusters.

Citation: HortScience 57, 11; 10.21273/HORTSCI16679-22

Conclusions

During this study, 1493 legitimate literatures about Konjac subjects listed on the Web of Science during the past 10 years were used as data sources. A bibliometric analysis was performed using COOC9.9 software and VOSviewer visualization software. The current research level of Konjac, as well as the evolution trends of research hotspots, can be clearly shown by performing coupling analyses of institutions and keywords, keyword progression, and co-occurrence and cluster analyses. The primary conclusions are as follows:

  1. The amount and quality of publications about Konjac have improved to some level during the past 10 years. The number of publications increased dramatically, particularly in 2018 to 2019, and has been rather consistent ever since.

  2. Based on the frequency of keywords, authors, journals, and institutions, there are comprehensive research fields, wide geographical distribution, and significant research groups.

  3. The clustering impact is evident in the results of the author, institution, and keyword coupling analyses. There were five clusters among authors and four clusters among institutions, indicating a clear distribution of the core strength of Konjac research. The building of Konjac brands, Konjac testing, Konjac soil analysis, Konjac quality enhancement, and Konjac agricultural product processing were all highlighted during the research hotspot analysis.

  4. Based on the analysis of research hotspots, the primary focuses were Konjac healthcare and pharmacology, agricultural production, food and food additives, chemicals, medicine, polymer materials, and dietary nutrition.

  5. The research trends analysis highlighted the evolution patterns of Konjac research during the past 10 years. The breadth and depth of the development of the Konjac sector may be expanding.

  6. According to the four time periods (2012–14, 2015–17, 2018–19, and 2020–21), the research field of Konjac is developing well, and discoveries are constantly being made. The evolution map research in the field of Konjac is still in its early stages and has great potential for development. Additionally, the strategy map showed that some old fields are dying and new fields are appearing.

Literature Cited

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    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behera, S.S. & Ray, R.C. 2016 Konjac glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide of Amorphophallus Konjac K. Koch in health care Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 92 942 956 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.098

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. 2012 The Araceae of Malesia I Introduction. Malay. Nat. J. 64 33 67

  • Chang, Y.W., Huang, M.H. & Lin, C.W. 2015 Evolution of research subjects in library and information science based on keyword, bibliographical coupling, and co-citation analyses Scientometrics 105 3 2071 2087 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1762-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, P.P., Zhang, H.P., Lin, J., Ding, X.Y., Lu, X., Liu, C. & Tang, Y. 2017 Carboxylmethyl Konjac glucomannan conjugated polydopamine composites for Pb (II) removal Carbohydr. Polym. 162 62 70 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobo, M.J., López-Herrera, A.G., Herrera-Viedma, E. & Herrera, F. 2012 SciMAT: A new science mapping analysis software tool J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 63 8 1609 1630 https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22688

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., Jiang, F., Chen, L., Lyu, W., Chi, Z., Liu, C. & Chi, Z. 2020 An alternative hard capsule prepared with the high molecular weight pullulan and gellan: Processing, characterization, and in vitro drug release Carbohydr. Polym. 237 116172 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116172

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, X., Li, J., Chen, J. & Li, B. 2012 Effect of degree of deacetylation on physicochemical and gelation properties of Konjac glucomannan Food Res. Int. 46 1 270 278 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.12.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan, X., Li, X., Hu, J., Cheng, Z., Wang, X. & Hu, X. 2021 Physicochemical and in vitro digestibility properties on complexes of fermented wheat starches with Konjac gum Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 188 197 206 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghorbani, M., Nezhad-Mokhtari, P. & Mahmoodzadeh, F. 2021 Incorporation of Oxidized Pectin to Reinforce Collagen/Konjac Glucomannan Hydrogels Designed for Tissue Engineering Applications Macromol. Res. 29 4 289 296 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13233-021-9033-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ho, H.V.T., Jovanovsk, E., Zurbau, A., Blanco Mejia, S., Sievenpiper, J.L., Au-Yeung, F. & Vuksan, V. 2017 A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of Konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 105 5 1239 1247 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.142158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, Y.C., Yang, C.Y., Chu, H.W., Wu, W.C. & Tsai, J.S. 2015 Effect of alkali on Konjac glucomannan film and its application on wound healing Cellulose 22 1 737 747 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0512-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, W., Xiang, L., Peng, D., Liu, G., He, J., Cheng, S. & Huang, Q. 2020 Study on the coupling progress of thermo-induced anthocyanins degradation and polysaccharides gelation Food Hydrocoll. 105 105822 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.105822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kurt, A. & Kahyaoglu, T. 2014 Characterization of a new biodegradable edible film made from salep glucomannan Carbohydr. Polym. 104 50 58 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W., Liu, J., Liang, B., Shu, Y. & Wang, J. 2021 Small molecule hydrogen-bonded toughen nacre-inspired montmorillonite-Konjac glucomannan-glycerin film with superior mechanical, transparent and UV-blocking properties Compos., Part B Eng. 204 108492 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2020.108492

