‘Arisoo’, a Midseason Apple

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  • 1 Apple Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Gunwi 39000, Republic of Korea
  • | 2 Department of Plant Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong 17546, Republic of Korea

‘Arisoo’ is a red apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) that ripens in early September. It was selected from a hybrid population of a cross between ‘Yoko’ (Cummins, 1991) and ‘Senshu’ (Soejima et al., 1998) in 2010 at the Apple Research Institute, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea, and commercially registered in 2013. The ‘Arisoo’ apple is of relatively premium fruit quality in terms of taste, fruit shape, and high red blush peel, even under high summer temperatures. The incidence of flesh browning was negligible in ‘Arisoo’ during cold storage and shelf life; therefore, ‘Arisoo’ apple is a highly important variety not only for fresh consumption but also for processing into products, such as juice and fresh-cut fruit. Overall, ‘Arisoo’ apple is a promising cultivar owing to its numerous potential applications, as well as its higher peel blushness.

Origin

The apple cultivar Arisoo originated from a cross between ‘Yoko’ and ‘Senshu’ apple cultivars in 1994. The objective of the cross was to breed a midseason cultivar with red blush apple fruit of high quality (Fig. 1). The seedling, from which ‘Arisoo’ originated, was selected in 2010 and was registered in 2013 in the Republic of Korea. The selection was grafted onto Malling 9 (‘M.9’) clonal rootstocks of 7-year-old trees and then evaluated for four consecutive years in Gunwi in the southern region of the Republic of Korea (lat. 36°16′ N, long. 128°27′ E, altitude 71 m). In the experimental field, the soil characteristics at depth of 0 to 50 cm were clay loam, pH 6.5, and 2.21% of organic matter content. Irrigation was applied whenever the soil moisture tension was close to −30 − 40 kPa using an automatic irrigation system equipped with a tensiometer (Irrometer SR; Irrometer Company Inc., Riverside, CA). Data from the nearest meteorological station showed that the daily mean, maximum, and minimum air temperatures of the experimental area in the last decade were 26.2, 31.2, and 22.2 °C in August, and −1, 4.2, and −5.8°C in January, respectively. The average annual rainfall was 1200 mm. We investigated characteristics of this new cultivar, according to the standard protocol of the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV, 1994).

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pedigree and timeline of breeding procedure used in the development of the apple cultivar Arisoo.

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI15794-21

The seed parent ‘Yoko’ was selected from an open pollinated seedling of ‘Golden Delicious’ by the Gunma Horticultural Experiment Station, Japan, in 1973 (Cummins, 1991). It has a fruit weight of 282 g, red skin color with a slight stripe and a tendency toward a russet tinge, white flesh color, high fruit storability, and ripens in early October. The pollen parent ‘Senshu’ originated from the cross between ‘Toko’ and ‘Fuji’ at the Akita Fruit Tree Experiment Station, Japan, in 1974 (Soejima et al., 1998). It has a fruit weight of 265 g; a bright, striped, red skin color; yellowish-white juicy flesh; and ripens from early- to mid-October. Characteristics of ‘Arisoo’ fruit are more similar to those of ‘Yoko’, including its white flesh, shape, and slight russet skin color.

‘Hongro’, which is harvested in early September (Shin et al., 1989), is similar to ‘Arisoo’ and has the largest midseason market sharing among Korean apple cultivars (Korea Rural Economic Institute, 2017). The demand for ‘Arisoo’ and its cultivation area are both increasing recently in Korea, due to its superior taste and fruit shape, compared with ‘Hongro’ (KREI, 2018).

Description

Trees, flowers, and leaves.

