Evaluation of Soybean Lines for Edamame Yield Traits and Trait Genetic Correlation

in HortScience

Edamame is a vegetable or specialty soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with high nutrition and market value. The market demand for edamame has significantly increased in the United States since its health and nutritional benefits became recognized. However, there are a limited number of domestically developed or improved edamame cultivars in the United States, and the knowledge of edamame is very limited. In this study, 86 breeding lines and cultivars of maturity group (MG) V and VI developed in the United States were evaluated in replicated field trials for edamame yield and agronomic traits in Virginia in 2015 and 2016. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the genotypes and between years in all the traits investigated (plant height, fresh biomass, pod yield, pod ratio, fresh seed yield, seed ratio, and 100-seed weights), but the yearly differences for dried 100-seed weight and dried-to-fresh ratio of seeds were insignificant. Genotype-by-year interaction effects were not significant in most cases. Estimates of the broad sense heritability varied with traits, from 23% to 88%. Coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlation were mostly low, but fresh pod and seed yields were highly correlated. Fresh biomass exhibited a positive phenotypic correlation with pod and seed yields, but the genotypic correlation coefficients were not significant. Twelve breeding lines were preliminarily identified to have greater edamame yield and desired traits. The information generated in this study will be helpful for edamame breeding and commercial production.

Abstract

Edamame is a vegetable or specialty soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with high nutrition and market value. The market demand for edamame has significantly increased in the United States since its health and nutritional benefits became recognized. However, there are a limited number of domestically developed or improved edamame cultivars in the United States, and the knowledge of edamame is very limited. In this study, 86 breeding lines and cultivars of maturity group (MG) V and VI developed in the United States were evaluated in replicated field trials for edamame yield and agronomic traits in Virginia in 2015 and 2016. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the genotypes and between years in all the traits investigated (plant height, fresh biomass, pod yield, pod ratio, fresh seed yield, seed ratio, and 100-seed weights), but the yearly differences for dried 100-seed weight and dried-to-fresh ratio of seeds were insignificant. Genotype-by-year interaction effects were not significant in most cases. Estimates of the broad sense heritability varied with traits, from 23% to 88%. Coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlation were mostly low, but fresh pod and seed yields were highly correlated. Fresh biomass exhibited a positive phenotypic correlation with pod and seed yields, but the genotypic correlation coefficients were not significant. Twelve breeding lines were preliminarily identified to have greater edamame yield and desired traits. The information generated in this study will be helpful for edamame breeding and commercial production.

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important crop grown worldwide for the provision of vegetable oil for human consumption and protein meal for animal feeds. Edamame, a Japanese term, is a type of specialty soybeans, also called vegetable soybean and maodou in China. In the United States, soybean is a major field crop, second only to corn in terms of total acreage and economic value. However, vegetable soybean is relatively new to North America, although it was once grown in the United States during WWII, compared with the history of edamame grown in Asia for many centuries (Shurtleff and Aoyagi, 2009). Edamame is harvested at the R6 growth stage, when the pods and seeds are still green (Fehr et al., 1971), different from general-purpose soybeans, which are harvested after full maturity (R8 stage).

Comparatively speaking, edamame is grown on a much smaller scale but has greater market and nutrition values than general-purpose soybean (Liu, 1999). It has been reported that the net return per acre for growing edamame was $259 for the wholesale fresh market in Kentucky (Ernst and Woods, 2001), $600 to $750 for farmers’ markets in Ohio (Bernick, 2009), and overall ranged from $400 to $1300 in the United States (Binder, 2010) compared with $350 to $600 of the gross income per acre for growing general-purpose soybean. Soy food provides complete protein with all essential amino acids and benefits human health (Messina, 1999). Although soybean historically has not been viewed as an edible crop in the United States, more people have become aware of soy foods like tofu and edamame, and more people are adopting plant-based diets (CBS News, 2013; Kelley and Sanchez, 2005). The increase of consumption of soy food is not only because soybean is an important source of complete protein, but also soy food helps to reduce health risks such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancers (Messina, 1999; Messina and Wu, 2009). Edamame consumption improves human health by providing high levels of protein and all essential amino acids in well-balanced profiles, along with other nutritional compounds like isoflavones.