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Xu, Q., Zhang, J., Zhou, X., Lyu, F., Zhao, P. & Ding, Y. 2015 Preparation, composition analysis and antioxidant activities of Konjac oligo-glucomannan Carbohydr. Polym. 130 398 404 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015. 05.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Zhu, K., Ye, T., Wan, S., Wang, Y. & Wang, C. 2013 Influence of Konjac glucomannan on gelling properties and water state in egg white protein gel Food Res. Int. 51 2 437 443 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, M., Li, Z., Liang, H., Shi, M., Zhao, L., Li, W. & Li, Y. 2015 Controlled release of anthocyanins from oxidized Konjac glucomannan microspheres stabilized by chitosan oligosaccharides Food Hydrocoll. 51 476 485 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.05.036

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. & Wang, Q. 2014 Recent development of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes with natural polysaccharides for drug delivery Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 64 353 367 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.12.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishinari, K., Williams, P.A. & Phillips, G.O. 1992 Review of the physico-chemical characteristics and properties of Konjac mannan Food Hydrocoll. 6 2 199 222 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80360-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reddy, C.K., Haripriya, S., Mohamed, A.N. & Suriya, M. 2014 Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch Food Chem. 155 38 44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhim, J.W. & Wang, L.F. 2013 Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/Konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films Carbohydr. Polym. 96 1 71 81 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sohrabi, B. & Iraj, H. 2017 The effect of keyword repetition in abstract and keyword frequency per journal in predicting citation counts Scientometrics 110 1 243 251 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2161-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, C., Wei, H., Ao, J., Long, G. & Peng, J. 2016 Inclusion of Konjac flour in the gestation diet changes the gut microbiota, alleviates oxidative stress, and improves insulin sensitivity in sows Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82 19 5899 5909 https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01374-16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, S., Hesse, M., Weber, M. & Halbritter, H. 2017 Amorphophallus: New insights into pollen morphology and the chemical nature of the pollen wall Grana 56 1 1 36 https://doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2015.1133699

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van, Eck, N. & Waltman, L. 2010 Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping Scientometrics 84 2 523 538 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., Liu, C., Shuai, Y., Cui, X. & Nie, L. 2014a Controlled release of anticancer drug using graphene oxide as a drug-binding effector in Konjac glucomannan/sodium alginate hydrogels Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 113 223 229 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.09.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, S., Wu, X., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Wang, L., Chen, Y. & Li 2014b Dissolution behavior of deacetylated Konjac glucomannan in aqueous potassium thiocyanate solution at low temperature RSC Advances 4 42 21918 21923 https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA01491J

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Zhou, Y., Nirasawa, S., Tatsumi, E., Li, X. & Cheng, Y. 2017 Effects of Konjac glucomannan on heat-induced changes of wheat gluten structure Food Chem. 229 409 416 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.02.056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiranidchapong, C., Kieongarm, W., Managit, C. & Phrompittayarat, W. 2016 Thermal, mechanical and drug release characteristics of an acrylic film using active pharmaceutical ingredient as non-traditional plasticizer Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 42 4 644 653 https://doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2015.1062513

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C., Peng, S., Wen, C., Wang, X., Fan, L., Deng, R. & Pang, J. 2012 Structural characterization and properties of Konjac glucomannan/curdlan blend films Carbohydr. Polym. 89 2 497 503 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.03.034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, D., Yuan, Y., Wang, L., Wang, X., Mu, R., Pang, J. & Zheng, Y. 2017 A review on Konjac glucomannan gels: Microstructure and application Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18 11 2250 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112250

