Influence of Modified Atmosphere Packaging on Postharvest Quality of Baby Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) Leaves

in HortScience

The aim of the current study was to determine the influence of modified atmospheric pressure on the quality of baby spinach during storage. Treatments consisted of control [(normal air) (78% N2; 21% O2)], modified atmosphere (MA) (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2), storage temperature (4, 10, and 20 °C), and number of days after storage (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12). Parameters recorded are gas composition, weight loss, sensory quality, minerals and trace elements (Mg, Fe, and Zn), flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. The results of this study demonstrated that in the headspace gas there was overall reduction in O2 and increase in CO2 levels over the storage period. After 6 days of storage, all samples in normal air irrespective of the storage temperature were found to fall short of acceptable marketability with regard to visual appearance. The total antioxidant activity and flavonoids were well maintained under controlled atmosphere (CA) at 4 °C when stored for 9 days.

Contributor Notes

This work was financially supported by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD; GUN number 359000).

Corresponding author. E-mail: mudaufn@unisa.ac.za.

Headings

Figures

  • View in gallery

    Changes in headspace gas composition [% O2 (A) and % CO2 (B)] of baby spinach stored at 4, 10, and 20 °C for 12 d in modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and untreated atmosphere (78% N2; 21% O2). Each value represents the mean of five determinations at each temperature ±se. Data points indicate mean gas composition se.

  • View in gallery

    Influence of modified atmosphere and normal air conditions on overall appearance in baby spinach leaves stored at 4, 10, and 20 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean score se.

  • View in gallery

    Influence of modified atmosphere and normal air conditions on the off-odor in baby spinach leaves stored at 4, 10, and 20 °C for 12 d.

  • View in gallery

    Change in total color (ΔE) of spinach packaged with modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control (78% N2; 21% O2) at 4, 10, and 20 °C for 12 d. Each value represents the mean of five determinations at each temperature ±se. Data points indicate color change se.

  • View in gallery

    Effect of modified atmosphere on the Mg (A), Fe (B), and Zn (C) in the spinach leaves stored at 4, 10, and 20 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean se.

  • View in gallery

    Total antioxidant activity (mg·kg−1 DW) of baby spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control (78% N2; 21% O2), at 4 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total antioxidant activity se.

  • View in gallery

    Total antioxidant activity (mg·kg−1 DW) of baby spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control (78% N2; 21% O2), at 10 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total antioxidant activity se.

  • View in gallery

    Total antioxidant activity (mg·kg−1 DW) of baby spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control (78% N2; 21% O2), at 20 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total antioxidant activity se.

  • View in gallery

    Total flavonoid contents (mg·kg−1 DW) in baby spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control atmosphere (78% N2; 21% O2), stored at 4 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total antioxidant activity se.

  • View in gallery

    Total flavonoid contents (mg·kg−1 DW) in spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control atmosphere (78% N2; 21% O2), stored at 10 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total flavonoids se.

  • View in gallery

    Total flavonoid contents (mg·kg−1 DW) in spinach leaves stored under modified atmosphere (5% O2; 15% CO2; balance N2) and control atmosphere (78% N2; 21% O2), stored at 20 °C for 12 d. Data points indicate mean total flavonoids se.

References

AntmannG.AresG.LemaP.LareoC.2008Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on sensory quality of shiitake mushroomsPostharvest Biol. Technol.49164170

AwikaJ.M.RooneyL.W.2004Sorghum photochemical and their stability in sunflower oil and emulsionFood Chem.64323329

BabicI.WatadaA.E.1996Microbial populations of fresh-cut spinach leaves affected by controlled atmospheresPostharvest Biol. Technol.9187193

ChuY.SunJ.WuX.LiuR.H.2002Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetablesJ. Agr. Food Chem.5069106916

ChurchI.J.ParsonsA.L.1995Modified atmosphere packaging technology: A reviewJ. Sci. Food Agr.67143152

ConteA.ConversaG.ScroccoC.BresciaI.LaverseJ.EliaA.Del NobileM.A.2008Influence of growing periods on the quality of baby spinach leaves at harvest and during storage as minimally processed producePostharvest Biol. Technol.50190196

GilM.I.FerreresF.Tomás-BarberanF.A.1999Effect of postharvest storage and processing on the antioxidant constituents (flavonoids and vitamin C) of fresh-cut spinachJ. Agr. Food Chem.4722132217

HanlonE.A.GonzalezJ.G.BartosJ.M.1994IFAS extension soil testing laboratory chemical procedure and training manual. Univ. Florida Coop. Ext. Serv. Circ. 812

IzumiH.NonakaT.MuraokaT.1997Physiology and quality of fresh-cut spinach stored in low O2 controlled atmospheres at various temperatures p. 130–133. In: J.R. Gorny (ed.). Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables and MAP CA’97 Proceedings Vol. 5. University of California Davis CA