The food-type soybean industry has spent more than 20 years growing from door-to-door sales to an integrated supply chain throughout the United States (Soyfoods Association of North America, 2011). The market demand for vegetable soybeans has significantly increased. In Arkansas, edamame is commercially grown and an edamame-processing plant is in operation (McBryde, 2012). Edamame (fresh or frozen pods and/or seeds) is now available in supermarkets (e.g., Walmart), grocery stores (e.g., Kroger), wholesale stores (Sam’s Club and Costco), farmers markets, and/or restaurants. The increased demand has resulted in a steady increase in land acreage under vegetable soybeans (Binder, 2010). Edamame provides a good option of crop farming, especially for small-scale farmers and urban agriculture growers who want to increase income by growing such a high-value niche crop. However, edamame products sold in markets across the United States are mainly imported from China and other Asian countries or regions and are mostly marketed frozen. One of the important reasons for this status is that there is a lack of domestically developed or improved edamame cultivars in the United States and also lack of affordable seed. Therefore, growing edamame faces challenges and/or problems. From the point of plant breeding, the major problems include limited genetic resources, lodging, inferior plant structure or type, susceptibility to seed diseases, low yield potential, and shattering, which is important for edamame seed production.

Correspondingly, research on edamame, in particular plant breeding and genetics studies, has rarely been reported in the United States. Rao et al. (2002) analyzed fresh green pod and seed yields in 12 vegetable or large-seeded soybean cultivars/genotypes from Japan and China and two adapted U.S. cultivars. Zhang and Kyei-Boahen (2007) evaluated five traits including fresh pod weight in 23 edamame cultivars from MG III to VII in Mississippi. Mebrahtu and Mohamed (2006) analyzed genetic variation for green pod yield and quality in 31 vegetable soybean genotypes from MG III to VI. More recently, Ogles et al. (2016) evaluated 11 selected edamame cultivars of four MGs for adaptability and production in central Alabama. By comparing 136 entries from 22 resources with 14 grain-type cultivars representing a range of MGs, Williams (2015) characterized the vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial production. In these studies, differential maturities were involved and the materials mostly originated from out of the United States. To some extent, the results might be affected by the poor adaptation. Use of adapted genotypes with similar maturities in research would reduce such impacts and provide more useful information for production. Since the 1990s, the Virginia State University soybean program has been dedicated to the development of edamame cultivars adapted to the United States, in particular Virginia and similar environments (Mebrahtu et al., 2005). The objective of this study was to evaluate the fresh edamame yield and related agronomic traits in locally bred soybean cultivars and/or breeding lines of MGs V and VI and to analyze the trait correlations, to help the identification and development of adapted superior edamame cultivars with desired traits for the United States.

Materials and Methods

Plant materials and field experiments.

In total, 152 entries/genotypes of MG IV, V, and VI of soybean were grown in the yield trials at the Virginia State University Randolph Research Farm in Ettrick, VA, in 2015 and 2016. Most of the genotypes were the advanced lines developed by Virginia State University soybean/edamame program and derived from different crosses, in addition to check cultivars and lines, ‘Asmara’, ‘Mooncake’, ‘N6202-8’, and ‘Randolph’. The experimental field is located at 37°14′34″N and 77°25′32″W, south of Chesterfield County in Virginia, with a type of sandy soil (series – Bourne, and family – fine, silty mixed thermic). In late April and/or early May, the herbicide Round-Up (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO) was sprayed to kill weeds in the experimental field, and the soil was ploughed about 2 weeks before planting. The field was tilled again immediately before planting.

A randomized complete block design was used for the experiments with three replicates. Each genotype was planted in a four-row plot with a 4.8-m length and 0.76-m row spacing. For the experiment in 2015, about 23 plants were planted per meter in mid-May of 2015. For the experiment in 2016, 17 plants per meter were planted in early June of 2016 due to rain and because the population density in 2015 seemed too high for edamame. The crop management was similar to general soybean production, with the herbicides Select (Valent USA Corporation, Walnut Creek, CA) and Storm (United Phosphorus, Inc., King of Prussia, PA) applied to control grasses and broadleaf weeds as needed. The herbicides were purchased from a local store of the Southern States Co. and used under an experimental use permit, and the edamame material harvested was not used for consumption but research purpose only.