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., Han, R., Wolfram, D. & Zhao, Y. 2016 Visualizing the intellectual structure of information science (2006-2015): Introducing author keyword coupling analysis J. Informetrics 10 1 132 150 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2015.12.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, C., Xu, D., Cui, B. & Wang, Y. 2019 Gelation of k-carrageenan/Konjac glucommanan compound gel: Effect of cyclodextrins Food Hydrocoll. 87 158 164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.07.037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, Y., Wang, L., Mu, R.J., Gong, J., Wang, Y., Li, Y. & Wu, C. 2018 Effects of Konjac glucomannan on the structure, properties, and drug release characteristics of agarose hydrogels Carbohydr. Polym. 190 196 203 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol. 2018.02.049

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, F. 2018 Modifications of Konjac glucomannan for diverse applications Food Chem. 256 419 426 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.151

  • Zhu, G.L.S. & Tong, Q. 2014 Preparation and characterization of carboxymethyl-gellan and pullulan blend films Food Hydrocoll. 3 341 347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.06.009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zia, F., Zia, K.M., Zuber, M., Ahmad, H.B. & Muneer, M. 2016 Glucomannan based polyurethanes: A critical short review of recent advances and future perspectives Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 87 229 236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.02.058

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Contributor Notes

This work was supported by a high-level talent launch special project of Ankang University (2021AYQDZR13) and Ankang City Science and Technology Plan Project (AK2021-NY-15).

C.S. is the corresponding author. E-mail: chuan_shen@aku.edu.cn.

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  • View in gallery
    Fig. 1.

    The number of posts and the cumulative number of posts.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 2.

    Frequency statistics. (A) Keyword frequency analysis. (B) Country frequency analysis. (C) Research direction analysis. (D) Author frequency analysis. (E) Institutional frequency analysis. (F) Journal frequency analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 3.

    Network visualization maps of the author coupling analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 4.

    Network visualization maps of the institution coupling analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 5.

    Network visualization maps of the cited journal coupling analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 6.

    Network visualization maps of the country coupling analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 7.

    Progressive analysis of keywords from 2012 to 2021 in the Web of Science. Ten keywords with the highest frequency were selected for the year-by-year analysis.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 8.

    Double-cluster diagram of keywords in the Web of Science.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 9.

    VOSviewer co-occurrence network visualization mapping of the most frequent keywords.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 10.

    Keyword correlation matrix cluster analysis tree diagram.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 11

    Keyword evolution map.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 12.

    Overlapping map of keywords during four periods using SciMAT. The horizontal arrows represent keywords retained from one stage to the next. The downward arrows represent new words. The upward arrows represent dead words. The horizontal arrows represent keywords retained from one stage to the next.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 13.

    The evolution path map of the Konjac research theme. The nodes represent clustering topics, and their size is proportional to the amount of literature related to the topic. The solid lines between nodes during adjacent periods indicate that the two topics share the main keywords (usually core keywords), which represent the mainstream evolution direction. The dotted lines indicate that the two topics share secondary keywords, which represent the evolution direction of the tributaries.

  • View in gallery
    Fig. 14.

    The strategy map of the Konjac research theme. (A) Strategic Map in 2012 to 2014; (B) Strategic Map in 2015 to 2017; (C) Strategic Map in 2018 to 2019; (D) Strategic Map in 2020 to 2021. The upper right quadrant indicates that the topic is closely related and has a high degree of development. The lower right quadrant indicates that the topic is in the core position but not mature enough and has great development potential. The upper left quadrant indicates that the research maturity is high but on the edge. The lower left quadrant indicates low research maturity and marginal positions, typically new or declining clusters.