‘Arisoo’ trees show low vigor, compared with ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ when planted at the same orchard with same rootstock, ‘M.9’ (Fig. 2). There should be adequate numbers of branches during the young plant stage and dwarf rootstocks should be exposed at 5 cm from the ground when the ‘Arisoo’ scion is grafted with ‘M.9’ (Rural Development Administration, 2018). ‘Arisoo’ begins bearing fruit during the second year after planting. ‘Arisoo’ flowers bloomed from 1 to 2 d earlier than those of ‘Yoko’ and ‘Senshu’ in Gunwi, the Republic of Korea (Table 1). The predominant flower color at the balloon stage is light pink (Fig. 2); the petal diameter is 42.5 mm for ‘Arisoo’, 45.3 mm for ‘Yoko’, and 46.2 mm for ‘Senshu’; and the arrangement of petals is overlapping (Table 1). The self-incompatible genotype of ‘Arisoo’ is S3S7 (Cho et al., 2014). ‘Arisoo’ has pollen compatibility with ‘Fuji’ (S1S9), ‘Gala’ (S2S5), and ‘Golden Delicious’ (S2S3), but not with ‘Tsugaru’ (S3S7) (Broothaerts et al., 2004). The length and width of the leaf are 105.3 and 70.2 mm for ‘Arisoo’, 125.7 mm and 83.5 mm for ‘Yoko’, and 112.3 and 77.4 mm for ‘Senshu’, respectively (Table 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Tree, flower, and fruit of the apple cultivar Arisoo.

Citation: HortScience horts 56, 9; 10.21273/HORTSCI15794-21

Table 1.

Characteristics of trees, flowers, and leaves of apple cultivars Arisoo, Yoko, and Senshu grown in Gunwi, Republic of Korea.

Table 1.

Fruit.

The ‘Arisoo’ fruit is large (260 g); has a medium height (67.7 mm) to diameter (79.1 mm) ratio (Table 2); globose shape; yellowish-green ground color; smooth, shiny, and medium thickness skin, with an average number of small lenticels; and 80% to 100% is covered with a red, flushed blush (Fig. 2). Russet incidence is also detected on the fruit peel. Ribbing and crowning at the calyx end of the fruit are absent. The flesh is white in color, crunchy, and firm. Soluble solids content (SSC) is 14.3% and titratable acidity (TA) is 0.35% (Table 2). ‘Arisoo’ fruit shows hardly any preharvest drop. The redness response of ‘Arisoo’ fruit, based on a* values, is higher than that of ‘Yoko’ and ‘Senshu’ (Table 3). ‘Arisoo’ fruit are more attractive on peel color than ‘Yoko’ and ‘Senshu’ based on these traits.

Table 2.

Fruit characteristics of apple cultivars Arisoo, Yoko, and Senshu grown in Gunwi, Republic of Korea.

Table 2.
Table 3.

Fruit skin color variables (L*, a*, and b*) of apple cultivars Arisoo, Yoko, and Senshu grafted on M.9 rootstocks.

Table 3.

Storability.

The fruit quality characteristics and storability of ‘Arisoo’ apples are shown in Table 4. As storage duration was progressed, fresh weight loss rate gradually increased but flesh firmness decreased during cold storage. SSC remained relatively unchanged but TA gradually decreased during cold storage. Peel lightness (L*) and hue angle (ho) values were significantly lower during cold storage than those at harvest, regardless of how long the fruit were placed in cold storage. By contrast, cortex L* was higher during cold storage than that at harvest. Cortex C* increased during the second half of cold storage but was lower in cortex ho.

Table 4.

Responses of fruit quality attributes of ‘Arisoo’ apples harvested on 3 Sept. 2018 at Moonkyong Apple Research Institute and then stored at 0.5 °C for up to 5 months in air.

Table 4.

Flesh browning incidence.

The incidence and severity of flesh browning were negligible in ‘Arisoo’. The change of lightness and color in ‘Arisoo’ showed lower than other cultivars (Fuji, Pink Lady, and Arkansas Black). ‘Arisoo’ is suitable for fresh cutting and requires minimal processing (Hong et al., 2018).

Availability

Plant variety protection of ‘Arisoo’ was obtained by Korean Seed Industry Law in 2013. It is available for commercial and research use with permission from the RDA. The breeder of this variety can be contacted via the RDA (e-mail: topapple@korea.kr).