The traits investigated included plant height (centimeters from the bottom to the top of main stem), fresh biomass of whole plants aboveground (kg·ha−1), fresh pod yield (kg·ha−1), fresh seed yield (kg·ha−1), the weight (grams) of fresh and dried 100-seeds, pod ratio (the percent of pod weight to biomass), and seed ratio (the percent of seed to pod weight). In light of limited time for the narrow harvest-window of edamame, 86 genotypes of MGs V and VI, selected based on similar seed/pod development status (R6 stage) at sampling dates after excluding MG IV materials, were sampled within a period of 1 to 2 weeks for two replications in both years. In addition to the four check cultivars described previously (‘Asmara’, ‘Mooncake’, ‘N6202-8’, and ‘Randolph’), these selected genotypes included 82 F4-derived lines mostly from 18 of the diallel crosses made using 10 cultivars and germplasm lines (‘Kanrich’, ‘Late Giant’, ‘Pella’, ‘Tomahomare’, ‘Verde’, PI 379621, PI 399055, PI 506852, V81-1603, and VS95-50), which were chosen on the basis of the fresh pod yield, nutritional values, and panel taste test (Mebrahtu and Devine, 2009). Three to eight lines from each of the 18 crosses were evaluated in this study. Therefore, the subsequent analyses were only based on the 86 genotypes and two replications for 2 years.

Sampling and measurements.

At R6 stage or the “green bean” stage, all plants within 1.5 m of an inside row per plot were cut from the bottom of their stems and tied together. The bundles of samples were weighed on a scale for fresh biomass (kilograms). The sampled plants were then threshed using a stationary edamame thresher (Mitsuwa & Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). All the fresh pods were collected and weighed immediately for fresh pod weight (kilograms) and the proportion of pods or pod ratio (%). Then, the pods were stored in a freezer for 4 to 6 weeks for further use. A random subsample of about 100 pods was taken to determine the weight (grams) and seed size (g/100 seed) of the fresh beans, as well as the proportion of fresh seeds, or seed ratio (%). The subsampled seeds and the remaining pods after subsampling were fully dried at 65 to 70 °C for 3 weeks or so to determine dried 100-seed weight (grams). Plant heights (centimeters) were measured from the bottom to the top of the main stem, and the average of four measurements per plot was used in analysis. Yield data and biomass were converted into kg·ha−1.

Statistical analysis.

Based on a randomized complete block design, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using PROC GLM in SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and descriptive statistics, mean, range, and cv also were calculated. Frequency distribution was computed in Microsoft Excel 2013 (Redmond, WA). The broad sense heritability was estimated on a genotype mean basis (Fehr, 1987), as

UNDE1
where σg2 is the genotypic variance, σgy2 is the genotype-by-year interaction variance, σe2 is the environmental variance, r is the number of replications, and y is the number of years.

Coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlations were computed using SAS codes described by Holland (2006), as

r_{pij} = σpij/(σpi·σpj), and gij = σgij/(σgi·σgj)UNDE2
where σpij and σgij are the estimated phenotypic and genotypic covariance between traits i and j, respectively, σpi and σgi are the square root of phenotypic and genotypic variance for trait i, and σpj and σgj are the square root of phenotypic and genotypic variance for trait j.

Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were tested for significance using t test as t = r/SEr suggested by Robertson (1959) and Sharma (1988).

Results and Discussion

Performance of traits.

Averages of the traits evaluated across 2 years are shown in Table 1. There was a very large difference between the extremes for fresh biomass, pod, and seed yield. Similarly, Zhang and Kyei-Boahen (2007) also reported a large difference from 1,612 to 21,429 kg·ha−1 in fresh pod yield among varieties. Frequency distributions for the traits were similar to a normal distribution (Fig. 1). The cvs indicated that, comparatively, the edamame yield of either fresh pods or seeds and biomass showed a larger relative variation, followed by pod ratio and 100-seed weights, whereas seed ratio, dried-to-fresh seed ratio, and plant height exhibited smaller relative variations (Table 1).

Table 1.

Means, ANOVA, and estimates of heritability of edamame traits over 2 years.

Table 1.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Frequency distribution of soybean lines for edamame yield and other traits.

Citation: HortScience horts 53, 12; 10.21273/HORTSCI13448-18

ANOVA showed that genotypic effects were significant at P < 0.01 for all traits (Table 1) except dried-to-fresh seed ratio (P < 0.05). A significant difference between years also was found in most of the traits, whereas there was no significant genotype-by-year interaction except for plant height, biomass, and seed ratio, which was similar to a previously reported result on pod yield (Carson et al., 2011). Plant height, biomass, fresh pod and seed yield, and seed ratio in 2015 were greater than those of 2016, with a difference of 36.6 cm, 8463.8 kg·ha−1, 498.0 kg·ha−1, 762.4 kg·ha−1, and 6.86% on average, respectively (Table 2). Pod ratio and fresh 100-seed weight in 2015 were 6.43% and 2.1 g lower than those of 2016.