  • Barclay, T.G., Day, C.M., Petrovsky, N. & Garg, S. 2019 Review of polysaccharide particle-based functional drug delivery Carbohydr. Polym. 221 94 112 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.05.067

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behera, S.S. & Ray, R.C. 2016 Konjac glucomannan, a promising polysaccharide of Amorphophallus Konjac K. Koch in health care Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 92 942 956 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.07.098

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. 2012 The Araceae of Malesia I Introduction. Malay. Nat. J. 64 33 67

  • Chang, Y.W., Huang, M.H. & Lin, C.W. 2015 Evolution of research subjects in library and information science based on keyword, bibliographical coupling, and co-citation analyses Scientometrics 105 3 2071 2087 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1762-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, P.P., Zhang, H.P., Lin, J., Ding, X.Y., Lu, X., Liu, C. & Tang, Y. 2017 Carboxylmethyl Konjac glucomannan conjugated polydopamine composites for Pb (II) removal Carbohydr. Polym. 162 62 70 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.01.048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cobo, M.J., López-Herrera, A.G., Herrera-Viedma, E. & Herrera, F. 2012 SciMAT: A new science mapping analysis software tool J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 63 8 1609 1630 https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22688

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ding, Y., Jiang, F., Chen, L., Lyu, W., Chi, Z., Liu, C. & Chi, Z. 2020 An alternative hard capsule prepared with the high molecular weight pullulan and gellan: Processing, characterization, and in vitro drug release Carbohydr. Polym. 237 116172 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.116172

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Du, X., Li, J., Chen, J. & Li, B. 2012 Effect of degree of deacetylation on physicochemical and gelation properties of Konjac glucomannan Food Res. Int. 46 1 270 278 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.12.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fan, X., Li, X., Hu, J., Cheng, Z., Wang, X. & Hu, X. 2021 Physicochemical and in vitro digestibility properties on complexes of fermented wheat starches with Konjac gum Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 188 197 206 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghorbani, M., Nezhad-Mokhtari, P. & Mahmoodzadeh, F. 2021 Incorporation of Oxidized Pectin to Reinforce Collagen/Konjac Glucomannan Hydrogels Designed for Tissue Engineering Applications Macromol. Res. 29 4 289 296 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13233-021-9033-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ho, H.V.T., Jovanovsk, E., Zurbau, A., Blanco Mejia, S., Sievenpiper, J.L., Au-Yeung, F. & Vuksan, V. 2017 A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of the effect of Konjac glucomannan, a viscous soluble fiber, on LDL cholesterol and the new lipid targets non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 105 5 1239 1247 https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.142158

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, Y.C., Yang, C.Y., Chu, H.W., Wu, W.C. & Tsai, J.S. 2015 Effect of alkali on Konjac glucomannan film and its application on wound healing Cellulose 22 1 737 747 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-014-0512-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jin, W., Xiang, L., Peng, D., Liu, G., He, J., Cheng, S. & Huang, Q. 2020 Study on the coupling progress of thermo-induced anthocyanins degradation and polysaccharides gelation Food Hydrocoll. 105 105822 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2020.105822

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kurt, A. & Kahyaoglu, T. 2014 Characterization of a new biodegradable edible film made from salep glucomannan Carbohydr. Polym. 104 50 58 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, W., Liu, J., Liang, B., Shu, Y. & Wang, J. 2021 Small molecule hydrogen-bonded toughen nacre-inspired montmorillonite-Konjac glucomannan-glycerin film with superior mechanical, transparent and UV-blocking properties Compos., Part B Eng. 204 108492 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2020.108492

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Xu, Q., Zhang, J., Zhou, X., Lyu, F., Zhao, P. & Ding, Y. 2015 Preparation, composition analysis and antioxidant activities of Konjac oligo-glucomannan Carbohydr. Polym. 130 398 404 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2015. 05.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Zhu, K., Ye, T., Wan, S., Wang, Y. & Wang, C. 2013 Influence of Konjac glucomannan on gelling properties and water state in egg white protein gel Food Res. Int. 51 2 437 443 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lu, M., Li, Z., Liang, H., Shi, M., Zhao, L., Li, W. & Li, Y. 2015 Controlled release of anthocyanins from oxidized Konjac glucomannan microspheres stabilized by chitosan oligosaccharides Food Hydrocoll. 51 476 485 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.05.036