KaurP.RaiD.R.PaulS.2011Quality changes in fresh-cut spinach (Spinacia oleracea) under modified atmospheres with perforationsJ. Food Qual.341018

KoN.P.WatadaA.E.SchlimmeD.V.BouwkampJ.C.1996Storage of spinach under low oxygen atmosphere above the extinction pointJ. Food Sci.61398401

KouL.LuoY.ParkE.TurnerE.R.BarczakA.JurickW.M.2014Temperature abuse timing affects the rate of quality deterioration of commercially packaged ready-to-eat baby spinach. Part I: Sensory analysis and selected quality attributesPostharvest Biol. Technol.9196103

LecetaI.MolinaroS.GuerreroP.KerryJ.P.de la CabaK.2015Quality attributes of map packaged ready-to-eat baby carrots by using chitosan-based coatingsPostharvest Biol. Technol.100142150

MampholoB.M.SivakumarD.BeukesM.RensburgW.J.2013Effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality and bioactive compounds of Chinese cabbage (Brasicca rapa L. ssp. chinensis)J. Sci. Food Agr.9320082015

Martínez-SánchezA.AllendeA.BennettR.N.FerreresF.GilM.I.2006Microbial, nutritional and sensory quality of rocket leaves as affected by different sanitizersPostharvest Biol. Technol.428697

MastromatteoM.ConteA.Del NobileM.A.2012Packaging strategies to prolong the shelf life of fresh carrots (Daucus carota L.)Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol.13215220

MedinaM.S.TudelaJ.A.MarínA.AllendeA.GilM.I.2012Short postharvest storage under low relative humidity improves quality and shelf life of minimally processed baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)Postharvest Biol. Technol.6719

MirN.BeaudryR.M.2004Modified atmosphere packaging. 15 Nov. 2017. <http://www.ba.ars.usda.gov/hb66/015map.pdf>

MudauA.R.NkomoM.SoundyP.ArayaH.T.NgezimanaW.MudauF.N.2015Influence of Post-harvest storage temperature and duration on quality of baby spinachHortTechnology25665670

MudauA.R.SoundyP.MudauF.N.2017Response of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) to photo-selective nettings on growth and postharvest qualityHortScience52719724

MunhuweyiK.OparaU.L.SiggeG.2016Postharvest losses of cabbages from retail to consumer and the socio-economic and environmental impactsBrit. Food J.118286300

NemadodziL.ArayaH.T.NkomoM.NgezimanaW.MudauF.N.2017Response of physiological and biomass production of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leafy vegetable to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutritionJ. Plant Nutr.4020332044

NinfaliP.BacchioccaM.2004Parameters for the detection of post-harvest quality in fresh or transformed horticultural cropsJ. Food Agr. Environ.2122127

PandrangiS.LaBordeL.F.2004Retention of folate, carotenoids, and other quality characteristics in commercially packaged fresh spinachJ. Food Sci.69702707

PereiraG.D.M.KotheC.I.MachadoC.C.LopesS.M.FlôresS.H.RiosA.D.O.2014Effect of modified atmosphere applied to minimally processed radicchio (Cichorium intybus L.) submitted to different sanitizing treatmentsFood Sci. Technol.34513521

RizzoV.MuratoreG.2009Effects of packaging on shelf life of fresh celeryJ. Food Eng.90124128

Sandhya. 2010Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce: Current status and future needsFood Sci. Technol.43381392

TudelaJ.A.MarínA.Martínez-SánchezA.LunaM.C.GilM.I.2013Preharvest and postharvest factors related to off-odors of fresh-cut iceberg lettucePostharvest Biol. Technol.86463471

van der WaltA.M.LootsD.T.IbrahimM.I.M.BezuidenhoutC.C.2009Minerals, trace elements and antioxidant phytochemicals in wild African dark-green leafy vegetables (morogo)S. Afr. J. Sci.1051112

VelickovaE.WinkelhausenE.KuzmanovaS.AlvesV.D.Moldão-MartinsM.2013Impact of chitosan-beeswax edible coatings on the quality of fresh strawberries (Fragaria ananassa cv Camarosa) under commercial storage conditionsFood Sci. Technol.528092

WatadaA.E.KimS.D.KimK.S.HarrisT.C.1987Quality of green beans, bell peppers and spinach stored in polyethylene bagsJ. Food Sci.5216371641

YooK.M.LeeC.H.LeeH.MoonB.LeeC.Y.2008Relative antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of common herbsFood Chem.1069296

ZagoryD.KaderA.A.1988Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produceFood Technol.427077

ZenoozianM.S.2011Combined effect of packaging method and temperature on the leafy vegetables propertiesIntl. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.2124127

ZikalalaB.O.NkomoM.ArayaH.T.NgezimanaW.MudauF.N.2016Nutritional quality of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) as affected by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizationS. Afr. J. Plant Soil418

Article Information

Google Scholar

Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 8 8 8
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0