Table 2.

Comparison of edamame traits between year means of 2015 and 2016.

Table 2.

Plant height and fresh and dried 100-seed weight exhibited greater estimates of broad sense heritability than other traits (Table 1). Mebrahtu and Mohamed (2006) reported a greater heritability for plant height and green pod yield as well. However, lower estimates of broad sense heritability (<40%) were observed in this study for the edamame yield of both fresh pods and fresh seeds, and the biomass (Table 1). The results indicated that edamame yield was considerably affected by environment, but plant height and fresh 100-seed weights were quite stable across years.

Correlations between years.

Although edamame yield and related traits varied greatly with years or environments, coefficients of Pearson’s correlation of traits between 2015 and 2016 were statistically significant, except for pod yield (Table 2). The correlation coefficients averaged 0.412, ranging from 0.163 for pod yield to 0.765 for fresh 100-seed weight. It also was noticed that among the traits, the estimates of broad sense heritability were highly consistent with the Pearson’s correlation coefficients between years (Tables 1 and 2). We could suppose that the differences and low correlations in edamame yield and biomass between years were mainly attributed to the larger effect of environmental conditions and lower heritability and also due to different density and planting times.

Correlations between traits.

Pearson’s correlations among the traits showed mostly similar between the 2 years (data not shown). To better elucidate the relationships between traits, we further computed the phenotypic and genotypic correlations. As shown in Table 3, most coefficients of phenotypic and genotypic correlation were low. Of 36 pairs of traits, about two-thirds were significant in phenotypic correlation, but only six pairs showed a phenotypic correlation coefficient greater than 0.4, and 13 pairs exhibited a significant genotypic correlation. Although phenotypic and genotypic correlations were consistent in many cases, the latter was less significant than the former due to larger ses of genotypic correlation coefficients.

Table 3.

Coefficients of phenotypic (above diagonal) and genotypic (below diagonal) correlations between edamame traits evaluated jointly in 2015 and 2016.

Table 3.

Fresh pod and seed yields were highly correlated, showing a coefficient of determination greater than 0.9 for both phenotypic and genotypic correlation (Table 3). This relationship is obvious because more pods means more seed yield, and thus one trait may be used as a selection indicator for the other in breeding. Plant height showed unremarkable or slight correlation with edamame yields and seed sizes. Biomass exhibited a positive phenotypic correlation with fresh pod and seed yield, but their genotypic correlations were insignificant.

For mature soybean, the relationship between seed size and seed yield has not been conclusively established (Brar and Carter, 1993). Interestingly, the genotypic correlation between edamame yield and fresh or dried 100-seed weight at R6 stage was very low in this study. The results implied that seed size might not be genetically correlated with edamame yields, and selection for large seeds would not necessarily lead to a decreased edamame yield, although extralarge-seeded varieties (mature 100-seed weight >25 g) might produce less seed yield for grain-type soybeans. Selection of fresh 100-seed weight could be practicable and effective in edamame breeding as it had higher heritability as well. In addition, pod and seed ratios were positively correlated, and both were genetically related to fresh pod and seed yields.

Promising lines.

Based on the results over years, we preliminarily identified 12 lines that may have desired traits (Table 4). These lines exhibited both greater edamame yield and 100-seed weight than the averages of all genotypes evaluated and were superior to all four check cultivars: ‘Asmara’, ‘Moon Cake’, ‘N6202-8’, and ‘Randolph’. On average, the fresh pod and seed yield in these lines were 7148.3 to 10711.6 kg·ha−1 and 3738.1 to 5399.4 kg·ha−1, respectively, compared with the averages of four check cultivars (6714.3 and 3657.4 kg·ha−1) (Table 4). The fresh and dried 100-seed weights ranged from 42.7 to 52.4 g and 12.9 to 16.2 g, whereas the averages of the four check cultivars were 35.6 g and 11.1 g. In addition, some of these lines, e.g., VS11-0022, VS12-0176, and VS12-0202, also exhibited good resistance to lodging and shattering, which is important for edamame seed production (data not shown). It suggested that these lines could be used in edamame breeding and/or commercial production. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their superiority and release as cultivars and/or germplasm lines.