Literature Cited

  • Broothaerts, W., Nerum, I.V. & Keulemans, J. 2004 Update on and review of the incompatibility (s-) genotypes of apple cultivars HortScience 39 943 947

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    • Export Citation
  • Cho, K.H., Kim, J.H., Lee, J.W., Kwon, S.I., Park, J.T., Shin, S., Kim, S.H., Kim, D.H. & Choi, I.M. 2014 Identification of self-incompatibility genotypes in apple and crabapple cultivars by s-alleles specific PCR analysis Kor. J. Breed. Sci. 46 364 371

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cummins, J.N. 1991 Register of new fruit and nut varieties HortScience 26 951 986

  • Hong, J.J., Seol, H.G., Jeong, E.H., Kim, Y.B. & Hong, K.P. 2018 Browning degree of various apple cultivars for minimal processing Kor. J. Food Nutr. 31 689 695

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korea Rural Economic Institute (KREI) 2017 Agricultural perspective KREI Seoul, Korea 244 245

  • KREI 2018 In-depth research on the actual condition of the major fruit trees KREI Seoul, Korea 55 56

  • Rural Development Administration (RDA) 2018 Apple cultivation RDA Jeonju, Republic of Korea 44 45

  • Shin, Y.U., Kim, W.C., Kang, S.J., Moon, J.Y. & Kim, J.H. 1989 New apple variety ‘Hongro’ for Korea Thanksgiving Day season Agr. Paper Collection (Hort.) 31 53 61

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soejima, J., Bessho, H.S., Tsuchiya, S., Komori, K., Abe, K. & Kotoda, N. 1998 Breeding of Fuji apples and performance on JM rootstocks Compact Fruit Tree 31 22 24

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) 1994 Guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity, and stability Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). UPOV Geneva, Switzerland

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Contributor Notes

This work was carried out with the support of the “Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture, Science & Technology Development (Project No. PJ01194002)” funded by Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

J.T.P. is the corresponding author. E-mail: jongtaek@korea.kr.

  • View in gallery

    Pedigree and timeline of breeding procedure used in the development of the apple cultivar Arisoo.

  • View in gallery

    Tree, flower, and fruit of the apple cultivar Arisoo.

  • Broothaerts, W., Nerum, I.V. & Keulemans, J. 2004 Update on and review of the incompatibility (s-) genotypes of apple cultivars HortScience 39 943 947

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cho, K.H., Kim, J.H., Lee, J.W., Kwon, S.I., Park, J.T., Shin, S., Kim, S.H., Kim, D.H. & Choi, I.M. 2014 Identification of self-incompatibility genotypes in apple and crabapple cultivars by s-alleles specific PCR analysis Kor. J. Breed. Sci. 46 364 371

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cummins, J.N. 1991 Register of new fruit and nut varieties HortScience 26 951 986

  • Hong, J.J., Seol, H.G., Jeong, E.H., Kim, Y.B. & Hong, K.P. 2018 Browning degree of various apple cultivars for minimal processing Kor. J. Food Nutr. 31 689 695

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korea Rural Economic Institute (KREI) 2017 Agricultural perspective KREI Seoul, Korea 244 245

  • KREI 2018 In-depth research on the actual condition of the major fruit trees KREI Seoul, Korea 55 56

  • Rural Development Administration (RDA) 2018 Apple cultivation RDA Jeonju, Republic of Korea 44 45

  • Shin, Y.U., Kim, W.C., Kang, S.J., Moon, J.Y. & Kim, J.H. 1989 New apple variety ‘Hongro’ for Korea Thanksgiving Day season Agr. Paper Collection (Hort.) 31 53 61

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soejima, J., Bessho, H.S., Tsuchiya, S., Komori, K., Abe, K. & Kotoda, N. 1998 Breeding of Fuji apples and performance on JM rootstocks Compact Fruit Tree 31 22 24

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) 1994 Guidelines for the conduct of tests for distinctness, uniformity, and stability Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). UPOV Geneva, Switzerland

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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