With the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events because of climate change, more frequent rainstorms occur in many areas where existing drainage systems cannot handle the excess. Thus, the lower areas frequently encounter the potential risk of flooding during the rainy season. In forest management, information regarding WT of plant species is necessary to cope with flooding. In addition, ecological restoration in depression areas or flooded watersheds must involve waterlogging-tolerant plant species. To investigate these effects under controlled plant growth conditions, homogenous components of growth nutrients in solution are necessary for plant physiology research, agricultural nutrition research, and even research under field conditions. A homogeneous nutrient solution is an ideal material for controlling experiments to explore the response of species to factors besides nutrition. Because of hypoxic stress, the growth of the same species differed in soil cultures and hydroculture, although the nutrition reagent was the same. Therefore, evaluation of plant species grown hydroponically can provide important reference information for flooding watershed ecological restoration, as well as for designing hydroponic experiments.
Hypoxic and anoxic conditions occur when the soil is water saturated, which induces various changes in physiology (Amador et al., 2012), morphology, anatomy, and other parameters (Guo et al., 2011; Kreuzwieser and Rennenberg, 2014). However, plants have evolved morphologically and physiologically to adapt to the flooding environment, including defoliation, and reduction in leaf number and size (Ye et al., 2003). For leaf characteristics, morphological adaptions varied among different ecotypes and different species.
In this study, we examined the growth rates and leaf phenotypes of 57 plant species with several different provenances grown hydroponically for more than 10 weeks. We hypothesized the following: 1) length of survival under waterlogging stress should be a criterion of primary importance for the screening of plant species for watershed ecosystem restoration and 2) phenotypic divergence will not occur among provenances of the same species under waterlogging stress. The goal of this study was to select species among the 57 plant species that could be used for flooding watershed ecological restoration.
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Phenotypes and biomass growth rates for 57 plant species in hydroculture.