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Luo, Y. & Wang, Q. 2014 Recent development of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes with natural polysaccharides for drug delivery Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 64 353 367 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.12.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishinari, K., Williams, P.A. & Phillips, G.O. 1992 Review of the physico-chemical characteristics and properties of Konjac mannan Food Hydrocoll. 6 2 199 222 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-005X(09)80360-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reddy, C.K., Haripriya, S., Mohamed, A.N. & Suriya, M. 2014 Preparation and characterization of resistant starch III from elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeonifolius) starch Food Chem. 155 38 44 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhim, J.W. & Wang, L.F. 2013 Mechanical and water barrier properties of agar/κ-carrageenan/Konjac glucomannan ternary blend biohydrogel films Carbohydr. Polym. 96 1 71 81 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.03.083

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sohrabi, B. & Iraj, H. 2017 The effect of keyword repetition in abstract and keyword frequency per journal in predicting citation counts Scientometrics 110 1 243 251 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-016-2161-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tan, C., Wei, H., Ao, J., Long, G. & Peng, J. 2016 Inclusion of Konjac flour in the gestation diet changes the gut microbiota, alleviates oxidative stress, and improves insulin sensitivity in sows Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 82 19 5899 5909 https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01374-16

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, S., Hesse, M., Weber, M. & Halbritter, H. 2017 Amorphophallus: New insights into pollen morphology and the chemical nature of the pollen wall Grana 56 1 1 36 https://doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2015.1133699

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van, Eck, N. & Waltman, L. 2010 Software survey: VOSviewer, a computer program for bibliometric mapping Scientometrics 84 2 523 538 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-009-0146-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, J., Liu, C., Shuai, Y., Cui, X. & Nie, L. 2014a Controlled release of anticancer drug using graphene oxide as a drug-binding effector in Konjac glucomannan/sodium alginate hydrogels Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 113 223 229 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.09.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, S., Wu, X., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Wang, L., Chen, Y. & Li 2014b Dissolution behavior of deacetylated Konjac glucomannan in aqueous potassium thiocyanate solution at low temperature RSC Advances 4 42 21918 21923 https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA01491J

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Zhou, Y., Nirasawa, S., Tatsumi, E., Li, X. & Cheng, Y. 2017 Effects of Konjac glucomannan on heat-induced changes of wheat gluten structure Food Chem. 229 409 416 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.02.056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiranidchapong, C., Kieongarm, W., Managit, C. & Phrompittayarat, W. 2016 Thermal, mechanical and drug release characteristics of an acrylic film using active pharmaceutical ingredient as non-traditional plasticizer Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 42 4 644 653 https://doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2015.1062513

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wu, C., Peng, S., Wen, C., Wang, X., Fan, L., Deng, R. & Pang, J. 2012 Structural characterization and properties of Konjac glucomannan/curdlan blend films Carbohydr. Polym. 89 2 497 503 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.03.034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, D., Yuan, Y., Wang, L., Wang, X., Mu, R., Pang, J. & Zheng, Y. 2017 A review on Konjac glucomannan gels: Microstructure and application Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18 11 2250 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112250

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang, S., Han, R., Wolfram, D. & Zhao, Y. 2016 Visualizing the intellectual structure of information science (2006-2015): Introducing author keyword coupling analysis J. Informetrics 10 1 132 150 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2015.12.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, C., Xu, D., Cui, B. & Wang, Y. 2019 Gelation of k-carrageenan/Konjac glucommanan compound gel: Effect of cyclodextrins Food Hydrocoll. 87 158 164 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.07.037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yuan, Y., Wang, L., Mu, R.J., Gong, J., Wang, Y., Li, Y. & Wu, C. 2018 Effects of Konjac glucomannan on the structure, properties, and drug release characteristics of agarose hydrogels Carbohydr. Polym. 190 196 203 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol. 2018.02.049

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zhu, F. 2018 Modifications of Konjac glucomannan for diverse applications Food Chem. 256 419 426 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.02.151

  • Zhu, G.L.S. & Tong, Q. 2014 Preparation and characterization of carboxymethyl-gellan and pullulan blend films Food Hydrocoll. 3 341 347 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.06.009

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  • Zia, F., Zia, K.M., Zuber, M., Ahmad, H.B. & Muneer, M. 2016 Glucomannan based polyurethanes: A critical short review of recent advances and future perspectives Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 87 229 236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.02.058

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