Table 4.

Average of edamame yield and related agronomic traits in the promising soybean lines identified.

Table 4.

Literature Cited

  • BernickK.2009Edamame Takes Root in U.S. Corn & Soybean Digest. 24 Feb. 2018. <http://cornandsoybeandigest.com/edamame-takes-root-us>

  • BinderK.2010Edible soybean rises in popularity with U.S. consumers & producers. Farm World. 24 Apr. 2018. <http://www.farmworldonline.com/news/NewsArticle.asp?newsid=10620>

  • BrarG.S.CarterT.E.Jr1993Soybean p. 427–464. In: G. Kalloo and B.O. Bergh (eds.). Genetic improvement of vegetable crops. Pergamon Press Oxford United Kingdom

  • CarsonL.C.FreemanJ.H.ZhouK.WelbaumG.ReiterM.2011Cultivar evaluation and lipid and protein contents of Virginia-grown edamameHortTechnology21131135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CBS News2013Edamame: Is the future of American soy farmers' profits in edible soy beans for people? 24 Apr. 2018. <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/edamame-is-the-future-of-american-soy-farmers-profits-in-edible-soy-beans-for-people/>

  • ErnstM.WoodsT.2001Marketing challenges for emerging crops in Kentucky: Vegetable soybeans. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Publication Lexington KY. 16 Feb. 2015. <https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9092/37289b9c9e4d28d00f6142f5081eeff7f8c7.pdf>

  • FehrW.R.1987Principles of cultivar development. Vol 1. Theory and technique. Macmillan New York NY

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KelleyK.M.SanchezE.S.2005Accessing and understanding consumer awareness of and potential demand for EdamameHortScience4013471353

  • LiuK.S.1999Soybeans: Chemistry technology and utilization. Aspen Publishers Inc. Gaithersburg MD

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  • MebrahtuT.DevineT.E.DonaldP.AbneyT.S.2005Registration of ‘Asmara’ vegetable soybeanCrop Sci.45408409

  • MebrahtuT.MohamedA.2006Genetic variation for green pod yield and quality among vegetable soybean genotypesJ. Crop Improv.161/2113130

  • MebrahtuT.DevineT.E.2009Diallel analysis of sugar composition of 10 vegetable soybean linesPlant Breed.128249252

  • MessinaM.J.1999Legumes and soybeans: Overview of their nutritional profiles and health effectsAmer. J. Clin. Nutr.70439450

  • MessinaM.WuA.H.2009Perspectives on the soy-breast cancer relationAmer. J. Clin. Nutr.8916731679

  • OglesC.Z.GuertalE.A.WeaverD.B.2016Edamame cultivar evaluation in Central AlabamaAgron. J.108623712378

  • RaoM.S.S.BhagsariA.S.MohamedA.I.2002Fresh green seed yield and seed nutritional traits of vegetable soybean genotypesCrop Sci.42619501958

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobertsonA.1959The sampling variance of the genetic correlation coefficientBiometrics5469485

  • SharmaJ.R.1988Statistical and biometrical techniques in plant breeding. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers New Delhi

  • ShurtleffW.AoyagiA.2009History of edamame green vegetable soybeans and vegetable-type soybeans: Bibliography and sourcebook (1275-2009). Soyinfo Center Lafayette CA

  • Soyfoods Association of North America2011History of soy products. 26 Apr. 2018. <http://www.soyfoods.org/soy-information/history-of-soy-products>

  • WilliamsM.M.II2015Phenomorphological characterization of vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial productionCrop Sci.55312741279

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhangL.Kyei-BoahenS.2007Growth and yield of vegetable soybean (Edamame) in MississippiHortTechnology172631

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Contributor Notes

This study was supported in part by U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Institute of Food and Agriculture Evans-Allen Research Program and USDA-NIFA Capacity Building Grant (CBG) Program (funding awarded to G.-L. J.).We are grateful to the Virginia State University students Haley Berry, Rameka Tylor, and Zhane Slade for their assistance on the projects. We also especially thank Ronald Bowen, former Plant Science Manager retired from Virginia State University, for his technical support and help in field trials and data collection, and James B. Holland, USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit and Department of Crop and Soil Sciences at North Carolina State University, for his advice on the SAS program in analysis of genotypic correlation. This article is a contribution of the Virginia State University, Agricultural Research Station (Journal Series No. 352).

Corresponding author. E-mail: gjiang@vsu.edu or gljiang99@yahoo.com.

  • View in gallery

    Frequency distribution of soybean lines for edamame yield and other traits.

  • BernickK.2009Edamame Takes Root in U.S. Corn & Soybean Digest. 24 Feb. 2018. <http://cornandsoybeandigest.com/edamame-takes-root-us>

  • BinderK.2010Edible soybean rises in popularity with U.S. consumers & producers. Farm World. 24 Apr. 2018. <http://www.farmworldonline.com/news/NewsArticle.asp?newsid=10620>

  • BrarG.S.CarterT.E.Jr1993Soybean p. 427–464. In: G. Kalloo and B.O. Bergh (eds.). Genetic improvement of vegetable crops. Pergamon Press Oxford United Kingdom

  • CarsonL.C.FreemanJ.H.ZhouK.WelbaumG.ReiterM.2011Cultivar evaluation and lipid and protein contents of Virginia-grown edamameHortTechnology21131135

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CBS News2013Edamame: Is the future of American soy farmers' profits in edible soy beans for people? 24 Apr. 2018. <http://www.cbsnews.com/news/edamame-is-the-future-of-american-soy-farmers-profits-in-edible-soy-beans-for-people/>

  • ErnstM.WoodsT.2001Marketing challenges for emerging crops in Kentucky: Vegetable soybeans. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Publication Lexington KY. 16 Feb. 2015. <https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9092/37289b9c9e4d28d00f6142f5081eeff7f8c7.pdf>

  • FehrW.R.1987Principles of cultivar development. Vol 1. Theory and technique. Macmillan New York NY

  • FehrW.R.CavinessC.E.BurmoodD.T.PenningtonJ.S.1971Stage of development descriptions for soybeans, Glycine max (L.)Merrill. Crop Sci.11929931

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HollandJ.B.2006Estimating genotypic correlations and their standard errors using multivariate restricted maximum likelihood estimation with SAS Proc MIXEDCrop Sci.46642654

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KelleyK.M.SanchezE.S.2005Accessing and understanding consumer awareness of and potential demand for EdamameHortScience4013471353

  • LiuK.S.1999Soybeans: Chemistry technology and utilization. Aspen Publishers Inc. Gaithersburg MD

  • McBrydeJ.2012Snacking on Soy: Arkansas Grows Edamame Commercially. Farm Flavor. 26 Feb. 2015. <http://farmflavor.com/us-ag/arkansas/top-crops-arkansas/snacking-on-soy-arkansas-grows-edamame-commercially/>

  • MebrahtuT.DevineT.E.DonaldP.AbneyT.S.2005Registration of ‘Asmara’ vegetable soybeanCrop Sci.45408409

  • MebrahtuT.MohamedA.2006Genetic variation for green pod yield and quality among vegetable soybean genotypesJ. Crop Improv.161/2113130

  • MebrahtuT.DevineT.E.2009Diallel analysis of sugar composition of 10 vegetable soybean linesPlant Breed.128249252

  • MessinaM.J.1999Legumes and soybeans: Overview of their nutritional profiles and health effectsAmer. J. Clin. Nutr.70439450

  • MessinaM.WuA.H.2009Perspectives on the soy-breast cancer relationAmer. J. Clin. Nutr.8916731679

  • OglesC.Z.GuertalE.A.WeaverD.B.2016Edamame cultivar evaluation in Central AlabamaAgron. J.108623712378

  • RaoM.S.S.BhagsariA.S.MohamedA.I.2002Fresh green seed yield and seed nutritional traits of vegetable soybean genotypesCrop Sci.42619501958

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobertsonA.1959The sampling variance of the genetic correlation coefficientBiometrics5469485

  • SharmaJ.R.1988Statistical and biometrical techniques in plant breeding. New Age International (P) Limited Publishers New Delhi

  • ShurtleffW.AoyagiA.2009History of edamame green vegetable soybeans and vegetable-type soybeans: Bibliography and sourcebook (1275-2009). Soyinfo Center Lafayette CA

  • Soyfoods Association of North America2011History of soy products. 26 Apr. 2018. <http://www.soyfoods.org/soy-information/history-of-soy-products>

  • WilliamsM.M.II2015Phenomorphological characterization of vegetable soybean germplasm lines for commercial productionCrop Sci.55312741279

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ZhangL.Kyei-BoahenS.2007Growth and yield of vegetable soybean (Edamame) in MississippiHortTechnology172631

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